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Real-time Transport Protocol

The Real-time Transport Protocol is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications including WebRTC, television services and web-based push-to-talk features. RTP runs over User Datagram Protocol. RTP is used in conjunction with the RTP Control Protocol. While RTP carries the media streams, RTCP is used to monitor transmission statistics and quality of service and aids synchronization of multiple streams. RTP is one of the technical foundations of Voice over IP and in this context is used in conjunction with a signaling protocol such as the Session Initiation Protocol which establishes connections across the network. RTP was developed by the Audio-Video Transport Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force and first published in 1996 as RFC 1889, superseded by RFC 3550 in 2003. RTP is designed for real-time transfer of streaming media.

The protocol provides facilities for jitter compensation and detection of packet loss and out-of-order delivery, which are common during UDP transmissions on an IP network. RTP allows data transfer to multiple destinations through IP multicast. RTP is regarded as the primary standard for audio/video transport in IP networks and is used with an associated profile and payload format; the design of RTP is based on the architectural principle known as application-layer framing where protocol functions are implemented in the application as opposed to in the operating system's protocol stack. Real-time multimedia streaming applications require timely delivery of information and can tolerate some packet loss to achieve this goal. For example, loss of a packet in audio application may result in loss of a fraction of a second of audio data, which can be made unnoticeable with suitable error concealment algorithms; the Transmission Control Protocol, although standardized for RTP use, is not used in RTP applications because TCP favors reliability over timeliness.

Instead the majority of the RTP implementations are built on the User Datagram Protocol. Other transport protocols designed for multimedia sessions are SCTP and DCCP, although, as of 2012, they are not in widespread use. RTP was developed by the Audio/Video Transport working group of the IETF standards organization. RTP is used in conjunction with other protocols such as H.323 and RTSP. The RTP specification describes two protocols: RTP and RTCP. RTP is used for the transfer of multimedia data, the RTCP is used to periodically send control information and QoS parameters; the data transfer protocol, RTP, carries real-time data. Information provided by this protocol include timestamps, sequence numbers and the payload format which indicates the encoded format of the data; the control protocol, RTCP, is used for quality of service feedback and synchronization between the media streams. The bandwidth of RTCP traffic compared to RTP is small around 5%. RTP sessions are initiated between communicating peers using a signaling protocol, such as H.323, the Session Initiation Protocol, RTSP, or Jingle.

These protocols may use the Session Description Protocol to specify the parameters for the sessions. An RTP session is established for each multimedia stream. Audio and video streams may use separate RTP sessions, enabling a receiver to selectively receive components of a particular stream; the specification recommends that RTP port numbers are chosen to be and that each associated RTCP port be the next higher odd number. However, a single port is chosen for RTCP in applications that multiplex the protocols. RTP and RTCP use unprivileged UDP ports, but may use other transport protocols, most notably, SCTP and DCCP, as the protocol design is transport independent. One of the design considerations for RTP is to carry a range of multimedia formats and allow new formats without revising the RTP standard. To this end, the information required by a specific application of the protocol is not included in the generic RTP header but is instead provided through separate RTP profiles and associated payload formats.

For each class of application, RTP defines one or more associated payload formats. A complete specification of RTP for a particular application usage requires profile and payload format specifications; the profile defines the codecs used to encode the payload data and their mapping to payload format codes in the Payload Type field of the RTP header. Each profile is accompanied by several payload format specifications, each of which describes the transport of a particular encoded data; the audio payload formats include G.711, G.723, G.726, G.729, GSM, QCELP, MP3, DTMF, the video payload formats include H.261, H.263, H.264, H.265 and MPEG-1/MPEG-2. The mapping of MPEG-4 audio/video streams to RTP packets is specified in RFC 3016, H.263 video payloads are described in RFC 2429. Examples of RTP profiles include: The RTP profile for Audio and video conferences with minimal control defines a set of static payload type assignments, a dynamic mechanism for mapping between a payload format, a PT value using Session Description Protocol.

