England cricket team
The England cricket team is the team that represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1 January 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, and these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first One Day International on 5 January 1971, Englands first Twenty20 International was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia. As of 9 March 2017, England has played 983 Test matches, winning 351, the team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions, the same number as their opponents Australia. England has played 683 ODIs, winning 332, and its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, and in two ICC Champions Trophys, England has played 89 T20Is, winning 43. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, and were runners-up in 2016, England are currently ranked fourth in Tests, fifth in ODIs and fifth in T20Is by the ICC.
England currently holds the record for the highest ever ODI total of 444, such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven and this team would eventually compete against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856. These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players, the first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America. This team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr, with the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861-62 with this first tour organised as a venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were against odds and this first Australian tour were mostly against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a tour in 1863–64.
James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876 and they would play a combined Australian XI, for once on even terms of 11 a side. The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match, the combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhites XI v Combined Victoria, the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter,1877, when Lillywhites team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious, – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as the quest to regain the ashes
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
W. G. Grace
William Gilbert W. G. Grace, MRCS, LRCP was an English amateur cricketer who was important in the development of the sport and is widely considered one of its greatest-ever players. Universally known as W. G. Right-handed as both batsman and bowler, Grace dominated the sport during his career and his technical innovations and enormous influence left a lasting legacy. An outstanding all-rounder, he excelled at all the skills of batting and fielding. He is held to have invented modern batsmanship, usually opening the innings, he was particularly admired for his mastery of all strokes, and his level of expertise was said by contemporary reviewers to be unique. He generally captained the teams he played for at all levels because of his skill, Grace came from a cricketing family, E. M. Grace was one of his elder brothers and Fred Grace his younger brother. In 1880, they were members of the same England team, Grace took part in other sports also, he was a champion 440-yard hurdler as a young man and played football for the Wanderers.
In life, he developed enthusiasm for golf, lawn bowls and he qualified as a medical practitioner in 1879. Because of his profession, he was nominally an amateur cricketer. He was a competitive player and, although he was one of the most famous men in England, he was one of the most controversial on account of his gamesmanship. W. G. Grace was born in Downend, near Bristol, on 18 July 1848 at his parents home, Downend House, and was baptised at the local church on 8 August. He was called Gilbert in the circle, except by his mother who called him Willie. His parents were Henry Mills Grace and Martha, who were married in Bristol on Thursday,3 November 1831 and lived out their lives at Downend, where Henry Grace was the local GP. Downend is near Mangotsfield and, although it is now a suburb of Bristol, it was a village surrounded by countryside. Henry and Martha Grace had nine children in all, the number as Victoria and Albert –. Grace was the child in the family, he had three older brothers, including E. M. and four older sisters.
Only Fred, born in 1850, was younger than W. G. Grace began his Cricketing Reminiscences by answering a question he had frequently been asked, i. e. was he born a cricketer. His answer was in the negative because he believed that cricketers are made by coaching and practice, though he adds that if he was not born a cricketer and his father and mother were full of enthusiasm for the game and it was a common theme of conversation at home. All nine children in the Grace family, including the four daughters, were encouraged to play cricket although the girls, Grace claimed that he first handled a cricket bat at the age of two
Bermondsey is a district in south London, and a part of the London Borough of Southwark. Thus Bermondsey need not have been an island as such in the Anglo-Saxon period, Bermondsey appears in Domesday Book as Bermundesy and Bermundesye. It was held by King William, though a part was in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain, the kings half brother. Its Domesday assets were recorded as including 13 hides, a new and handsome church,5 ploughs,20 acres of meadow and it included interests in London, in respect of which 13 burgesses paid 44d. The church mentioned in Domesday Book was presumably the nascent Bermondsey Abbey, which was founded as a Cluniac priory in 1082, monks from the abbey began the development of the area, cultivating the land and embanking the riverside. They turned an adjacent tidal inlet at the mouth of the River Neckinger into a dock, but Bermondsey was little more than a high street ribbon, leading from the southern bank of the Thames, at Tooley Street, up to the abbey close.
The Knights Templar owned land here and gave their names to one of the most distinctive streets in London, King Edward III built a manor house close to the Thames in Bermondsey in 1353. The excavated foundations are visible next to Bermondsey Wall East close to the famous Angel public house, as it developed over the centuries, Bermondsey underwent some striking changes. A pleasure garden was founded there in the 17th century, commemorated by the Cherry Garden Pier, Samuel Pepys visited Jamaica House at Cherry Gardens in 1664 and recorded in his diary that he had left it singing finely. Though not many survive from this era, one notable exception is the church of St Mary Magdalen in Bermondsey Street. This church came through both 19th-century redevelopment and The Blitz unscathed and it is not just an unusual survivor for Bermondsey, buildings of this era are relative rarities in Inner London in general. A new church was built for the population of the area. It was from the Bermondsey riverside that the painter J. M.
