United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, Commanding General, United States Army Reserve Command. On 2 November 2012, Command Sergeant Major James Lambert was sworn in as the Interim Command Sergeant Major of the Army Reserve, serving as the Chief of the Army Reserve's senior advisor on all enlisted soldier matters areas affecting training, leader development, employer support, family readiness and support, quality of life. On 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. After World War I, under the National Defense Act of 1920, Congress reorganized the U. S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, an Organized Reserve of unrestricted size, which became the Army Reserve.
This organization provided a peacetime pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, Reserve Officers' Training Corps; the Organized Reserve infantry divisions raised after World War I continued the lineage and geographic area distribution of National Army divisions that had served in the war. They were maintained on paper with one-third of their enlisted men. Units in other arms of the Army besides infantry, most notably cavalry, field artillery and engineers were formed. Organized Reserve units, depending upon their geographic area, maintained relationships with one or several colleges or universities, which populated them with officers through the ROTC. In the event of war, Organized Reserve officers and enlisted men would be called to duty to form the cores of the divisions they were assigned to, be moved to other parts of the Army that needed officers. Service in the Organized Reserve during the interwar period was not as appealing as the Army expected.
Most divisions reached their full complement of officers, but had less than 100 enlisted men, since there was no incentive for them to serve. The 101st Infantry Division was designated a division of the Organized Reserve after World War I and assigned to the state of Wisconsin. A tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions: three armored, five airborne, 17 infantry; these divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three strength categories, labeled Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A units were divided into two groups, one for combat and one for service, units were to be at required table of organization strength; the troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, seven as Class C. Major General Ray E. Porter therefore proposed reclassification of all Class A divisions as Class B units; the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946.
That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the other categories as men and equipment became available, undoubtedly influenced the decision. The War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers and enlisted men from World War II. By that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies; the armies replaced the nine corps areas of the prewar era, the army commanders were tasked to organize and train both Regular Army and Organized Reserve Corps units. The plan the army commanders received called for twenty-five Organized Reserve Corps divisions, but the divisions activated between September 1946 and November 1947 differed somewhat from the original plans; the First United States Army declined to support an airborne division, the 98th Infantry Division replaced the 98th Airborne Division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, three armored, eighteen infantry divisions.
The Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Division's area, not that of the 99th. The 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota in the Fifth United States Army area; the Seventh Army, allotted the 15th Airborne Division, refused the designation, the adjutant general replaced it by constituting the 108th Airborne Division, which fell within that component's list of infantry and airborne divisional numbers. Thus the final tally of divisions formed after World War II appears to have been the 19th, 21st, 22d Armored Divisions. A major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing. While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, the Organiz
United States Navy Reserve
The United States Navy Reserve, known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component of the United States Navy. Members of the Navy Reserve, called reservists, are enrolled in the Selected Reserve, the Individual Ready Reserve, the Full Time Support, or the Retired Reserve program; the mission of the Navy Reserve is to provide strategic depth and deliver operational capabilities to the Navy and Marine Corps team, Joint forces, in the full range of military operations from peace to war. The Reserve consists of 108,718 officers and enlisted personnel who serve in every state and territory as well as overseas as of September 2012; the largest cohort, the SELRES, have traditionally drilled one weekend a month and two weeks of annual training during the year, receiving base pay and certain special pays when performing Inactive Duty Training, full pay and allowances while on active duty for Annual Training, Active Duty for Training, Active Duty for Operational Support, Active Duty for Special Work, or under Mobilization orders or otherwise recalled to full active duty.