The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol defines an RTP profile that provides cryptographic services for the transfer of payload data. The experimental Control Data Profile for RTP for machine-to-machine communications. RTP packets are handed to the transport layer for delivery; each unit of RTP

It Only Hurts When I'm Breathing

"It Only Hurts When I'm Breathing" is a song performed by Canadian singer-songwriter Shania Twain. She co-wrote it with her then-husband Robert John "Mutt" Lange, it was released on February 9, 2004, as the eighth and final single from Twain's album Up!, the fifth to impact the North American market. Disparate to the remainder of Up!, "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" is a ballad that Twain labeled to be the sole heartbreak song on the album. Musically, it lies within the country pop genre. "It Only Hurts When I'm Breathing" received mixed reviews from music critics. Commercially, the single performed well in Canada, where it peaked at number four, mildly in United States' country and adult contemporary markets, it peaked at number 71 at number 18 on Hot Country Singles & Tracks. Although an official music video for "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" was never filmed, it was given a promotional music video taken from a performance for the concert film Up! Live in Chicago. Contestant Michael Lynche performed a cover version of "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" on a Twain-themed episode of the ninth season of the singing competition American Idol.

After collaborating on her great successes The Woman in Me and Come on Over and her then-husband Robert John "Mutt" Lange decided to take a musical hiatus. The two relocated to Switzerland, settled down, had a child, Eja, in August 2001. Twain felt content and was in a positive state of mind, which inspired Up!. She and Lange conceptualized the album to be positive and uplifting. In doing so, they co-wrote every track on Up!, in which few tracks were ballads, something Twain considered a small ratio compared to the nineteen songs on the album. She explained it was not done deliberately, but influenced by her and Lange's state of mind at the time, adding, "There just didn't seem to be enough room for ". One of the ballads was "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing", which Twain deemed necessary to come down in tempo, she said the song was powerful and, as with each track on Up!, was significant to her. Twain said of the track, "This is the only heartbreak song on the new CD. A chance for all of us to catch our breath here."

"It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" was selected as the eighth and final single from Up!, fifth to impact the North American music market. It was released to country radio on February 9, 2004 and to adult contemporary radio on March 22, 2004. A live CD single and digital download were taken from Up! Live in Chicago, released on March 9, 2004 with the same cover as the video album. CD singles and 7" singles were issued by Mercury Nashville Records on March 30, 2004. "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" is a ballad that lies within a fine line of country pop, most instrumentation are typical of country music, yet it does not sound distinctively country. The country "Green" version is of three minutes and nineteen seconds in length, the pop "Red" version is of three minutes and twenty seconds in length. Paul Cognata of The Daily Campus stated, "Twain decides to cross the line into pop music in her song,'It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing.' Since there isn't any type of country-feel in it, the song sounds like a typical pop ballad that could be found on Kiss 95.7."

It has a slow tempo of 76 beats per minute. Written in the key of D♭ major, "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" follows the chord progression G–Am7–F9. Twain's vocals span two octaves, from A♭3 to D5, its lyrics reflect burden. "It Only Hurts When I'm Breathing" received mixed reviews from music critics. Ron Rollins of Dayton Daily News believed the song was "catchier" under its pop format from the Red CD of Up!. Eric R. Danton of the Hartford Courant felt his heartstrings weakly tugged by "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing", added, "The whole endeavor feels like a calculated and spectacularly cynical attempt to make money while expending as little effort as possible." Carol Tannehill of The News-Sentinel called the song one of the hottest singles on country and pop radio at the time. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic noted the song's absence from Twain's Greatest Hits album. In 2004, "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" was listed as a "Winning Song" in the country genre by Broadcast Music Incorporated.

The song was nominated for "Song of the Year" at the 2004 Canadian Country Music Association Awards, but lost to Carolyn Dawn Johnson's "Die of a Broken Heart". "It Only Hurts When I'm Breathing" debuted at number fifty-seven in mid-March 2004, peaked at number four in mid-April 2004 on the Canadian Singles Chart. On the week ending May 8, 2004, "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" debuted at number seventy-six on the United States' main singles chart, the Billboard Hot 100. In the succeeding week, the track jumped to its peak position at number seventy-one, it spent a total of seven weeks on the Billboard Hot 100. On the week ending February 21, 2004, "It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" entered the US Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart at number fifty; the following week, the track ascended to number forty-three, after thirteen weeks on the chart, on the week ending May 15, 2004, it reached its peak at number eighteen, where it remained for three consecutive weeks. In all, the single managed to remain aboard Hot Country Tracks for twenty weeks.

