A state is a political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly by use of force within a certain geographical territory. Some states are sovereign, other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where supreme authority lies in another state; the term "state" applies to federated states that are members of a federation, in which sovereignty is shared between member states and a federal body. Speakers of American English use the terms "state" and "government" as synonyms, with both words referring to an organized political group that exercises authority over a particular territory. In British and Commonwealth English, "state" is the only term that has that meaning, while "the government" instead refers to the ministers and officials who set the political policy for the territory. Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia; the first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, codification of new forms of religion.
Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence. Today, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state; the word state and its cognates in some other European languages derive from the Latin word status, meaning "condition, circumstances". The English noun state in the generic sense "condition, circumstances" predates the political sense, it is introduced to Middle English c. 1200 both directly from Latin. With the revival of the Roman law in 14th-century Europe, the term came to refer to the legal standing of persons, in particular the special status of the king; the highest estates those with the most wealth and social rank, were those that held power. The word had associations with Roman ideas about the "status rei publicae", the "condition of public matters". In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.
The early 16th-century works of Machiavelli played a central role in popularizing the use of the word "state" in something similar to its modern sense. The contrasting of church and state still dates to the 16th century; the North American colonies were called "states" as early as the 1630s. The expression L'Etat, c'est moi attributed to Louis XIV of France is apocryphal, recorded in the late 18th century. There is no academic consensus on the most appropriate definition of the state; the term "state" refers to a set of different, but interrelated and overlapping, theories about a certain range of political phenomena. The act of defining the term can be seen as part of an ideological conflict, because different definitions lead to different theories of state function, as a result validate different political strategies. According to Jeffrey and Painter, "if we define the'essence' of the state in one place or era, we are liable to find that in another time or space something, understood to be a state has different'essential' characteristics".
Different definitions of the state place an emphasis either on the ‘means’ or the ‘ends’ of states. Means-related definitions include those by Max Weber and Charles Tilly, both of whom define the state according to its violent means. For Weber, the state "is a human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”, while Tilly characterises them as "coercion-wielding organisations". Ends-related definitions emphasis instead the teleological aims and purposes of the state. Marxist thought regards the ends of the state as being the perpetuation of class domination in favour of the ruling class which, under the capitalist mode of production, is the bourgeoisie; the state exists to defend the ruling class's claims to private property and its capturing of surplus profits at the expense of the proletariat. Indeed, Marx claimed that "the executive of the modern state is nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie".
Liberal thought provides another possible teleology of the state. According to John Locke, the goal of the state/commonwealth was "the preservation of property", with'property' in Locke's work referring not only to personal possessions but to one's life and liberty. On this account, the state provides the basis for social cohesion and productivity, creating incentives for wealth creation by providing guarantees of protection for one's life and personal property. Jinnah favoured a state with the least functions, he was of the opinion that until society becomes self-regulative and self-evolving and until the individual becomes perfect, the state, so long, would be necessary. The most used definition is Max Weber's, which describes the state as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory. General categories of state institutions include administrative bureaucracies, legal systems, military or religious organizations.
Another accepted definition of the state is the one given at the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States in 1933. It provides that "he state as a person of i
Senate of Finland
The Senate of Finland combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1816 to 1917 and in the independent Republic of Finland from 1917 to 1918. The body that would become the Senate was established in 1809, when Tsar Alexander I of Russia summoned the Diet of Porvoo and directed the Diet to draw up regulations for a Government Council. In 1816, Alexander renamed this body the Senate to demonstrate that it was equal to rather than inferior to its Russian equivalent; the Senate was headed by the Governor-General of Finland. The members of the Senate had to be Finnish citizens; the Senate was divided into the judicial division. In 1822 both divisions were given a Finnish vice-chairman. From 1858 and onwards the members of the senate were formally known as senators. After the February Revolution in Russia the Vice Chairman of the Economic Division became the Chairman of the Senate. Due to the Civil War in 1918 the Senate was relocated to the town of Vaasa from January 29 to May 3.