Every state, as well as Guam and Puerto Rico, has at least one Navy Operational Support Center, staffed by Full Time Support personnel, where the SELRES sailors come to do their weekend drills. The size of these centers varies depending on the number of assigned reservists, they are intended to handle administrative functions and classroom style training. However, some NOSCs have more extensive training facilities, including damage control trainers and small boat units; some NOSCs are co-located on existing military facilities, but most are "outside-the-wire", stand alone facilities that are the only U. S. Navy representation in their communities or the entire state; because of this, NOSCs outside the fleet concentration areas are heavily tasked to provide personnel, both FTS staff and SELRES, for participation in Funeral Honors Details. This service provided to the local community is one of the NOSC's top two priority missions; those SELRES assigned to front-line operational units, such as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Naval Flight Surgeons and enlisted personnel assigned to Navy Reserve or Active-Reserve Integrated aviation squadrons and wings, or personnel assigned to major combatant command and other major staff positions, are funded for far more duty than the weekend per month/two weeks per year construct well in excess of 100 man-days per year.
SELRES have performed additional duty in times of war or national crisis being recalled to full-time active duty for one, two or three or more years and deploying to overseas locations or aboard warships, as has been seen during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. FTS known as TAR, serve in uniform all year round and provide administrative support to SELRES and operational support for the Navy, they are full-time career active duty personnel, but reside in the Reserve Component, perform a role similar to Active Guard and Reserve, Air Reserve Technician and Army Reserve Technician in the Air Force Reserve Command, the Air National Guard, the U. S. Army Reserve, the Army National Guard; the Individual Ready Reserve do not drill or train but can be recalled to service in a full mobilization. Some IRR personnel who are not assigned to SELRES billets senior commissioned officers in the ranks of commander or captain for whom SELRES billets are limited, will serve in Volunteer Training Units or will be support assigned to established active duty or reserve commands while in a VTU status.
These personnel are not eligible for Annual Training with pay. However, they remain eligible for other forms of active duty with mobilization; the largest source of IRR Officers in the Navy Reserve are commissioned from the United States Merchant Marine Academy and comprise more than 75% of the Navy's Strategic Sealift Officer Community, focused on strategic sealift and sea-based logistics. Reservists are called to active duty, or mobilized, as needed and are required to sign paperwork acknowledging this possibility upon enrollment in the reserve program. After the September 11 attacks of 2001, Reservists were mobilized to support combat operations; the War on Terrorism has seen the activation of a Reserve squadron, the VFA-201 Hunters, flying F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, which deployed on board the USS Theodore Roosevelt. Additionally, more than 52,000 Navy Reservists have been mobilized and deployed to serve in Iraq and Afghanistan, including more than 8,000 who have done a second combat tour, they have served alongside Army, Air Force, Coast Guard and service personnel from other countries, performing such missions as countering deadly improvised explosive devices, constructing military bases, escorting ground convoys, operating hospitals, performing intelligence analysis, guarding prisoners, doing customs inspections for units returning from deployments.
Reflecting the importance of Reservists in the naval history of the United States, the first citizen sailors put to sea before the Continental Congress created the Continental Navy, forerunner of today’s U. S. Navy. On 12 June 1775, inspired to act after hearing the news of Minutemen and British regulars battling on the fields of Lexington and Concord, citizens of the seaside town of Machias, commandeered the schooner
National Defense Reserve Fleet
The National Defense Reserve Fleet consists of "mothballed" ships merchant vessels, that can be activated within 20 to 120 days to provide shipping for the United States of America during national emergencies, either military or non-military, such as commercial shipping crises. The NDRF is managed by the U. S. Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration, it is a different entity from the United States Navy reserve fleets, which consist of warships. NDRF vessels are at the fleet sites at James River, Virginia–the'James River Reserve Fleet'. Former anchorage sites included New York - the Hudson River Reserve Fleet. Through the 2010s, the oldest, most decrepit hulls at Suisun Bay will be stripped of toxic materials broken up in Texas, California or Asia. Twenty of the most polluting mothball ships were slated for recycling by 2012, another 32 by 2017. At its peak in 1950, the NDRF had 2,277 ships in lay-up. In 2003, it had 274. In July 2007, it held 230 ships dry cargo ships with some tankers, military auxiliaries and other types.
