Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.
Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.
A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.
This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed – or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with r
Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass was a Polish actress. Barbara Kwiatkowska was born in Partrowo, a village in central Poland under German-controlled Poland. Although she received ballet and dance education, she took up an acting career. After her debut role in Tadeusz Chmielewski's comedy Ewa chce spać she gained wider popularity in Poland; the role had been offered to her after she took the first place in a contest organized by a popular Polish cinema magazine. In 1959 she left Poland for the West and soon starred in a few major films like La millième fenêtre and Che gioia vivere, she played roles in several Italian and German films such as Krzysztof Zanussi's Blaubart and in Stachel im Fleisch. She married film director Roman Polanski in 1959; the following year she met Karlheinz Böhm on the set of the movie Rififi in Tokyo in Tokyo. Kwiatkowska-Lass divorced Böhm in 1980, married Polish jazz musician Leszek Żądło, with whom she lived until her death. Kwiatkowska was opposed to the Communist regime in Poland and cooperated with the United States-controlled Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, which transmitted anti-communist propaganda and programmes free from censorship to Poland.
On 6 March 1995, Kwiatkowska-Lass died from a brain hemorrhage aged 54, in Munich. She was interred in Kraków's Rakowicki Cemetery. Barbara Kwiatkowska-Lass on IMDb
An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word'image' is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube.
A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines; the subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. There are Two Types of Images a. Still Image b. Moving Image A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one.
In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery is a "mental picture", it can both be literal. Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition Photograph Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe, Southeast Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties; the battles on the Eastern Front of the Second World War constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, immense loss of life due to combat, exposure and massacres; the Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70-85 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, the majority of them civilian, occurred on the Eastern Front.
The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome in the European theatre of operations in World War II serving as the main reason for the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Axis nations. The two principal belligerent powers were Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United States and the United Kingdom both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union; the joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. Germany and the Soviet Union remained unsatisfied with the outcome of World War I. Soviet Russia had lost substantial territory in Eastern Europe as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where the Bolsheviks in Petrograd conceded to German demands and ceded control of Poland, Estonia, Latvia and other areas, to the Central Powers.
Subsequently, when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies and these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 at Versailles, Soviet Russia was in the midst of a civil war and the Allies did not recognize the Bolshevik government, so no Soviet Russian representation attended. Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt, League of Nations Commissioner, by saying: Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine as happened in the last war; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Finland, Estonia and Lithuania would return to the Soviet control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. The Eastern Front was made possible by the German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement in which the Soviet Union gave Germany the resources necessary to launch military operations in Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, starting World War II. On 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Eastern Poland, and, as a result, Poland was partitioned among Germany, the Soviet Union and Lithuania. Soon after that, the Soviet Union demanded significant territorial concessions from Finland, after Finland rejected Soviet demands, the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that resulted in a peace treaty on 13 March 1940, with Finland maintaining its independence but losing its eastern parts in Karelia. In June 1940 the Soviet Union illegally annexed the three Baltic states; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ostensibly provided security to the Soviets in the occupation both of the Baltics and of the north and northeastern regions of Romania, although Hitler, in announcing the invasion of the Soviet Union, cited the Soviet annexations of Baltic and Romanian territory as having violated Germany's understanding of the Pact.