In 1918 the economic division became the Cabinet and the judicial division became the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court of the independent Republic of Finland. The vice chairman of the economic division became the Prime Minister of Finland, the other senators became ministers. Carl Erik Mannerheim, Samuel Fredrik von Born, Anders Henrik Falck, Gustaf Hjärne, Lars Gabriel von Haartman, Johan Mauritz Nordenstam, Edvard Gustaf af Forselles, Samuli Verneri von Troil, Sten Carl Tudeer, Constantin Linder, Emil Streng, Leopold Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin, Edvard Immanuel Hjelt, August Johannes Hjelt, Anders Wirenius, Vladimir Ivanovich Markov, Mikhail Borovitinov, Anders Wirenius, Antti Oskari Tokoi, Social Democratic Party Eemil Nestor Setälä, Young Finnish Party Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Young Finnish Party Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Finnish Party Diet of Finland Governor-General of Finland List of Prime Ministers of Finland
A monarchy is a form of government in which a single person holds supreme authority in ruling a country performing ceremonial duties and embodying the country's national identity. Although some monarchs are elected, in most cases, the monarch's position is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In these cases, the royal family or members of the dynasty serve in official capacities as well; the governing power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to autocratic. Monarchy was the most common form of government until the 20th century. Forty-five sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads of state, sixteen of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. Most modern monarchs are constitutional monarchs, who retain a unique legal and ceremonial role, but exercise limited or no political power under the nation's constitution. In some nations, such as Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Eswatini, the hereditary monarch has more political influence than any other single source of authority in the nation, either by tradition or by a constitutional mandate.
The word "monarch" comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are quite rare; the form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric. The Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus; the monarch in classical antiquity is identified as "king" or "ruler" or as "queen". From earliest historical times, with the Egyptian and Mesopotamian monarchs, as well as in reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion, the king held sacral functions directly connected to sacrifice, or was considered by their people to have divine ancestry; the role of the Roman emperor as the protector of Christianity was conflated with the sacral aspects held by the Germanic kings to create the notion of the "divine right of kings" in the Christian Middle Ages. The Chinese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period.
Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, some monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Rome, Athens. In Germanic antiquity, kingship was a sacral function, the king was directly hereditary for some tribes, while for others he was elected from among eligible members of royal families by the thing; such ancient "parliamentarism" declined during the European Middle Ages, but it survived in forms of regional assemblies, such as the Icelandic Commonwealth, the Swiss Landsgemeinde and Tagsatzung, the High Medieval communal movement linked to the rise of medieval town privileges. The modern resurgence of parliamentarism and anti-monarchism began with the temporary overthrow of the English monarchy by the Parliament of England in 1649, followed by the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789. One of many opponents of that trend was Elizabeth Dawbarn, whose anonymous Dialogue between Clara Neville and Louisa Mills, on Loyalty features "silly Louisa, who admires liberty, Tom Paine and the USA, lectured by Clara on God's approval of monarchy" and on the influence women can exert on men.
Much of 19th-century politics featured a division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics in the wake of either World War I, World War II, the Palestine War, or the Cold War. Advocacy of republics is called republicanism. In the modern era, monarchies are more prevalent in small states than in large ones. Monarchies are associated with political or sociocultural hereditary reign, in which monarchs reign for life and the responsibilities and power of the position pass to their child or another member of their family when they die. Most monarchs, both and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family, future monarchs are trained for their expected future responsibilities as monarch. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs have reigned in history.
Rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy: there have been some family dictatorships, some political families in many democracies. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of leadership; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected, or appointed by some body for life or a defined period, but once appointed they serve as any other monarch. Four elective monarchies exist today: Cambodia, Malaysia and th
Instrument of Government (1772)
Sweden's Constitution of 1772 took effect through a bloodless coup d'état, the Revolution of 1772, carried out by King Gustav III, who had become king in 1771. It established once again a division of power between the king; the period came to be known as the Gustavian era. This was a response to a perceived harm wrought upon Sweden by a half-century of parliamentarism during the country's Age of Liberty practiced according to the Instrument of Government, as many members of the Swedish parliament used to be bribed by foreign powers; the 1772 Constitution was inspired by the current Enlightenment ideas of separation of powers by Montesquieu, but based on earlier traditions in Sweden from the era of King Gustav II Adolf, two of the offices of the ancient Great Officers of the Realm were revived. King Gustav III cherished other Enlightenment ideas and repealed torture, liberated agricultural trade, diminished the use of death penalty etc; the somewhat Freedom of the Press Act of 1774, a part of the constitutional law and edited by Gustav III, was commended by Voltaire.
