2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Midland County, Texas
Midland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of 2015, the population was 161,077; the county seat is Midland. The county is so named as the county is halfway between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railway. Midland County is included in the Midland, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Midland–Odessa Combined Statistical Area. In 1968, the county lost before the Supreme Court in Avery v. Midland County which required local districts to be nearly equal; the city of Midland had most of the county's population but only elected one of the five county commissioners, found to violate the Fourteenth Amendment. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 902 square miles, of which 900 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. The Spraberry Trend, the third-largest oil field in the United States by remaining reserves, underlies much of the county. I-20 BL I-20 SH 137 SH 140 SH 158 SH 191 SH 349 Loop 40 Loop 250 Loop 268 Martin County Glasscock County Upton County Ector County Andrews County Reagan County As of the census of 2000, there were 116,009 people, 42,745 households, 30,947 families residing in the county.
The population density was 129 people per square mile. There were 48,060 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.32% White, 6.98% Black or African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.17% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 29.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 42,745 households, out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 24.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out, with 30.20% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,082, the median income for a family was $47,269. Males had a median income of $36,924 versus $24,708 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,369. 12.90% of the population and 10.30% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 16.20% are under the age of 18 and 7.90% are 65 or older. Although Midland was Democratic, it has been unabashedly Republican in presidential elections since 1952; the last Democratic presidential candidate to win the county was Harry Truman in 1948. In the presidential election of 1964 in which the incumbent president, Texan Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, won a national landslide victory, it gave 57.8% of its ballots to Republican presidential candidate and Arizona native Barry Goldwater. In 2008, it cast 36,135 votes for Republican John McCain for president, 78% of the vote in Midland County.
Democrat Barack Obama received 21 % of 9,672 votes. Other candidates received 1% of the vote. Midland County is in the 11th Congressional District in Texas and it is represented by Mike Conaway, a Republican; the 11th Congressional District gave George W. Bush 78% of its votes in 2004, higher than any other congressional district in the nation. In Midland County in 2004, Republican George W. Bush received 82% of the vote in Midland County, while Democrat John Kerry received 18%. Midland Odessa Dameron City Germania Pleasant Prairie Lee Slaughter List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Midland County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Midland County Gary Painter, sheriff of Midland County since 1985 Midland County government's website Midland County from the Handbook of Texas Online Midland County Profile of the Texas Association of Counties
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Tom Green County, Texas
Tom Green County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 110,224, its county seat is San Angelo. The county was created in 1874 and organized the following year. Tom Green County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established by the state legislature on March 13, 1874, named after Thomas Green, a Confederate brigadier general. It comprised an area over 60,000 square miles; the original county seat was the town of Ben Ficklin. In 1882, flood waters of the Concho River drowned 65 people; the county seat was moved to San Angela. In 1883, the town's name was changed to San Angelo by the United States Post Office. Tom Green County has a narrow strip of land extending to the west; this unusual feature is because Reagan County to the west used to be part of Tom Green County, the state of Texas required that all counties have a contiguous land route to their county seat. Therefore, the small strip of land served to connect the two main regions.
In 1903, the residents of the western section voted to form their own county, while in the same vote it was decided that the connecting strip would remain as part of Tom Green County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,541 square miles, of which 1,522 square miles are land and 19 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 277 SH 208 Coke County Runnels County Concho County Schleicher County Irion County Reagan County Sterling County Menard County As of the census of 2000, 104,010 people, 39,503 households, 26,783 families resided in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 43,916 housing units at an average density of 29 per mi2; the racial makeup of the county was 50.76% White, 5.13% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 12.82% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. About 30.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 13.2% were of German, 10.7% American, 8.2% English and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
Of the 39,503 households, 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were not families. About 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population age was distributed as 26.10% under the age of 18, 12.80% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,148, for a family was $39,482. Males had a median income of $27,949 versus $20,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,325. About 11.20% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
These school districts serve Tom Green County: Christoval ISD Grape Creek ISD Miles ISD San Angelo ISD Veribest ISD Wall ISD Water Valley ISD Howard College Angelo State University San Angelo Carlsbad Christoval Grape Creek Ben Ficklin Goodfellow AFB List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Tom Green County, Texas USS Tom Green County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Tom Green County Tom Green County government's website Tom Green County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas County genealogy links at Rootsweb Entry for Tom Green from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. San Angelo LIVE! News, live events and music in San Angelo, the county seat of Tom Green County
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma; as of 2011, there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language, part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today. Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People"; the first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a. The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the second element -gua refers to "men or people", so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people". Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
They called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, just south of the border with Canada; the mountain pass they came through was populated by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them - by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear; this corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle. For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho.
An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", the Arapaho word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family; the relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school, he worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language, he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language.
Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in Caddo and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. A trade language, it became a language within its own right that remained in use across North America; the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Cotton, Kiowa and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa descent; as of 2011, their business committee is: Chairman: Matthew M. Komalty Vice-chairman: Charles Domebo Eisenberger Secretary: Rhonda J. Ahhaity Treasurer: Renee M. Plata Committeeman: Dave Geimausaddle Committeeman: Anita L. Onco Johnson Committeeman: Thomas Kaulaity Committeeman: Ronald Poolaw Sr; the Kiowa Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos, the Kiowa Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol and Kiowa Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.
The Kiowa were patrilineal with a chiefdom. They lived in semi-sedentary structures, they were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison, they hunted antelope, deer and other wild game. The women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit, processing them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves; the Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted the horse, acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their economy, they had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, horses could carry some of their camping goods. By the time they arrived on the Plains, they were a mounted warrior nation; the Kiowa and Plains Apache established a homeland that lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and