Torah reading is a Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. The term refers to the entire ceremony of removing the scroll from the Torah ark, chanting the appropriate excerpt with special cantillation, returning the scroll to the ark. In Yeshivish, it is called "leining". Regular public reading of the Torah was introduced by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Judean exiles from the Babylonian captivity, as described in the Book of Nehemiah. In the modern era, adherents of Orthodox Judaism practice Torah reading according to a set procedure they believe has remained unchanged in the two thousand years since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. In the 19th and 20th centuries CE, Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism have made adaptations to the practice of Torah reading, but the basic pattern of Torah reading has remained the same: As a part of the morning or afternoon prayer services on certain days of the week or holidays, a section of the Pentateuch is read from a Torah scroll.
On Shabbat mornings, a weekly section is read, selected so that the entire Pentateuch is read consecutively each year. On Saturday afternoons and Thursdays, the beginning of the following Saturday's portion is read. On Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh, fast days, special sections connected to the day are read. Many Jews observe an annual holiday, Simchat Torah, to celebrate the completion of the year's cycle of readings; the introduction of public reading of the Torah by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Judean exiles is described in Nehemiah Chapter 8. Prior to Ezra, the mitzvah of Torah reading was based on the Biblical commandment of Hakhel, by which once every 7 years the entire people was to be gathered, "men and children," and hear much of Deuteronomy, the final volume of the Pentateuch, read to them. Traditionally, the mitzvah of gathering the people and reading them the Torah under Hakhel was to be performed by the King. Under Ezra, Torah reading became more frequent and the congregation themselves substituted for the King's role.
Ezra is traditionally credited with initiating the modern custom of reading thrice weekly in the synagogue. This reading is an obligation incumbent on the congregation, not an individual, did not replace the Hakhel reading by the king; the reading of the Law in the synagogue can be traced to at least about the 2nd century BCE, when the grandson of Sirach refers to it in his preface as an Egyptian practice. Torah reading is discussed in the Mishna and Talmud in tractate Megilla, it has been suggested that the reading of the Law was due to a desire to controvert the views of the Samaritans with regard to the various festivals, for which reason arrangements were made to have the passages of the Pentateuch relating to those festivals read and expounded on the feast-days themselves. An alternative triennial cycle of Torah readings existed at that time, a system whereby each week the portion read was a third of the current. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, the triennial cycle "was the practice in Palestine, whereas in Babylonia the entire Pentateuch was read in the synagogue in the course of a single year."
As late as 1170 Benjamin of Tudela mentioned Egyptian congregations that took three years to read the Torah. Joseph Jacobs, in the Jewish Encyclopedia article mentioned, notes that the transition from the triennial to the annual reading of the Law and the transference of the beginning of the cycle to the month of Tishri are attributed by Sándor Büchler to the influence of Abba Arika known as "Rab" or "Rav", a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, who established at Sura the systematic study of the rabbinic traditions, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud: This may have been due to the smallness of the sedarim under the old system, to the fact that people were thus reminded of the chief festivals only once in three years, it was arranged that Deut. xxviii. Should fall before the New Year, that the beginning of the cycle should come after the Feast of Tabernacles; this arrangement has been retained by modern congregations. The current practice in Orthodox synagogues follows the annual/Babylonian cycle.
At the time of the Jewish Encyclopedia's publication, the author noted that there were only "slight traces of the triennial cycle in the four special Sabbaths and in some of the passages read upon the festivals, which are sections of the triennial cycle, not of the annual one". In the 19th and 20th centuries, some Conservative and most Reform, Reconstructionist and Renewal congregations have switched to a triennial cycle, where the first third of each parashah is read one year, the second third the next year and the final third in a third year; this must be distinguished from the ancient practice, to read each seder in serial order regardless of the week of the year, completing the entire Torah in three years in a linear fashion. The first segment of each weekly parashah from the Torah is read during the morning services on Mondays and Thursdays; the entire weekly parashah is read on Saturdays. Most major and minor festival and fast have a unique Torah reading devoted to that day; the Torah is read during afternoon services on Saturdays, Y
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of expertise, it is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. Interaction with an expert may be necessary to gain proficiency with/in cultural tools. Mentorship experience and relationship structure affect the "amount of psychosocial support, career guidance, role modeling, communication that occurs in the mentoring relationships in which the protégés and mentors engaged."The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé, a protégée, an apprentice or, in the 2000s, a mentee. The mentor may be referred to a rabbi. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, with more than 50 definitions in use.
One definition of the many that have been proposed, is Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Since the 1970s it has spread in the United States in training contexts, with important historical links to the movement advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, it has been described as "an innovation in American management"; the roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. Significant systems of mentorship include the guru–disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism, the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, apprenticing under the medieval guild system.