As of January 2018, the number of ships was down to 98. The NDRF was established under Section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 to serve as a reserve of ships for national defense and national emergencies. NDRF vessels were used in crises. During the Korean War, 540 vessels were broken out to move military forces. During a worldwide tonnage shortfall in 1951–53, more than 600 ships were reactivated to carry coal to Northern Europe and grain to India. From 1955 through 1964, another 600 ships were used to store grain for the Department of Agriculture. Another 223 cargo ships and 29 tankers were activated during a tonnage shortfall after the Suez Canal was closed in 1956. During the Berlin Crisis of 1961, 18 vessels were activated and remained in service until 1970. Another 172 vessels were activated for the Vietnam War. In 1976, a Ready Reserve Force component was established as a subset of the NDRF to provide rapid deployment of military equipment and became known as the Ready Reserve Force, which numbers 72 vessels.
These are crewed with a reduced crew but kept available for activation within four, ten or twenty days. An additional 28 ships are held under United States Maritime Administration custody for other Government agencies on a cost-reimbursable basis. Vessels with military utility or logistic value are held in retention status and are in a preservation program, designed to keep them in the same condition as when they enter the fleet; the internal spaces are dehumidified to slow the corrosion of metal and the growth of mold and mildew. DC power is distributed through anodes to the exterior underwater portions of the hull, creating an electric field that suppresses corrosion and preserves the surface of the hull. External painting and other cosmetic work is deferred since it does not affect the ability to activate and operate the vessel. MARAD is authorized as the government’s disposal agent through the NDRF program for merchant type vessels equal to or greater than 1,500 gross tons. A state agency can file an application to request title to a vessel "as-is where-is" from the NDRF for the purpose of creating an artificial reef.
A total of 51 vessels have been transferred to 10 states under the program including: Texas, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and New Jersey. Of the 132 non-retention vessels in the NDRF, there are 117; the NDRF program can give and lend historic artifacts to maritime-heritage organizations and transfer entire ships to memorial associations through special legislation. Inactive naval ships of merchant design, including amphibious ships but not ships maintained in a mobilization status by MARAD for Military Sealift Command, may be laid up in the NDRF when overcrowded berthing conditions exist at a Navy Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility. Battleships and aircraft carriers which have been stricken or those awaiting final disposition may be transferred to MARAD locations for berthing; these ships will be transferred to MARAD for caretaking in accordance with the Economy Act of 1932. Ships transferred to the NDRF may be retained in Navy Mobilization Plans and maintained by MARAD under priorities set by the Department of the Navy.
If the Navy decides it no longer needs the ship, the Secretary of the Navy strikes the ship from the Naval Vessel Register and transfers the title to MARAD. When possible, MARAD gets first disposition rights, which allows it to convert merchant ships to the Ready Reserve Force or to sell the ship for scrapping in connection with the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, Sec. 508 and use the proceeds to buy more supply ships. The Suisun Bay location contained 324 ships in 1959. Forty years the number was down by about 250, but pollutants had begun to accumulate in the area. Paint containing toxins such as lead, copper and barium had been flaking off many of the ships' hulls and superstructures. By June 2007, some 21 tons of toxic paint debris was estimated to have been shed from the ships, to settle in the bay sediment. A further 65 tons of paint was estimated to be in danger of flaking off. David Matsuda, acting administrator of MARAD, said in March 2010 "We are moving expeditiously to remove the worst-polluting ships first and diligently moving to clean the rest."
Some 52 ships were identified as problematic, were scheduled for removal and recycling by September 201
Individual Ready Reserve
The Individual Ready Reserve is a category of the Ready Reserve of the Reserve Component of the Armed Forces of the United States composed of former active duty or reserve military personnel and is authorized under 10 U. S. C. § 1005. For soldiers in the National Guard of the United States, its counterpart is the Inactive National Guard; as of 22 June 2004, the IRR had 112,000 members composed of enlisted personnel and officers, with more than 200 Military Occupational Specialties are represented, including combat arms, combat support, combat service support. An individual assigned to the IRR receives no pay and is not obligated to drill, conduct annual training, or participate in any military activities unless activated by Presidential Reserve Callup Authority or electing to drill, train, or serve in a "Drill without Pay" or an "Active Duty" role. Unlike members of the Standby Reserve and Retired Reserve, IRR personnel are members of the Ready Reserve and as such, they retain their status as uniformed military personnel, their military specialty and rank/pay grade.