W, turner executed his famous painting of The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to her Last Berth to be Broken Up, depicting the veteran warship being towed to Rotherhithe to be scrapped. By the mid-19th century parts of Bermondsey, especially along the riverside had become a notorious slum — with the arrival of industrial plants, the area around St Saviours Dock, known as Jacobs Island, was one of the worst in London. Dickens provides a description of what it was like. Bermondsey Town Hall was built on Spa Road in 1881 but Blitzed in 1941, the area was extensively redeveloped during the 19th century and early 20th century with the expansion of the river trade and the arrival of the railways. Londons first passenger railway terminus was built by the London to Greenwich Railway in 1836 at London Bridge, the first section to be used was between the Spa Road Station and Deptford High Street. This local station had closed by 1915, the industrial boom of the 19th century was an extension of Bermondseys manufacturing role in earlier eras
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.
However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia.
The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
Batting average is a statistic in cricket and softball that measures the performance of batsmen in cricket and batters in baseball. The development of the statistic was influenced by the cricket statistic. In cricket, a batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. The number is simple to interpret intuitively, if all the batsmans innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the average number of runs they score per innings. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players relative skills since the 18th century, most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen typically average something between 20 and 30,15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australias Sir Donald Bradman, given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, and that only four other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic.
The fact that Bradmans average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest sportsman in any sport. As at 21 October 2016, Adam Voges of Australia has recorded an average of 72.75 from 27 innings played and it should be remembered, especially in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If their scores have a geometric distribution total number of runs scored divided by the number of times out is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average, Batting averages can be strongly affected by the number of not outs. A different, and more developed, statistic which is used to gauge the effectiveness of batsmen is the strike rate. It measures a different concept however – how quickly the batsman scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average and it is used particularly in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batsman scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket.
Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed, in baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is usually reported to three places and read without the decimal, A player with a batting average of.300 is batting three-hundred. A point is understood, in only, to be.001. If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement, henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2015 population of 168,270, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, the city is situated 57 miles from London,69 miles from Bristol,65 miles from both Southampton and Birmingham and 25 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the city of dreaming spires, a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold, Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a number of information technology and science-based businesses. Oxford was first settled in Saxon times and was known as Oxenaforda, meaning Ford of the Oxen. It began with the establishment of a crossing for oxen around AD900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066.
Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert DOyly, the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. DOyly set up a community in the castle consisting of a chapel. The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britains oldest places of formal education and it was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place and we have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation, a grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order, and friars of various orders all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century, the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort, these documents are often regarded as Englands first written constitution.
Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events, the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, what put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxfords earliest colleges were University College and Merton and these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard. Test matches are played between national teams with Test status, as determined by the International Cricket Council. The two teams of 11 players play a match, which may last up to five days. It is generally considered the most complete examination of teams playing ability, the name Test stems from the long, gruelling match being a test of the relative strengths of the two sides. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne from 12 to 17 March 1977, in October 2012, the International Cricket Council recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches. The first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November 2015, Test matches are the highest level of cricket although, their data forms part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national teams with Test status, as determined by the International Cricket Council.
As of December 2014, ten teams have Test status. Zimbabwes Test status was suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011, it returned to competition in August 2011. If the Associate team defeats the test nation, they could be added as the new test country, a list of matches, defined as Tests, was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s. Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have Test status, in 1970, a series of five Test matches was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI. These matches, originally scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their governments policy of apartheid. Although initially given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICCs ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records.
The series of Test matches played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971/72 do not have Test status, there are currently ten Test-playing teams, representing individual nations except for England and the West Indies. Test status is conferred upon a country or group of countries by the International Cricket Council, teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup, specifically designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests. In May 2016, ICC announced that it is contemplating the idea of two-tiers in Test match cricket, ICC hopes that this will help them draw more crowd and generate more revenue from the matches played between top tier teams. Promotion and relegation could be introduced into Test cricket as early as 2019 and this will give opportunities to more countries like Afghanistan and Ireland to play test cricket
A cricket bat is a specialised piece of equipment used by batsmen in the sport of cricket to hit the ball, typically consisting of a cane handle attached to a flat-fronted willow-wood blade. The length of the bat may be no more than 38 inches and its use is first mentioned in 1624. The blade of a bat is a wooden block that is generally flat on the striking face. The bat is made from willow wood, specifically from a variety of White Willow called Cricket Bat Willow, treated with raw linseed oil. This variety of willow is used as it is tough and shock-resistant, not being significantly dented nor splintering on the impact of a cricket ball at high speed. The face of the bat is often covered with a film by the user. The blade is connected to a long cane handle, similar to that of a mid-20th-century tennis racquet. The handle is covered with a rubber grip. Bats incorporate a spring design where the handle meets the blade. Spliced handles had been used before this but tended to break at the corner of the join, the taper provides a more gradual transfer of load from the bats blade to the handle and avoids this problem.
