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Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft

The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft called the Pauly–Wissowa or RE, or PW, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. With its supplements it comprises over eighty volumes; the RE is a complete revision of an older series of which the first volume was published by August Pauly in 1839. Pauly died in 1845, his work unfinished; this first edition comprised six volumes. A second edition of the first volume was worked on from 1861 to 1866. In 1890 Georg Wissowa started on the more ambitious edition, he expected it to be done in 10 years, but the last of its 83 volumes did not appear until 1978, the index volume came out in 1980. Each article was written by a recognized specialist in the relevant field, but unsurprisingly for a work spanning three generations, the underlying assumptions vary radically with the age of the article. Many early biographies for instance were written by Elimar Klebs, Paul von Rohden, Friedrich Münzer and Otto Seeck; the price and size of Pauly–Wissowa have always been daunting, so between 1964 and 1975 the J. B.

Metzler'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung put out Der Kleine Pauly in five volumes. An updated version called Der Neue Pauly, consisting of 18 volumes and an index, appeared from 1996 to 2003. Between 2004 and 2012 seven supplement volumes appeared. An English edition, Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World was published between 2002 and 2014 in 28 volumes; the index to Pauly–Wissowa is available on CD-ROM. Apopudobalia Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et Romaines Lexicon Universale August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, Wilhelm Kroll, Kurt Witte, Karl Mittelhaus, Konrat Ziegler, eds. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft: neue Bearbeitung, Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894–1980. Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, eds. Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike. Das klassische Altertum und seine Rezeptionsgeschichte, Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 2003, 11611 pages. ISBN 3-476-01470-3. Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, Manfred Landfester, Christine F. Salazar, eds.

Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, Brill Publishers, 2006. ISBN 90-04-12259-1. RE at German Wikisource J. B. Metzler Verlag: info about Der Neue Pauly Internet Archive: many of the earlier volumes can be found online here Volumes of the old Pauly English translations of some RE articles


Hażlach is a village and the seat of Gmina Hażlach in Cieszyn County in Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 2,460; the name of the village is of topographic Austro-Bavarian origins. The village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia, it was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Hesleth debent esse viginti mansi.. It meant; the creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in the late 13th century on the territory of what would be known as Upper Silesia. The name of the village, of Austro-Bavarian origin, may indicate that the initial settlers were ethnic Germans fully polonised. Politically the village belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of the Silesian Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

The village became a seat of a Catholic parish, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among the 50 parishes of Teschen deanery as Hazelach. After the 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans, it was taken from them in the region by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 18 April 1654. After the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 1,248 in 1880 to 1,342 in 1910 with the growing majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by a dwindling German-speaking minority. In terms of religion in 1910 majority were Roman Catholics, followed by Protestants and 8 Jews; the village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.

After World War I, the fall of Austria-Hungary, the Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Poland. It was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Poland. Hażlach lies in the southern part of Poland, 6 km north-east of the county seat, Cieszyn, 28 km west of Bielsko-Biała, 60 km south-west of the regional capital Katowice, 5 km east of the border with the Czech Republic; the village is situated on the geographical border between Silesian Foothills in the south and Ostrava Basin in the north, between 270–330 m above sea level, 15 km north-west of the Silesian Beskids. Piotrówka, right tributary of the Olza in the watershed of Odra, flows through the village. 700 lat Hażlacha i Kończyc Wielkich. Hażlach, Kończyce Wielkie: Gmina Hażlach. 2005. ISBN 83-922804-0-7. Official Gmina Hażlach website


Tmutarakan was a medieval Kievan Rus' principality and trading town that controlled the Cimmerian Bosporus, the passage from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov, between the late 10th and 11th centuries. Its site was the ancient Greek colony of Hermonassa founded in the mid 6th century BCE, by Mytilene, situated on the Taman peninsula, in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia opposite Kerch; the Khazar fortress of Tamantarkhan was built on the site in the 7th century, became known as Tmutarakan when it came under Kievan Rus control. The Greek colony of Hermonassa was located a few miles west of Phanagoria and Panticapaeum, major trade centers for what was to become the Bosporan Kingdom; the city was founded in the mid-6th century BCE by Mytilene, although there is evidence of others taking part in the enterprise, including Cretans. The city flourished for some centuries and many ancient buildings and streets have been excavated from this period, as well as a hoard of 4th century golden coins.

Hermonassa was a centre of the Bosporan cult of Aphrodite and in the early centuries CE was trading with the Alans. There is archaeological evidence of extensive replanning and construction in the 2nd century CE. After a long period as a Roman client state, the Bosporan kingdom succumbed to the Huns, who defeated the nearby Alans in 375/376. With the collapse of the Hunnic Empire in the late 5th century, the area passed within the Roman sphere once again but was taken by the Bulgars in the 6th century. Following the fall of the city to the Khazars in the late 7th century, it was rebuilt as a fortress town and renamed Tamatarkha. Arabic sources refer to it as Samkarsh al-Yahud in reference to the fact that the bulk of the trading there was handled by Jews. Other variants of the city's name are "Samkersh" and "Samkush". Fortified with a strong brick wall and boasting a fine harbor, Tamatarkha was a large city of merchants, it controlled much of the Northern European trade with Northern Caucasus.