"It Only Hurts when I'm Breathing" charted on the US Adult Contemporary chart, where it peaked at number sixteen on the week ending May 29, 2004. Twain first performed the song as part of her setlist for an outdoor concert on Ju

Generator (computer programming)

In computer science, a generator is a routine that can be used to control the iteration behaviour of a loop. All generators are iterators. A generator is similar to a function that returns an array, in that a generator has parameters, can be called, generates a sequence of values. However, instead of building an array containing all the values and returning them all at once, a generator yields the values one at a time, which requires less memory and allows the caller to get started processing the first few values immediately. In short, a generator behaves like an iterator. Generators can be implemented in terms of more expressive control flow constructs, such as coroutines or first-class continuations. Generators known as semicoroutines, are a special case of coroutines, in that they always yield control back to the caller, rather than specifying a coroutine to jump to. Generators are invoked inside loops; the first time that a generator invocation is reached in a loop, an iterator object is created that encapsulates the state of the generator routine at its beginning, with arguments bound to the corresponding parameters.

The generator's body is executed in the context of that iterator until a special yield action is encountered. The next time the same generator invocation is reached in a subsequent iteration, the execution of the generator's body is resumed after the yield action, until yet another yield action is encountered. In addition to the yield action, execution of the generator body can be terminated by a finish action, at which time the innermost loop enclosing the generator invocation is terminated. In more complicated situations, a generator may be used manually outside of a loop to create an iterator, which can be used in various ways; because generators compute their yielded values only on demand, they are useful for representing streams, such as sequences that would be expensive or impossible to compute at once. These include live data streams; when eager evaluation is desirable, one can either convert to a list, or use a parallel construction that creates a list instead of a generator. For example, in Python a generator g can be evaluated to a list l via l = list, while in F# the sequence expression seq evaluates lazily but evaluates eagerly.

In the presence of generators, loop constructs of a language – such as for and while – can be reduced into a single loop... end loop construct. For example, a ranged loop like for x = 1 to 10 can be implemented as iteration through a generator, as in Python's for x in range. Further, break can be implemented as sending finish to the generator and using continue in the loop. Generators first appeared in CLU, were a prominent feature in the string manipulation language Icon and are now available in Python, C#, the versions of ECMAScript and other languages. In CLU and C#, generators are called iterators, in Ruby, enumerators; the final Common Lisp standard does not natively provide generators, yet various library implementations exist, such as SERIES documented in CLtL2 or pygen. A yield statement is used to implement iterators over user-defined data abstractions; every expression is a generator. The language has many generators built-in and implements some of the logic semantics using the generator mechanism.

Printing squares from 0 to 20 can be achieved using a co-routine by writing: local squares, j squares:= create every j:= |@squares do if j <= 20 write else break However, most of the time custom generators are implemented with the "suspend" keyword which functions like the "yield" keyword in CLU. C does not have generator functions as a language construct, but, as they are a subset of coroutines, it is simple to implement them using any framework that implements stackful coroutines, such as libdill.. On POSIX platforms, when the cost of context switching per iteration is not a concern, or full parallelism rather than concurrency is desired, a simple generator function framework can be implemented using pthreads and pipes, it is possible to introduce generators into C++ using pre-processor macros. The resulting code might have aspects that are different from native C++, but the generator syntax can be uncluttered; the set of pre-processor macros defined in this source allow generators defined with the syntax as in the following example: This can be iterated using: Moreover, C++11 allows foreach loops to be applied to any class that provides the begin and end functions.

It's possible to write generator-like classes by defining both the iterable methods and the iterator methods in the same class. For example, it is possible to write the following program: A basic range implementation would look like that: Perl does not natively provide generators, but support is provided by the Coro::Generator module which uses the Coro co-routine framework. Example usage: In Tcl 8.6, the generator mechanism is founded on named coroutines. In Haskell, with its lazy evaluation model, everything is a generator - every datum created with a non-strict data constructor is generated on demand. For example, where is a n

The Puddle

The Puddle are a New Zealand music group formed in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1983 or 1984 by George D. Henderson, they had a mini-album, a live album, a studio album and a single released on New Zealand independent record label Flying Nun Records between 1986 and 1993. The group has continued to exist since with several line-up changes and periods of inactivity. Since 2006 the group has released four albums on Dunedin independent record label Fishrider Records. Prior to forming The Puddle George D. Henderson had been a key member of Wellington, New Zealand experimental avant-garde punk groups The Amps and The Spies. In 1980 he formed The And Band who self released one 7-inch single. Early line-ups of The Puddle included Shayne P. Carter on drums, replaced by current drummer Ian Henderson, George's brother; the first settled line-up of the band, which recorded the min-album Pop Lib, released on Flying Nun Records in 1986 included Peter Gutteridge, Lesley Z Paris, Ross Jackson, Norma O'Malley and Lindsay Maitland.