The edges of the blade closest to the handle are known as the shoulders of the bat, bats were not always this shape. Before the 18th century bats tended to be shaped similarly to a modern hockey sticks and this may well have been a legacy of the games reputed origins. Although the first forms of cricket are obscure, it may be that the game was first played using shepherds crooks, the bat generally recognised as the oldest bat still in existence is dated 1729 and is on display in the Sandham Room at The Oval in London. Knocking-in involves striking the surface with an old cricket ball or a special mallet and this compacts the soft fibres within the bat and reduces the risk of the bat snapping. The bat may need raw linseed oil, which fills in the gaps between the fibres. Law 6 of the Laws of Cricket, as the rules of the game are known, state that the length of the bat may be no more than 38 in, bats typically weigh from 2 lb 7 oz to 3 lb though there is no standard. Appendix E of the Laws of Cricket set out more precise specifications and this rule was introduced following the Monster Bat Incident of 1771.
Bats are available in a range of sizes, with some manufacturers offering unique variations, commonly found are childrens sizes 0 to 6, youth size Harrow and adult sizes
The bowling average is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers in the sport of cricket. It is the ratio of runs conceded per wickets taken, meaning that the lower the average is. The bowling average is used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. Where a bowler has taken only a number of wickets, their average can be artificially low. Due to this, qualification caveats are generally applied to determine career records for bowling averages, after applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75. A cricketers bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken. The number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes. The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are bowled, hit wicket.
The effect of this is that the average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, and a bowler who has taken no wickets. If the bowler takes a wicket with the ball bowled. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are generally set, for Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket, a number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a players bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras in which cricket has been played, other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment, batting gloves and helmets were not worn, and batsmen had to be warier. Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket, for me, as a bowler, it was great.
Due to the restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the average by each of the Wisden Cricketers Almanack, ESPNcricinfo. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmanns average of 10.75 is considered the best, in One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record. ESPNcricinfo has the restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries, by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder
Wisden Cricketers' Almanack
Wisden Cricketers Almanack is a cricket reference book published annually in the United Kingdom. It is considered the worlds most famous reference book. The description bible of cricket was first used in the 1930s by Alec Waugh in a review for the London Mercury, in October 2013, an all-time Test World XI was announced to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers Almanack. In 1998, an Australian edition of Wisden Cricketers Almanack was launched, in 2012, an Indian edition of Wisden Cricketers Almanack was launched. Wisden was founded in 1864 by the English cricketer John Wisden as a competitor to Fred Lillywhites The Guide to Cricketers and its annual publication has continued uninterrupted to the present day, making it the longest running sports annual in history. The sixth edition was the first published under its current title, charles Pardon, with George Kelly King, founded the Cricket Reporting Agency in 1880. Wisden was acquired and published by Robert Maxwells publishing conglomerate, Cricket fan Sir John Paul Getty, Jr.
bought the company, John Wisden & Co, in 1993 and in December 2008 it was sold to A&C Black, which is owned by Bloomsbury. The company presented the Wisden Trophy, for Test matches between England and West Indies, in 1963 to celebrate its 100th edition, in 2013, a history of Wisden was published, The Little Wonder, The Remarkable History of Wisden, by Robert Winder. The Little Wonder was John Wisdens nickname, Wisden is a small-paged but a very thick book with a distinctive bright yellow cover that it has carried since the 75th edition in 1938. Prior to that, covers varied between yellow and salmon pink and that edition was the first to display the famous woodcut of two cricketers, by Eric Ravilious, on its cover. It is published each April, just before the start of the English domestic cricket season, since 2003 the woodcut has been replaced as the main feature of the front cover by a photograph of a current cricketer, but still appears albeit in a much reduced size. It is produced in both hardcover and softcover versions, since 2006, a larger format edition has been published on an experimental basis.
This is said to be in response to requests from readers who find the print size of the standard edition hard to read and it is around twice the traditional size and was published in a limited edition of 5,000. It is not a print book as such, as the print will still be of a size found in many standard books. From 2011 an Epub version, The Shorter Wisden, has been available in online bookstores, excluded are the statistics and other cricket reports contained within the Almanack proper. The format has changed markedly over the years, the first edition had only 112 pages yet found space to cover the dates of battles in the English Civil War, the winners of The Oaks and the rules of quoiting. The traditional Wisden Cricketers of the Year awards, which date back to 1889, traditionally the main source for key statistics about the game, although it has never attempted to be comprehensive. Nowadays the records section is intended to be complementary to the more detailed data available online at Wisdens associated website ESPNcricinfo
In the sport of cricket bowling is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler, a bowler who is a competent batsman is known as an all-rounder, Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a strictly specified biomechanical definition which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a ball or a delivery, bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled their over, one of their mates will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch. The Laws of Cricket govern how a ball must be bowled, if a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a cricket shot. A spin bowler delivers the ball quite slowly and puts spin on the ball. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket, one suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold.
A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a cricket in England, there is a reference to criquet in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game and he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a milk-white bail perched on two stumps, toss a coin for first knock, the called play and the leathern orb was bowled. They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the first written Laws of Cricket were drawn up in 1744. They stated, the principals shall choose from amongst the present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches, the ball must be between 5 &6 ounces, and the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart. There were no limits on the shape or size of the bat and it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a very big score, probably due to the bowlers bowling quickly at shins unprotected by pads.
The worlds first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s, during the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground. This innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air and it opened new possibilities for spin and swerve