In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term "mentor" and concept of career mentorship as part of a larger social capital lexicon which includes terms such as glass ceiling, bamboo ceiling, role model, gatekeeper—serving to identify and address the problems barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature subsequently adopted the terms and concepts, promoting them as pathways to success for all career climbers. In 1970, these terms were not in the general American vocabulary; the European Mentoring and Coaching Council called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry standard frameworks and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields e.g. a code of practice for those practising mentoring. The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.
A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most used in business found that the five most used techniques among mentors were: Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner. Sowing: mentors are confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it. Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values. Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior. Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions.
The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?". Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill. Multiple mentors: A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors; this can be helpful. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors. Profession or trade mentor: This is someone, in the trade/profession you are entering, they know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career.
A mentor like thi
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
History of the British Isles
The British Isles have witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands. Today, the British Isles contain two sovereign states: the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. There are three Crown dependencies: Guernsey and the Isle of Man; the United Kingdom comprises England, Northern Ireland and Wales, each country having its own history, with all but Northern Ireland having been independent states at one point. The history of the formation of the United Kingdom is complex; the British monarch was head of state of all of the countries of the British Isles from the Union of the Crowns in 1603 until the enactment of the Republic of Ireland Act in 1949, although the term "British Isles" was not used in 1603. Additionally, since the independence of most of Ireland, historians of the region avoid the term British Isles due to the complexity of relations between the peoples of the archipelago.
The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic known as the Old and Middle Stone Ages, were characterised by a hunter-gatherer economy and a reliance on stone tool technologies. The Lower Palaeolithic period in the British Isles saw the region's first known habitation by early hominids the extinct Homo heidelbergensis. One of the most prominent archaeological sites dating to this period is that of Boxgrove Quarry in West Sussex, southern England. By the Mesolithic, Homo sapiens, or modern humans, were the only hominid species to still survive in the British Isles. British Isles were linked to continental Europe by a territory named Doggerland. In the British Isles, the Neolithic and Bronze Ages saw the transformation of British and Irish society and landscape, it saw the adoption of agriculture, as communities gave up their hunter-gatherer modes of existence to begin farming. As its name suggests, the British Iron Age is characterised by the adoption of iron, a metal, used to produce a variety of different tools and weapons.
In the course of the first millennium BC, earlier, some combination of trans-cultural diffusion and immigration from continental Europe resulted in the establishment of Celtic languages in the islands giving rise to the Insular Celtic group. What languages were spoken in the islands before is unknown, though they are assumed to have been Pre-Indo-European. In 55 and 54 BC, Roman general and future dictator Gaius Julius Caesar launched two separate invasions of the British Isles, though neither resulted in a full Roman occupation of the island. In 43 AD, southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire. On Nero's accession Roman Britain extended as far north as Lindum. Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the conqueror of Mauretania became governor of Britain, where he spent most of his governorship campaigning in Wales. In 60 AD he penned up the last resistance and the last of the druids in the island of Mona. Paulinus led his army across the Menai Strait and massacred the druids and burnt their sacred groves.
At the moment of triumph, news came of the Boudican revolt in East Anglia. The suppression of the Boudican revolt was followed by a period of expansion of the Roman province, including the subjugation of south Wales. Between 77 and 83 AD the new governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola led a series of campaigns which enlarged the province taking in north Wales, northern Britain, most of Caledonia; the Celts fought with determination and resilience, but faced a superior, professional army, it is that between 100,000 and 250,000 may have perished in the conquest period. The Early medieval period saw a series of invasions of Britain by the Germanic-speaking Saxons, beginning in the 5th century. Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were formed and, through wars with British states came to cover the territory of present-day England. Around 600, seven principal kingdoms had emerged, beginning the so-called period of the Heptarchy. During that period, the Anglo-Saxon states were Christianised. In the 9th century, Vikings from Denmark and Norway conquered most of England.
Only the Kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great survived and managed to re-conquer and unify England for much of the 10th century, before a new series of Danish raids in the late 10th century and early 11th century culminated in the wholesale subjugation of England to Denmark under Canute the Great. Danish rule was overthrown and the local House of Wessex was restored to power under Edward the Confessor for about two decades until his death in 1066. In 1066, Duke of Normandy said he was the rightful heir to the English throne, invaded England, defeated King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. Proclaiming himself to be King William I, he strengthened his regime by appointing loyal members of the Norman elite to many positions of authority, building a system of castles across the country and ordering a census of his new kingdom, the Domesday Book; the Late Medieval period was characterised by many battles between England and France, coming to a head in the Hundred Years' War from which France emerged victorious.
