Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born to immigrant parents in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven, he left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher.
In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career, he died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of the 19th century, his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day, he was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz.
Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zukmantel in Austrian Silesia. His father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance, he was appointed schoolmaster two years later. His mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way, and in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments. He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of Lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun, Schub
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian
Lehman College is a senior college of the City University of New York in New York, United States. Founded in 1931 as the Bronx campus of Hunter College, the school became an independent college within CUNY in September 1967; the college is named after Herbert H. Lehman, a former New York governor, United States senator and the son of Lehman Brothers co-founder Mayer Lehman, it is a public, coeducational liberal arts college with more than 90 undergraduate and graduate degree programs and specializations. Hunter College in the Bronx was built during the 1930s. During the Second World War, Hunter leased the Bronx Campus buildings to the United States Navy who used the facilities to train 95,000 women volunteers for military service as WAVES and SPARS. One of the first of its graduates, Sgt. Miriam Cohen, died in 2009. On Feb. 13, 1943, Miriam graduated in the first class of WWII women Marines. At 35, she was one of the oldest women to join the Marines; when the Navy vacated the campus, the site was occupied by the nascent United Nations, which held its first Security Council sessions at the Bronx Campus in 1946, giving the school an international profile.
Lehman College's founding president was Leonard Lief and he was succeeded by Ricardo R. Fernández in 1991. In 2016, José Luis Cruz, a former Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at California State University, was appointed as the third president of the College. Located near the Jerome Park Reservoir at 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West. Lehman has a 37-acre campus with a combination of modern architecture; the school's architects were Kerr Rainsford, John A. Thompson, Gerald A. Holmes; the campus was the main national training ground for women in the military during World War II. For a decade before the entry of the United States in the Second World War, only women students attended, taking their first two years of study at the Bronx campus and transferring to Hunter’s Manhattan campus to complete their undergraduate work, it was the interim headquarters for the newly formed United Nations for six months in 1946. From March to August 1946, the first American meetings of the Security Council were held in the Gymnasium Building where intercollegiate basketball, archery and other sports have been played.
During festivities marking the 40th anniversary of the United Nations in 1986, the Southern New York State Division of the United Nations Association presented the College with a commemorative plaque, now displayed outside the Gymnasium Building. The College participated in the United Nations’ 50th anniversary activities in 1995–96. Lehman College houses a state-of-the-art multimedia center in Carman Hall, comprising an acoustically designed recording studio and video production control rooms, editing suites, student newsroom, media conversion room, graphics room, "technology-enhanced" classrooms. BronxNet public access channel is headquartered in Carman Hall, where many programs are produced including Bronx Talk and Open. In 2012, Lehman dedicated its new $70 million Science Hall, a four-story building equipped with high-tech classrooms and laboratories, as well as a rooftop teaching and research greenhouse. In 2013, Science Hall was awarded a LEED platinum rating from the U. S. Green Building Council, the first CUNY building to earn the top green building rating.
The structural engineers for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates; the Lehman College Center for the Performing Arts is a professional theater which seats 2,310. The campus is home to the Lehman College Art Gallery; the Apex, Lehman College's post-modern style athletic and fitness facility, opened in 1994. Designed by the internationally acclaimed architect Rafael Viñoly, the Apex stands in contrast to the original Gothic revival buildings that define the campus. Students at Lehman College are from multiple ethnic and racial identities, multiple language backgrounds, various social classes, diverse sexual orientations with many international students. Enrollment Lehman College: Undergraduates: 9,663 Graduate Students: 2,289 Total: 11,952 students Lehman College offers a variety of selective and distinguished undergraduate and graduate programs in the Schools of Arts & Humanities, School of Education, School of Natural and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Human Services, Nursing, School of Continuing Education.
The selective Macaulay Honors College at Lehman provides a full tuition scholarship, Apple laptop computer, opportunities fund of $7,500 that can be used for various activities such as study abroad, reimbursements for internships or research, service learning. Students in the honors college are required to take 4 seminars relating to New York City, maintain a 3.5 grade point average, graduate within four years. They must take four Lehman Scholars Program Seminars, or "LSP"s; the Lehman Scholars Program is designed for capable and motivated students who have the desire and ability to pursue a somewhat more independent liberal arts course of study. The program offers the advantages of a small, intimate college, including special courses and individual counseling; the Lehman Scholars Program offers several special features, first being that students are exempt from all Degree Requirements. They must, pass the CUNY Skills Assessment Tests to be admitted to the program and meet all course prerequisites and requirements for their major field.
The Lehman Scholars Program has its own requirements, which students must fulfill: a one-semester honors course in English composition and stylistics.