Maitland died of an accidental drug overdose in 1987 and Gutteridge left to form Snapper. The remaining line-up recorded a live album Live at the Teddy Bear Club released on Flying Nun Records, it was followed in 1992 by a studio album, Into the Moon, recorded by Alastair Galbraith, released on CD together with the "Pop Lib" EP. Henderson was imprisoned in 1991 for drug-related offending. On his release a new Line-up of The Puddle was formed; this line-up recorded a 7-inch single "Thursday"/"Too Hot to be Cool" released on Flying Nun Records in 1993. At this time this line-up of The Puddle recorded an album Songs For Emily Valentine; this album was not released until 2005 although two songs from it were released as a 7-inch single on French label Acetone in 1993. In the second half of the 1990s Henderson contributed songs to the Dunedin collective group Mink. In 2000 The Puddle performed at the Dunedin Sound music event organised and broadcast live on California's KFJC radio station, are included on the double CD released by the station as KFJC 89.7 FM Presents The Dunedin Sound.

The Puddle continued to play from 2001, although Henderson's health was affected by continued drug use and the effects of hepatitis C. In 2005 Henderson began to address his health issues; this coincided with a studio recording session in Wellington organised by a friend Richard Steele. Since The Puddle have recorded another four albums, all released on Fishrider Records; the current line-up of The Puddle is Henderson, his brother Ian Henderson, Gavin Shaw and Alan Starrett. They are augmented by keyboard/ trumpet player Lucy Hunter from fellow Fishrider Records band Opposite Sex. "Christmas in the Country" appeared on a 1987 Bnet compilation Weird Culture Weird Custom Live in the palm of your hand, Infinite Regress "Friends" appeared on a split Onset/Offset label 7-inch around 1987 "Thursday"/"Too Hot To Be Cool", 7-inch, Flying Nun "The Power of Love"/"Mamelons damadou", 7-inch Acetone "Average Sensual Man", on split 7-inch single with Robert Scott/Adalita Srsen "Secret Holiday"/"Victory Blues", Fishrider The Puddle on Myspace George D. Henderson on Myspace

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir known as Kashmir and Jammu, was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1947. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, when the East India Company, which had annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs as war indemnity sold the region to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for rupees 75 lakh. At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India, Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October 1947, Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir, to engage the Pakistan-supported forces; the western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory stayed under Indian control becoming the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir.

According to the census reports of 1911, 1921 and 1931, the administration was organised as follows: Jammu province: Districts of Jammu, Udhampur and Mirpur. Kashmir province: Districts of Kashmir South, Kashmir North and Muzaffarabad. Frontier districts: Wazarats of Ladakh and Gilgit. Internal jagirs: Poonch and Chenani. In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given: Ladakh wazarat: Tehsils of Leh and Kargil. Gilgit wazarat: Tehsils of Gilgit and Astore Frontier illaqas: Punial, Yasin, Kuh-Ghizer, Nagar, Chilas; the area of the state extended from 32° 17' to 36° 58' N and from 73° 26' to 80° 30' E. Jammu was the southernmost part of the state and was adjacent to the Punjab districts of Jhelum, Gujrat and Gurdaspur. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded and irregular; this is known as the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. To travel north, a range of mountains 8,000 feet high must be climbed.

This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the Himalayan range, known as the Pir Panjal, lead to the second story, on which rests the valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum river. Steeper parts of the Himalayas lead to Astore and Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by the river Indus. To the northwest, lies Gilgit and north of the Indus; the whole area is shadowed by a wall of giant mountains that run east from the Kilik or Mintaka passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese dominions past Rakaposhi, along the Muztagh range past K2, Gasherbrum and Masherbrum to the Karakoram range which merges in the Kunlun Mountains. Westward of the northern angle above Hunza and Nagar, the maze of mountains and glaciers trends a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory.