The IRR, Selected Reserve, Inactive National Guard comprise the three Ready Reserve programs. IRR personnel receive benefits similar to other members of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces to include entitlement to the United States Uniformed Services Privilege and Identification Card and for their dependents, PX/BX/NEX/MCX/CGX benefits, commissary benefits, MWR benefits. Note that these benefits are only available to IRR members in the "CONUS". An individual assigned to the IRR may receive pay and full benefits for voluntarily performing specific types of active duty; because members of the IRR serve on extended active duty and are not retired from military service, most are not eligible for TRICARE. However, if honorably discharged, they do have the VA for medical benefits. By law, IRR members are required to retain possession of their service uniforms, retain their military identification card, notify their service branch if they move and change their address. Upon being called up, service members will be screened for their medical and personal status in order to qualify or disqualify them for activation.
During the process, IRR members who seek to delay, defer, or exempt their activations have the opportunity to present their case to the mobilization authority for a decision. An enlisted service member's IRR service ends after the completion of their mandatory service obligation eight years. "Presidential Reserve Callup Authority" is a provision of a public law that provides the President a means to activate, without a declaration of national emergency, not more than 200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve, for not more than 400 days to meet the support requirements of any operational mission. Members called under this provision may not be used for disaster relief; this authority has particular utility when used in circumstances in which the escalatory national or international signals of partial or full mobilization would be undesirable. Forces available under this authority can provide a tailored, limited-scope, deterrent or operational response, or may be used as a precursor to any subsequent mobilization.
When the nation is under a presidentially declared state of national emergency in accordance with the National Emergencies Act the President has broader authority, allowing him to activate not more than 1,000,000 members of the Ready Reserve with no further limitation. The United States has been in a state of national emergency since November 14, 1979; when activated by Presidential Reserve Callup Authority, soldiers are required to follow the activation instructions contained in Army Regulation 135-91 specifying that members of the IRR can be required to join an Army Reserve unit if they are statutorily obligated and have a skill needed by the Army. Reserve soldiers are obligated to serve up to two years active duty, a requirement, waiverable by the individual soldier, mission constraints, or the needs of the Army; the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the portion of the public law that governs the military as a subset of the general population, is applicable to soldiers activated from the Individual Ready Reserve as of the date that their activating orders require them to report.
This subjects them to the possibility of punishment under UCMJ for being Absent Without Leave if they choose to resist activation. To date no personnel have been prosecuted under UCMJ for ignoring IRR orders; until the War on Terror, members of the Individual Ready Reserve had not been called up since Operation Desert Shield. A major difficulty in activating the IRR stems from the fact that many of its members those from the junior enlisted ranks, are unaware that they are in the military; this results from such members being informed that they are "discharged" upon release from active duty when in fact they have been transferred to the inactive reserves. To solve this situation, many military separation transition courses now spend additional time explaining the nature of the inactive reserve; as of 2005, the military began to enact "IRR Musters" which were once a year occurrences where an IRR member would b
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles; the main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, cumulative supplements are published annually. The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large; the official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration. After authorization from the OFR, copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office; the Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.
Slip laws are competent evidence. The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research, it is arranged in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes repeal or amend earlier laws, extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time; the United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U. S. House of Representatives; the LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly; because of this codification approach, a single named statute may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem.
For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7, Title 26, Title 43. When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress; the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code as enacted. Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law; the authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U. S. C. § 92 for decades because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U. S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.
By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence" of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; this process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence" of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.
The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service, which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large. Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code. If these limited provisions are significant, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sectio