The earlier first Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was repealed by the Constitution in 1772. The outcome of the constitution and its deliberately vague formulations attributable to it being written in haste, was however a more or less authoritarian political system more weighted in favour of the King's power. In 1789 it was amended in a still more autocratic direction by the Security Act. Formally, the 1772 Constitution was adopted by the Parliament on 21 August 1772, but this took place as members of the Parliament and the Privy Council were under threat by the royal garrison on order by King Gustav III outside of Stockholm Palace, where the Parliament and Privy Council were assembled in different parts of the palace. Leading members of the Caps party who sat in the Privy Council were arrested, as they were locked up in the Privy Council Room and released shortly after the adoption of the constitution; the 1772 Constitution replaced the Swedish Constitution of 1720 and was in turn replaced by the 1809 Instrument of Government following the defeat in the Finnish War and the removal of King Gustav IV Adolf from the throne.
The content of the Constitution was the following: The king governed the civil service and Parliaments were assembled only at the king's will when the king had to raise taxes and legislate. An offensive war had to be approved by Parliament and new taxation; the Privy Council's justice department, functioned as a independent Supreme Court. The Privy Council did not however function so much as a political institution as in the Age of Liberty, in these matters the king could put it aside and listen to other advisors and councillors as the king often did; the king however, had to listen to the advice of the Privy Council in cases concerning treaties about peace and alliances with foreign powers and visits to other countries. In these cases the Council could veto the king, if all members of the Council shared this view unanimously. In the Grand Duchy of Finland, created in 1809 from the eastern third of Sweden as part of the Russian Empire, the 1772 Constitution had a peculiar status. While the Russian Tsars, reigning in Finland as Grand Dukes, never gave any indication that they considered their autocratic powers limited by any constitution, a theory was developed in Finland that the old Instrument of Government remained in force, mutatis mutandum, with Finland's position as part of the Empire having the nature of a personal union.
This theory was, never put forward and never accepted in St. Petersburg, it did gain considerable popular currency in Finland, so that Russification measures instituted from the 1890s onwards were decried as an "unconstitutional" assault on the country's autonomy. The "Constitutionals" were an important political faction in Finland at this time, their legacy of constitutional legalism has had a significant effect on Finnish politics; the matter remained uncontested and arguably unresolved for more than a century, but after the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917, the Parliament of Finland, as successor to the old Estates of the Realm, moved to assume sovereign power in Finland, based on the old Swedish provisions in case of a vacancy on the throne. This led to a power struggle with the Provisional Government of Russia, as well as within Finland, after the October revolution, in the Finnish declaration of independence; the Instrument of Government was superseded when Finland adopted a republican form of government in 1919.
Gustav III Constitution of Sweden Constitution of Finland Diet of Porvoo Russification of Finland Corsican Constitution Walhalla-orden Text of the Constitution
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two; the ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. The term was coined by German jurist Johann Stephan Pütter, introducing it into Elementa iuris publici germanici of 1760. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, they can be codified or non-codified, in which case they can be broken. The Commonwealth realms are independent states; because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the President of France being a co-prince of Andorra.
In 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was elected as the president of Transvaal and Orange Free State and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the Transvaal Civil War. Though France is now a republic with a president and not a monarchy, it has been in personal union with the neighboring nominal monarchy of Andorra since 1278. Personal union with Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Personal union with Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. Personal union with Austrian Netherlands. Personal union with Spanish Empire. Personal union with Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily, Duchy of Parma and Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Personal union with Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Duchy of Bukovina, New Galicia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Personal union with Poland 1003–1004 Personal union with Poland 1300–1306 and Hungary 1301–1305 Personal union with Luxembourg 1313–1378 and 1383–1388 Personal union with Hungary 1419–1439 and 1490–1526 Personal union with Austria and Hungary 1526–1918 Personal union with the Principality of Ansbach from 1415–1440 and 1470–1486.
