By contrast, the doctrine is rejected by the Radical Reformers and their followers. Efforts at mutual understanding of the range of beliefs led in the 1980s to consultations on Baptism, Eucharist and these consultations included the Catholic Church. Contrary positions were taken by Paschasius Radbertus and Ratramnus, Ratramnus held that the body of Christ was present spiritually but not physically, while Paschasius emphasized the true presence of the body of Christ. This caused a controversy which led to the clarification of the doctrine of the Eucharist. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council used the word transubstantiated in its profession of faith, scholasticism cast Christian theology in the terms of Aristotelianism. Medieval philosophers who used Aristotelian concepts frequently distinguished between substantial forms and accidental forms, for Aristotle, a substance is an individual thing, which may possess accidental forms as non-essential properties. During the later period, the question was debated within the Western Church. Following the Protestant Reformation, it became a topic of division between the various emerging confessions. The Lutheran doctrine of the presence, known as the Sacramental Union, was formulated in the Augsburg Confession of 1530. Luther decidedly supported the doctrine, publishing The Sacrament of the Body, zwinglis view became associated with the term Memorialism, suggesting an understanding of the Eucharist held purely in memory of Christ. Eastern Orthodoxy did not become involved in the prior to the 17th century. It became virulent in 1629, when Cyril Lucaris denied the doctrine of transubstantiation, to counter the teaching of Lucaris, Metropolitan Petro Mohyla of Kiev drew up in Latin an Orthodox Confession in defense of transubstantiation. This Confession was approved by all the Greek-speaking Patriarchs in 1643, and again by the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem. One hymn of the Church, Ave Verum Corpus, greets Christ in the Eucharist as follows, Hail, true body, born of Mary Virgin, nor does its use in the Orthodox Church commit theologians to the acceptance of Aristotelian philosophical concepts. 10.16,11. 23-29 or the discourse in John 6. 26-58, in light of this fact, it teaches that the gifts should be treated with reverence throughout the entirety of the service. We dont know the time in which the change takes place. The Eastern Orthodox Church Synod of Jerusalem declared, We believe the Lord Jesus Christ to be present, not typically, nor figuratively, nor by superabundant grace, the Lutheran doctrine of the real presence is more accurately and formally known as the Sacramental Union. For Lutherans, there is no Sacrament unless the elements are used according to Christs institution and this was first articulated in the Wittenberg Concord of 1536 in the formula, Nihil habet rationem sacramenti extra usum a Christo institutum
Catholics give adoration to Christ, whom they believe to be really present, in body and blood, soul and divinity, in sacramental bread whose reality has been changed into that of his body.
Chalice displayed after consecration at Mass in Lourdes