There used to be a route from Kohala to Leh. The route from Kohala to Srinagar was a cart-road 132 miles in length. From Kohala to Baramulla the road was close to the River Jhelum. At Muzaffarabad the Kishenganga River joins the Jhelum and at this point the road from Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah meet the Kashmir route; the road required expensive maintenance by the authorities to repair. In 1893, after 52 hours of continuous rain serious flooding took place in the Jhelum valley and much damage was done to Srinagar; the floods of 1903 were much more severe, a great disaster. List of political parties in Jammu and Kashmir Dogra dynasty This article incorporates text from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, a publication now in the public domain

List of United States Marine Corps acronyms and expressions

This is a list of acronyms, euphemisms, military slang, sayings in common or common use in the United States Marine Corps. Many of the words or phrases have varying levels of acceptance among different units or communities, some have varying levels of appropriateness. Many terms have equivalents among other service branches that are not acceptable among Marines, but are comparable in meaning. Many acronyms and terms have come into common use from voice procedure use over communication channels, translated into the phonetic alphabet, or both. Many derive from nautical terms and other naval terminology. Most vehicles and aircraft have an informal nickname; the scope of this list is to include words and phrases that are unique to or predominantly used by the Marine Corps or the United States Naval Service. Recent joint operations have allowed terms from other military services to leak into the USMC lexicon, but can be found with their originating service's slang list, see the "See also" section.

1st Civ Div – 1st Civilian Division. Civilian life applied to Marines facing discharge or retirement; as in "getting assigned to 1st Civ Div." Referred to as "1st Couch Company." 360 – Forming a complete circle. 48, 72, 96 – In hours, the standard liberty periods of two, four days. 4th Battalion – Pejorative for individual or unit lacking toughness as in "He was trained in 4th Battalion". Derived from the 4th Battalion of the Recruit Training Regiment at MCRD Parris Island, which trains female enlisted Marines. 4th Marine Dimension – Derogatory term for the 4th Marine Division, the division to which the ground combat element of the Marine Forces Reserve is assigned. 5.56 hickey – A scar or blister resulting from a burn suffered due to hot brass. 7 Day Store/Troop Store/Mini P – Convenience store. 782 Gear – Standard issue web gear such as ALICE, MOLLE, or ILBE. So called because the Group section of the National Stock Number for personal field equipment is 782. 8 bells – Signal for the end of a four-hour watch, so named for the increase in bell strike each half-hour of the watch.

8th & I – Nickname for Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. so named from its street address at the corner of 8th and I Streets SE. Aboard – All personnel being accounted for in a building, such as a classroom. Above my/your pay grade – Expression denying responsibility or authority. Acquire/Tactically Acquire – euphemism implying the item in question were obtained either by theft or by otherwise non-traditional or creative methods. Air Crew – Personnel that work on board any aircraft that can carry a crew, are charged with loading gear and manning the door/ tail guns. Air Force pockets or Army gloves – An individual's hands being inside his or her pockets. ALICE – All-purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment, an older form of combat gear still in occasional use in some Marine activities, replaced by MOLLE and ILBEAll Hands – entire ship's company or unit personnel, including all officers and enlisted personnel. Referred to as "Tracks." ANGLICO – Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company Ant Farm – Area of an encampment where the radio antennae are emplaced.

AO -- Area of Operation during a deployment. ARMY – Ain't Ready to be a Marine Yet – backronym pejorative term used for the Army. Arty - Short for Artillery. ASP – Ammunition Supply Point, where ammo is stored and issued. ASVAB waiver – Insinuates someone's inability to pass the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery As You Were – Order to disregard the preceding order Asiatic – World War II term for eccentric behavior characteristic of men serving too long in the Far East At Ease - Command given to subordinate that he no longer needs to stand at attention. Is used as slang as a way to tell someone to chill out or calm down. Aviation Units – See active squadrons, inactive squadrons, & aviation support units HAMS – Headquarters and Maintenance Squadron H&MS HMA – Marine Attack Helicopter Squadron HMH – Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron HMHT – Marine Heavy Helicopter Training Squadron HML – Marine Light Helicopter Squadrons HMLA – Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron HMLAT – Marine Light Attack Helicopter Training Squadron HMM – Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron HMMT – Marine Medium Helicopter Training Squadron HMR – Marine Helicopter Transport Squadron HMT – Marine Helicopter Training Squadron (General designation prior to specific communities HMX-1 – Marine Helicopter Squadron One LAAD Bn – Low-altitude Air Defense Battalion MABS – Marine Air Base Squadron MACG – Marine Air Command Group MACS – Marine Air Control Squadron MAMS – Marine Aircraft Maintenance Squadron MASS – Marine Air Support Squadron MALSMarine Aviation Logistics Squadron MATCS – Marine Air Traffic Control Squadron MCAS – Marine Corps Air Station MOTS – Ma