Personal union with the Duchy of Prussia from 1618, when Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, died without male heirs and his son-in-law John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, became ruler of both countries. Brandenburg and Prussia maintained separate governments and seats of power in Berlin and Königsberg until 1701, when Frederick I consolidated them into one government. Personal union with Portugal, under Maria I of Portugal and John VI of Portugal, from 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822. Maria was the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves from 1777 to 1815, when Brazil, a Portuguese colony, was ranked Kingdom inside the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, she was succeeded by her older son and Regent in her name since 1792, who become King John VI. He reigned over Brazil until the dissolution of the United Kingdom with the Independence of Brazil. Personal union with Portugal, under Pedro I of Brazil, from 10 March to 28 May 1826. Pedro was the Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor.
When his father died, Pedro became King of Portugal, but abdicated the Portuguese throne 79 days in favour of his older child Princess Maria da Glória. Personal union with Belgium from 1885 to 1908, when the Congo Free State became a Belgian colony; the only sovereign during this period was Leopold II, who continued as king of Belgium until his death a year in 1909. Personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary 1102–1918 In 1102, after a period of succession crisis following the death of King Demetrius Zvonimir, the Kingdom of Croatia entered a union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102; the crown passed into the hands of the Árpád dynasty with the crowning of King Coloman of Hungary with the Croatian crown as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the ban. In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their titles; some of the terms of Coloman's coronation are summarized in Pacta Conventa by which the Croatian nobles agreed to recognise Coloman as king.
Although it is not an authentic document from 1102 and is a forgery from the 14th century, the contents of the Pacta Conventa correspond to the political situation of that time in Croatia. The precise terms of the union between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century; the nature of the relat
Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, which continued to exist until Poland regained independence in 1918. Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years; the territory, with its native population, was split between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire. An equivalent to Congress Poland within the Austrian Empire was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria commonly referred to as "Austrian Poland"; the area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was a province within Prussia - the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland enjoyed considerable political autonomy as guaranteed by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors disregarded any restrictions on their power, it was, little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, divided into guberniya, thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. The capital was located in Warsaw, which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow; the moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,402,253 inhabitants in 1897. It was composed of Poles, Polish Jews, ethnic Germans and an insignificant Russian minority; the predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the January Uprising when Russian became co-official. Yiddish and German were spoken by its native speakers.
The territory of Congress Poland corresponds to modern-day Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian and Holy Cross Voivodeships of Poland as well as southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus. Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland"; the Kingdom of Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory, partitioned by Russia and Prussia replacing, after Napoleon's defeat, the Duchy of Warsaw, set up by Napoleon in 1807. After Napoleon's 1812 defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia. Prussia insisted on the Duchy being eliminated, but after Russian troops reached Paris in 1812, Tsar Alexander I intended to annex to the Duchy the Lithuanian-Belarusian lands, now controlled by the Tsardom, which used to be a part of the First Polish Republic and to unite thus created Polish country with Russia.
Both Austria and England did not approve of that idea, Austria issuing a memorandum on returning to the 1795 resolutions, this idea supported by England under George IV and Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson and the English delegate to the Congress, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, so in effect the Tsar, after the so-called Hundred Days, established the Kingdom of Poland and the 1815 Congress of Vienna approved. After the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, forced military service, the closure of their own universities; the Congress was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be named for it. The Kingdom lost its status as a sovereign state in 1831 and the administrative divisions were reorganized, it was sufficiently distinct that its name remained in official Russian use, although in the years of Russian rule it was replaced with the Privislinsky Krai.
Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more integrated with the Russian Empire. However after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during World War I; the Kingdom had an area of 128,500 km2 and a population of 3.3 million. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of 10 million and an area of 1 million km2, its population reached 6.1 million by 1870 and 10 million by 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, although some areas outside it contained a Polish majority; the Kingdom of Poland re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the Polish King. His title as chief of Poland in Russian, was Tsar, similar to usage in