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
Theodore Roosevelt High School (New York City)
Theodore Roosevelt High School was a large public high school in the Bronx. Named Roosevelt High School after the eminent Roosevelt family of New York, at its opening in November 1918, it was renamed Theodore Roosevelt High School soon after Theodore Roosevelt died in January 1919. Conducted within the building of school PS 31, the courses trained accounting and secretarial skills, drew snowballing enrollment, gained more classrooms elsewhere. In 1928, entering its own building, newly built at 500 East Fordham Road, the Theodore Roosevelt High School became one of America's largest and best equipped high schools. Sitting at the southern edge of Fordham University's campus and the northern edge of the Bronx's Belmont section, the high school's building became a community venue for politicians' speeches and organizations' meetings; the school colors were red and white, the sports teams were the Rough Riders—nickname of the cavalry unit led by Colonel Roosevelt before he became US President—though the mascot became a teddy bear.
Its 1930s and 1940s students participated extracurricularly at 50% or New York City's lowest rate. Yet Roosevelt well performed its educational role, preparing students for the basic workforce, the school's image enduring into the 1950s. In the 1960s, other high schools' students earned diplomas via Roosevelt's night classes and summer sessions while drug culture's emergence dissolved ethnic hostilities whereby a local gang, the Baldies Italian, had diminished enrollment by blacks and Hispanics, who amid halting economic progress began drug selling, common at Roosevelt by 1970, although heroin use lowered gang violence, yet atop national stagflation, the 1970s brought New York City's financial crisis, urban decay, soaring crime rates, white flight. The Bronx entered 1980 as urban decay's portrait, its high schools became notorious as the city's worst, while the crack epidemic struck devastating Roosevelt. Children living in New York City's most criminal and violent area, policed by the city's most corrupt and violent officers, were zoned to Theodore Roosevelt High School, which had the city's highest dropout rate in 1984.
In 1986, efforts began at Roosevelt to raise school attendance. Yet improvement was negligible until a vigorous new principal, Thelma Baxter, hired in 1992, led an astonishing turnaround; the revival was cut short by Baxter's 1999 promotion to superintendent of schools in central Harlem, whereupon the Bronx high school's deterioration resumed. In 2001, the city's Department of Education, ordered by the state's, commanded the high school to begin shutdown. In 2002, Roosevelt accepted its final freshman class, which graduated at 3% in 2006, whereupon Roosevelt closed. New since 2002, several small public high schools now occupy the building, Theodore Roosevelt Educational Campus. From the late 1930s to 1960s, at least five individuals esteemed as celebrities—Hollywood actress June Allyson, baseball player Rocky Colavito, lead guitarist Ace Frehley, actor/screenwriter Chazz Palminteri, comedian/actor Jimmie Walker—had attended the Theodore Roosevelt High School. In the early 20th century, American educators sought to expand and tailor schooling extend school enrollment into adolescence, seen as a prime opportunity for proper socialization to assimilate the growing immigrant populations in cities.
Newly defining or creating the transition from childhood to adulthood, high schools became venues where youth vied for control over identity and allegiance, while the 19th-century esteem for Protestant respectability eroded amid emerging quests for intricate cosmopolitanism. In a multiethnic city like New York, the high school was intentionally employed as a fundamental agent of socialization. Entering 1918, the Bronx had two high schools: Evander Childs; the Roosevelt High School was organized on November 14, 1918, from the commercial classes comprising a Morris High School annex conducted in PS 31 at 144th Street and Mott Avenue, thereupon Roosevelt's location. Led by teacher Edward M Williams, Roosevelt's 830 students got their first principal—William R Hayward—on December 9, 1918. On January 8, 1919, two days after the earlier United States President Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive era leader born in Manhattan, had died, New York City schools' Board of Superintendents proposed a name change, approved two days by the New York City Board of Education.
The next day, principal Hayward announced the Theodore Roosevelt High School, sought its namesake's spirit to preside over it. Growing, Theodore Roosevelt High School gained its own annex—16 classrooms in PS 47—on January 22, 1919. From 1900 to 1920, New York City's fastest growing borough was the Bronx, whose population grew over two and a half times in that period. At 1922, the Bronx Board of Trade concluded, "It is due to the fact that its housing conditions are of the best that The Bronx for years has had the lowest death rate and the highest birth rate of any of the Boroughs". In the Bronx from 1901 to 1920, nearly $457 million was spent on building construction—some $24 million per year—but 1921 saw a spending record, over $75 million. Yankee Stadium opened in 1923. By 1922, Theodore Roosevelt had over 1460 commercial students, focusing on either accounting or secretarial skills in courses ranging from one to four years; the school obtained a second annex on September 25, 1925, a third on February 1, 1926, a fourth on February 1, 1928.
One of Roosevelt's students during this era was journalist Thelma Berlack Boozer, class of 1924. By 1920, there had been a call to construct for Theodore Roosevelt High School its own building. Entering its ninth year, Roosev