Moscow partitioned the annexed Romanian territory between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum: acquiring new territory for Germans in Eastern Europe, in particular in Russia, he envisaged settling Germans there, as according to Nazi ideology the Germanic people constituted the "master race", while exterminating or deporting most of the existing inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. Hitler as early as 1917 had referred to the Russians as inferior, believing that the Bolshevik Revolution had put the Jews in power over the mass of Slavs, who were, in Hitler's opinion, incapable of ruling themselves but instead being ruled by Jewish masters; the Nazi leadership, saw the war against the Soviet Union as a struggle between the ideologies of Nazism and Jewish Bolshevism, ensuring territorial expansion for the Germanic Übermensch, who according to Nazi ideology were the Aryan Herrenvolk, at the expense of
The Bull's Hour
The Bull's Hour is a social science fiction novel written by Soviet author and paleontologist Ivan Yefremov in 1968. This novel is considered a sequel to the 1957 novel Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale, taking place in the same universe some century or more later. Though the cast of characters is different, an occasional reference is made to the events and characters of the previous volume. For example, the main character in The Bull's Hour is a female historian who on one occasion remembers most of the notable Andromeda characters as historical figures; the plot is of the "story within a story" format. The actual story is told as an answer to a question asked at school at a lesson about the patterns of the development of societies; the story goes. Some 3000 years in the future, a Communist Earth has just developed faster-than-light space travel based on the experiment of Ren Boz. Using the new technology, Earth constructs "straight-beam" starships which travel by sliding on the edge between our Universe and the Anti-Universe.
The second ship of that kind, Dark Flame, departs from the Solar System on a mission to a habitable planet Tormance in the Lynx constellation, reported by alien space voyagers from Cepheus to be colonized by humans, thought to be Earth escapees from the Age before World Unification. The society of this distant planet is labelled by Efremov as "an amalgamation of a Capitalism in its worst form and of a Chinese pseudo-socialism" and a part of "Inferno", a society in which ordinary workers' lives are limited to 26 local years while scientists and other selected qualified professionals live out their natural lives, with artists, sportspeople and "models" given somewhat longer life-spans than that of KJI. Both KJI and DJI are under the ruthless totalitarian control of the ruling class of government bureaucracy and the police forces, which in turn are under the direct command of the Council of Four and its Chairman, the actual Ruler of the planet; the most shocking aspect of its civilization for the Earthlings is its total control of information, maintaining separate information systems for separate social strata, with full and true information available only to the Supreme Leader.
The plot follows the Communist crew as they establish contact and explore the planet's society sacrificing some lives including that of the expedition leader, female historian Fay Rodis, for the sake of free future of the planet and its people's children. Their influence is predominantly through providing full and true information to all people about Earth's past and present, their views of the situation on the planet, they provide a selective short memory-eraser to be used against the system's spies by the nascent resistance. Some of the crew have the mental capacity to do the same sort of influence without use of the device; every member of the crew was accompanied by a nine-legged discoid robot called SDF. When the Earth ship is on its way home, astronavigator Vir Norin volunteers to stay and help the resistance fighters. After the story of Tormance was told, it was clarified that the contact with the Earth people had helped to overcome the crisis. Inferno, the Nature and Nature's way of death and suffering at the basis of life and development.
Main measure of societal infernality is how much efforts are the individuals forced to spend "for nothing", without contributing to their well-being. The main achievement of Humanity in the novel is that it overcame the Inferno through arduous journey achieving "free and rational life for everyone". Ahriman's arrow, the apparent selection and forces in the infernal societies directed against their best and brightest and most good-willing. Utopian moneyless propertyless Earth society, self-organizing through interactions of free morally developed responsible individuals, with collective child-rearing, direct planet-wide voting and discussions on every issue, High Councils coordinating people's efforts each in its area of expertise. Protective societal systems, targeted at preventing the lowly infernal parts of human psyche to resurface and break the finely tuned societal order of "communist" Earth; the Great Ring of Civilizations communicating with each other by sending radio signals through space each to its closest neighbor, enduring the delays as determined by the laws of physics, exchanging ideas and information about each other's culture and values.
The sending of the signal is described as taking an enormous amount of energy, on planetary scale, in order to reach the closest neighboring civilization in the Ring. The cardinal law of the Great Ring whereas any i
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Road of Winds
The Road of Winds is a non-fiction book by Ivan Yefremov about his three years' travel in Mongolia when he was the head of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontology Expedition. Most findings described in the book went to Orlov Museum. Road of Winds at the Soviet Electronic Library