The Liverpool Echo is a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales – a subsidiary company of Reach plc and is based in Old Hall Street, Merseyside, England. It is published Monday to Sunday, is Liverpool's daily newspaper; until 13 January 2012 it had the Liverpool Daily Post. It has an average daily circulation of 35,038; the newspaper was published by the Liverpool Daily Post & Echo Ltd. Its office is in St Paul's Square Liverpool, having downsized from Old Hall Street in March 2018; the editor is Alastair Machray, who has edited the Welsh edition of the Daily Post. In 1879 the Liverpool Echo was published as a cheaper sister paper to the Liverpool Daily Post. From its inception until 1917 the newspaper cost a halfpenny, it is now 85p Monday to 90p on Sunday. The limited company expanded internationally and in 1985 was restructured as Trinity Holdings Plc; the two original newspapers had just been re-launched in tabloid format. A special Sunday edition of the Echo was published on 16 April 1989, for reporting on the previous day's Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 Liverpool F.
C. fans were fatally injured at the FA Cup semi-final tie in Sheffield. Every single one of the 75,000 copies printed was sold. In 1999 Trinity merged with Mirror Group Newspapers to become Trinity Mirror, the largest stable of newspapers in the country. In 2018, Trinity Mirror was rebranded as Reach plc. On 7 January 2014 it was announced; the Sunday Echo is "a seventh day of publication, not an independent product", according to the paper. The circulation as 2018 is 35,038 compared to nearly 110,000 copies in 2007. Official website for the Liverpool Echo
Northern & Shell
Northern & Shell is a British publishing group, founded in December 1974 and owned since by Richard Desmond. It published the Daily Express, Sunday Express, Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday, the magazines OK!, New! and Star until these were sold to Trinity Mirror in February 2018. Northern & Shell owned three entertainment television channels: Channel 5, 5* and 5USA until 2015, it owned Portland TV, which operates adult TV channels including Television X and Red Hot TV. Northern & Shell has operated The Health Lottery in the UK since it launched in 2011. Desmond founded Northern and Shell in 1974 and launched a magazine called International Musician and Recording World. In 1983, Northern and Shell obtained the licence to publish Penthouse in the United Kingdom which led to its publishing a range of adult titles, Asian Babes among them; these titles were sold in 2004. It was the first company to move to the revamped Docklands and the Princess Royal opened the offices; when the company moved to the Northern & Shell Tower, the Duke of Edinburgh opened the offices.
Northern & Shell publishes a wide range of magazines including the celebrity weekly, OK!, started as a monthly in 1993. In November 2000 Northern & Shell acquired Express Newspapers from United News & Media for £125 Million. Enlarging the group to include the Daily and Sunday Express titles, the Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday, the Irish Star; the Daily and Sunday Express each sell around 700,000 copies per issue. Northern & Shell had borrowed £97 million for the Express group purchase. Northern & Shell's "portfolio" of soft-porn magazines was offered for sale in 2001 in order to provide cash to invest in the newly acquired Express Newspapers group; some viewed the sale as an attempt to distance the company from the pornography business, but most analysts believed it to be only a financial move as The Fantasy Channel and Shell's adult cable channel, wasn't included in the sale. In 2004 Northern & Shell sought acquisition of additional publications — The Spectator and The Daily Telegraph, along with its sister publication The Sunday Telegraph.
It was unsuccessful in its bid for The Telegraph, losing out to David and Frederick Barclay, who had long sought to own the paper. On 23 July 2010, Northern & Shell bought Channel 5 Broadcasting Limited, which operates Channel 5, 5* and 5USA for €125 million from the RTL Group. On 1 May 2014, the channels were sold to Viacom for £450 million. In 2013, Northern & Shell announced that its TV listing magazine TV Pick would no longer be published. In 2014, Northern & Shell invested in a series of startups under the brand Northern & Shell Ventures; this included investments in OpenRent and Lulu. In February 2018, Trinity Mirror purchased Northern & Shell, which include, Daily Express, Sunday Express, Daily Star, Daily Star Sunday. Official website
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
The Sunday Mirror is the Sunday sister paper of the Daily Mirror. It began life in 1915 as the Sunday Pictorial and was renamed the Sunday Mirror in 1963. In 2016 it had an average weekly circulation of 620,861, dropping markedly to 505,508 the following year. Competing with other papers, in July 2011, on the second weekend after the closure of the News of the World, more than 2,000,000 copies sold, the highest level since January 2000; the paper launched as the Sunday Pictorial on 14 March 1915. Lord Rothermere – who owned the paper – introduced the Sunday Pictorial to the British public with the idea of striking a balance between responsible reporting of great issues of the day and sheer entertainment. Although the newspaper has gone through many refinements in its near 100-year history those original core values are still in place today. Since 1915, the paper has continually published the best and most revealing pictures of the famous and the infamous, reported on major national and international events.