The monarchs throughout the Late Medieval period belonged to the houses of Plantaganet and York. Major historical events in the early modern period include the English Renaissance, the English Reformation and Scottish Reformation, the English Civil War, the Restoration of Charles II, the Glorious Revolution, the Treaty of Union, the Scottish Enlightenment and the formation of the First British Empire; the Kingdom of
James F. Byrnes
James Francis Byrnes was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina. A member of the Democratic Party, Byrnes served in Congress, the executive branch, on the United States Supreme Court, he was the 104th Governor of South Carolina, making him one of the few politicians to serve in all three branches of the American federal government while being active in state government. Born and raised in Charleston, South Carolina, Byrnes pursued a legal career with the help of his cousin, Governor Miles Benjamin McSweeney. Byrnes won election to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1911 to 1925, he became a protégé of Senator Benjamin Tillman. He sought election to the United States Senate in 1924, but narrowly lost a run-off election to Coleman Livingston Blease, who had the backing of the Ku Klux Klan. After the loss, Byrnes moved his law practice to Spartanburg, South Carolina and prepared for a political comeback, he narrowly defeated Blease in the 1930 Democratic primary and joined the Senate in 1931.
Historian George E. Mowry called Byrnes "the most influential Southern member of Congress between John Calhoun and Lyndon Johnson." In the Senate, Byrnes supported the policies of his long-time friend, President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Byrnes sought federal investment in South Carolina water projects, he supported Roosevelt's foreign policy, calling for a hard line against Japan and Nazi Germany. On the other hand, Byrnes opposed anti-lynching legislation and some of the labor laws proposed by Roosevelt, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act. Roosevelt appointed Byrnes to the Supreme Court in 1941, but asked him to join the executive branch after the start of World War II. During the war, Byrnes led the Office of War Mobilization, he was a candidate to replace Henry A. Wallace as Roosevelt's running mate in the 1944 election, but Harry S. Truman was instead nominated by the 1944 Democratic National Convention. After Roosevelt's death, Byrnes served as a close adviser to Truman, becoming United States Secretary of State in July 1945.
In this capacity, Byrnes attended the Paris Peace Conference. However, relations between Byrnes and Truman soured, Byrnes resigned from the Cabinet in January 1947, he returned to elective politics in 1950. As governor, he opposed the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education and sought to establish "separate but equal" as a realistic alternative to the desegregation of schools, he endorsed most Republican presidential nominees after 1948 and supported Strom Thurmond's switch to the Republican Party in 1964. James Francis "Jimmy" Byrnes was born at 538 King St. in Charleston, South Carolina and reared in that city. Byrnes's father, James Francis Byrnes, died shortly, his mother, Elizabeth McSweeney Byrnes, was an Irish-American dressmaker. In the 1880s, a widowed aunt and her three children came to live with them. At the age of fourteen, Byrnes left St. Patrick's Catholic School to work in a law office, became a court stenographer. Notably, he transcribed the murder trial of then-Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, James H. Tillman, nephew of Benjamin Tillman, for the killing of Narciso Gener Gonzales, the editor of The State.
In 1906, he married the former Maude Perkins Busch of South Carolina. Though they had no children, he was the godparent of James Christopher Connor. Byrnes converted from the Catholic Church to Episcopalianism. In 1900, when Byrnes's cousin Governor Miles B. McSweeney appointed him as a clerk for Judge Robert Aldrich of Aiken, he needed to be 21. Byrnes, his mother, Governor McSweeney just changed his date of birth to that of his older sister Leonora, he apprenticed to a lawyer – a not uncommon practice – read for the law, was admitted to the bar in 1903. In 1908, he was appointed solicitor for the second circuit of South Carolina, serving until 1910. Byrnes was a protégé of Benjamin Tillman and had a moderating influence on the fiery segregationist Senator. In 1910, he narrowly won the state's Second Congressional District in the Democratic primary tantamount to election. Byrnes proved a brilliant legislator, working behind the scenes to form coalitions and avoiding the high-profile oratory that characterized much of Southern politics.
He was a champion of the "good roads" movement that attracted motorists, politicians, to large-scale road building programs in the 1920s. He became a close ally of President Woodrow Wilson, Wilson entrusted important political tasks to the capable young representative rather than to more experienced lawmakers. In 1924, Byrnes declined renomination to the House, instead sought nomination for the Senate seat held by incumbent Nathaniel B. Dial, though both were former allies of the now-deceased "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman. Anti-Tillmanite and extreme racist demagogue Coleman Blease, who had challenged Dial in 1918 ran again. Blease led the primary with 42 percent. Dial finished third with 22 percent. Byrnes was opposed by the Ku Klux Klan. Byrnes had been raised as a Roman Catholic, the Klan spread rumors that he was still a secret Catholic. Byrnes countered by citing his support by Episcopalian clergy. Three days before the run-off vote, twenty Catholics who said they had been altar boys with Byrnes published a professed endorsement of him.
The leader of this group was a Blease ally, the "endorsemen