The first editor of the Sunday Pictorial, or the Sunday Pic as it was known, was F. R Sanderson, his launch edition led with three stories on the front page, two of which reported from the front line of the war: "THE TASK OF THE RED CROSS" and "ALL THAT WAS LEFT OF A BIG GUN". From day one the paper was a huge success and within six months of launch the Sunday Pictorial was selling more than one million copies. One of the reasons for this early success was due to a series of articles written by Winston Churchill. In 1915, disillusioned with government, resigned from the Cabinet; the articles he wrote for the Sunday Pictorial attracted such high levels of interest that sales lifted by 400,000 copies every time his stories appeared. A further reason for the paper's success was its political influence; as a popular paper that always spoke its mind, the Sunday Pictorial struck a chord with millions. Sport was a key ingredient of the Sunday Pictorial's success. Football then, made it onto the front pages, for many of the same reasons it does today: WEMBLEY STADIUM STORMED BY EXCITED CUP FINAL CROWDS dominates a front page from 1923.
Although the paper's early life started with a flourish, by the mid-1930s its success began to flounder. That, all changed when the editorship was given to 24-year-old Hugh Cudlipp in 1937. Within three years of taking over he saw the circulation of the paper rise to more than 1,700,000 by the time he went to fight in World War II in 1940. On resuming the editorship in 1946, Cudlipp developed the Sunday Pic to reflect the greater social awareness of the post-war years. In all, Cudlipp edited the title for three long spells and has been described as the "greatest of all popular journalists". After his final editorship in 1953 he became editor-in-chief and editorial director of Mirror Group, where he pushed the daily title, the Daily Mirror, to a circulation in excess of five million copies. Cultural change in perspectives towards homosexualityReflecting prevailing cultural views across the papers across the generations, in 1952, the Sunday Pictorial ran a three-part series entitled "Evil Men" promising an "end to the conspiracy of silence" about homosexuality in Britain.
"Most people know there are such things –'pansies' – mincing, young men who call themselves queers but simple decent folk regard them as freaks and rarities." The Sunday Pictorial compared homosexuality to a "spreading fungus" that had contaminated "generals, fighter pilots, engine drivers and boxers". In April 1963, under its new title, the paper published a two-page guide called "How to Spot a Homo" which, inter alia, listed "shifty glances", "dropped eyes" and "a fondness for the theatre" as signs of being gay. In December 2012 before MPs voted for gay marriage, the paper reported, "Cameron and Clegg ruin progressive moves by making it illegal for Anglican church to conduct gay marriage ceremonies" in one of its campaign articles entitled "Gay marriage is jilted: Vicars lose chance to join 21st century"; this sided with organisations such as Stonewall in supporting the move, against the more traditional majority of decision makers in the established and catholic churches, as well as in Judaism and the main forms of Islam.
In 1963 the newspaper’s name was changed to the Sunday Mirror. One of the earliest stories covered by the newly named paper was the Profumo Affair, catastrophic for the government of the day. While frontbenchers involved in sleaze scandals exposed in the British press have led to reshuffles, contemporary accounts and research has credited the coverage, associating the involved young socialite to a Russian senior attaché, for triggering the replacement of the conservative prime minister with another, Alec Douglas-Home; this leader was less popular, alongside many press reports of scandals in the Macmillan Ministry, this led to the party's election defeat of 1964 and to the establishment of the second Labour Ministry after World War II led by twice-Prime Minister Harold Wilson. In 1974, following a succession of editors, Robert Edwards took the chair and within a year, circulation rose to 5.3 million. Edwards remained for a record 13 years, ended as deputy chairman of Mirror Group in 1985. By the end of his time in charge Edwards oversaw the introduction of colour to the paper.
The paper introduced the Sunday Mirror Magazine which had an extra-large format and was printed on glossy paper. It had the best of big name stories, star photographs, money-saving offers and glittering prizes for competition winners. Today's incarnation of the magazine is Notebook. In 1992 the Sunday Mirror was criticized and challenged by attorneys of Mel Gibson for reporting what was said in confidential Alconholics Anony
Metro (British newspaper)
Metro is the United Kingdom's highest-circulation newspaper, published in tabloid format by DMG Media. The free newspaper is distributed from Monday to Friday mornings on trains and buses, at railway/Underground stations and hospitals across selected urban areas of England and Scotland. Copies are handed out to pedestrians. Metro is owned by Daily Mail and General Trust plc, part of the same media group as the Daily Mail and The Mail on Sunday, but in some areas Metro operates as a franchise with a local newspaper publisher, rather than as a wholly owned concern. While being a sister paper to the conservative Daily Mail, the newspaper has never endorsed any political party or candidate, claims to take a neutral political stance in its reporting; the Metro free newspaper concept originated in Sweden, where a publication of the same name was launched in 1995 by Metro International. British newspaper executives Jonathan Harmsworth and Murdoch MacLennan, from DMGT, were inspired by the idea and flew to Stockholm on a'fact-finding mission' with a view to developing their own version.
There were reports in the late 1990s that both Metro International and Rupert Murdoch's News International were considering launching free newspapers in the UK which could be a commercial threat to DMGT's businesses. DMGT subsequently launched Metro, using the same name as Metro International's publications but with a different logo on Tuesday March 16, 1999; this UK version of Metro had no relation to Metro International or its sister newspapers in other countries. Metro was launched as a London-only newspaper with an original print run of 85,000 copies, which were distributed via dedicated bins in London Underground stations; the newspaper was produced at DMGT's printworks and office complex at Surrey Quays in south east London, away from the company's main newspaper office in Kensington, west London. In the years following its launch, the paper's distribution was expanded to other major UK cities, including Manchester and Birmingham. By February 2003 Metro became operationally profitable for the first time.
In 2004 its reach was extended further, becoming available in more urban areas including Nottingham and Bath. Metro's circulation continued to rise in the following years, although readership temporarily dipped after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. There was a 1.8% decline - the equivalent of around 9,000 readers - in copies picked up in the weeks following the attacks due to a reduction in the number of people using London's public transport network, coupled with the temporary closure of some London Underground lines where Metro was distributed. Following several years of national expansion, in 2006 the newspaper's production was moved to DMGT's main newspaper offices at Northcliffe House in Kensington, west London; that same year the newspaper expanded further, launching in Cardiff and Liverpool in joint venture deals with Trinity Mirror. At the time of its 10th anniversary in 2009, the newspaper was distributed in 16 "major" UK cities and its circulation had grown to 1.3 million. Despite the increase in readership, that same year management closed five regional Metro offices in Manchester, Newcastle and Bristol, which were responsible for producing regionalised arts and food pages, citing "challenging economic conditions".
By 2011 Metro's distribution network had expanded to more than 50 cities in the UK. That year media commentator Roy Greenslade said the publication was now making "bumper profits" and dubbed it "Britain's most successful national newspaper". On 10 October 2005 Metro Ireland was launched in Dublin, it followed a legal battle over the title's name with the publishers of the Irish Independent and Dublin's Evening Herald, which launched its own free newspaper called Herald AM. Both titles were loss-making, despite having a combined circulation of 145,000 in the Greater Dublin Area. On 2 July 2009, it was announced that the two freesheets would merge under the Metro banner, an operation completed by 2010; however the Irish edition was closed down in December 2014. For the first time in its history, Metro temporarily published seven days a week during the 2012 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Paralympics, providing free copies to spectators at the Games as well as the general public; the newspaper struck a reported £2.25 million deal with sportswear manufacturer Adidas to run cover wrap adverts on each of the 17 days of the Olympics.
After more than a decade in charge, editor Kenny Campbell was replaced as editor by Ted Young in 2014. Young's appointment coincided with a number of changes at the newspaper, including the separation of the print and online editions, along with an expansion of Metro's distribution in the UK. In November 2016, comedian Richard Herring stepped down from writing his weekly column for Metro. Fellow TV comedian Dom Joly replaced him in the slot. In 2017, Metro became the most-read newspaper in the UK, according to monthly National Readership Survey figures. In March 2018 Metro overtook The Sun in total print circulation, according to ABC figures; the majority of the newspaper's content is produced at Northcliffe House in Kensington, west London. There are no regional editions within England and Wales, except for occasional differences in sports and arts content catered to specific local audiences. A separate, small team produces a Scottish edition of Metro, however the only substantial difference between the two versions is the front page.
The newspaper is divided into three main sections—news and sport. The news section includes Guilty Pleasures, which contains two or four pages of showb