There were trade routes leading south-east to Armenia and the Muslim domains, as well as others connecting with the Silk Road to the east. The inhabitants included Greeks, Russians, Ossetians, Lezgins and Circassians. After the destruction of the Khazar empire by Sviatoslav I of Kiev in the mid-10th century, Khazars continued to inhabit the region; the Mandgelis Document, a Hebrew letter dated AM 4746 refers to "our lord David, the Khazar prince" who lived in Taman and, visited by envoys from Kievan Rus to ask about religious matters. Although the exact date and circumstances of Tmutarakan's takeover by Kievan Rus are uncertain, the Hypatian Codex mentions Tmutarakan as one of the towns that Vladimir the Great gave to his sons, which implies that Rus control over the city was established in the late 10th century and before Vladimir's death in 1015. Bronze and silver imitations of Byzantine coinage were struck by the new rulers during this period. Vladimir's son Mstislav of Chernigov was the prince of Tmutarakan at the start of the 11th century.

During his reign, a first stone church was dedicated to the Mother of God. The excavated site suggests that it was built by Byzantine workmen and has similarities with the church Mstislav went on to commission in Chernigov. After his death, he was followed by a succession of short-lived petty dynasts. Gleb Svyatoslavich was given command of the city by his father, Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, but in 1064 he was displaced by the rival Rus prince Rostislav Vladimirovich who in his turn was forced to flee the city when Gleb approached with an army led by his father. Once Svyatoslav left, Rostislav expelled Gleb once again. During his brief rule, he subdued the local Circassians and other indigenous tribes, but his success provoked the suspicion of neighboring Greek Chersonesos in the Crimea, whose Byzantine envoy poisoned him on 3 February 1066. Afterwards command of Tmutarakan returned to the prince of Chernigov and to the Grand Prince of Kiev, Vsevolod Yaroslavich. In 1079, Svyatoslav Yaroslavich appointed a governor, but he was captured two years by David Igorevich and Volodar Rostislavich, who seized the city.

Exiled from the city to Byzantium by Khazar agents during this turbulent time, Oleg Svyatoslavich returned to Tmutarakan in 1083 and ousted the usurpers, adopting the title of "archon of Khazaria", placed the city under nominal Byzantine control. But he issued rough silver coins in his own name which included a short inscription in Cyrillic letters. In 1094, like Mstislav before him, he returned to Rus to claim the throne of Chernigov. Byzantine interest in the city was maintained through this succession of client rulers, thereafter by more direct rule for a while, for an important reason. There were naphtha deposits in the area and this was a vital ingredient of their main tactical weapon, Greek Fire. Up until the end of the 12th century the imperial authorities were forbidding their Genoese trading partners access to the city known to them as Matracha. In the 13th century the city passed to the Empire of Trebizond, its last recorded mention was in a scroll of 1378. The region fell under Genoese control in the 14th century and formed part of the protectorate of Gazaria, based at Kaffa.

It was within the territory administered by the Ghisolfi family and was conquered by the Crimean Khanate in 1482 and by Russia in 1791. A possible remaining Khazar connection is suggested by mention of “Jewish princes” in Tamatarkha under both Genoese and Tatar rule. Th

Covers 2 (Show of Hands album)

Covers 2 is the fourteenth studio album by British folk duo Show of Hands. An official collaboration with double bassist and vocalist Miranda Sykes, the duo's unofficial third member for six years, it is the duo's second album of cover versions, following Covers; the album was intended for "friends and fans" of the duo, an attempt to record songs that the duo had played live for some time. The album was produced by Mark Tucker and recorded as a "straightforward" recording with little overdubs or extra production work; the album was released in mid-November 2010 as a limited-edition album to be sold from the duo's Autumn tour that promoted the album, was released for a short time on the duo's website. As such, the album was not released as a download; the album was a critical success, with Spiral Earth commending it as "the sound of one of the finest duos in English roots music having a blast". In 2009, Show of Hands released their fourteenth studio album Arrogance Ignorance and Greed, produced by Stu Hanna of the English folk duo Megson, with additional production by Mark Tucker.

The album followed a painfully emotion period for Steve Knightley where members of his family battled serious illnesses, which led to the album becoming personal and darker than previous Show of Hands albums, aided by Hanna's direct and sharp production. The album was very politically concerned; the album was released to a positive critical reception, many praising the darker tone to the album, although Phil Beer of the duo stated that the album did not sit well with several fans. The album entered the UK Album Chart at number 170. In 2010, the duo performed a live cover version of Don Henley's hit "The Boys of Summer" on the Radcliffe & Maconie show on BBC Radio 6 Music; the performance was acclaimed and prompted the duo to record an album of cover versions, their second after Covers, or third including the traditional folk music release Folk Music. Covers was recorded as a "straightforward" album without any multitracking or overdubs, whilst Folk Music was only released as a limited edition album for the duo's fan club mailing order and at the band's live performances for a short time.

Thus, they decided. The duo named the album set for a mid-November release; the duo said the album was recorded for "friends and fans only". The album contains twelve cover versions and one original track and is intended as a sequel to the band's earlier album Covers, it was recorded over seven days in three sessions at Riverside Studios, Exeter, in October 2010. The album was engineered by the duo's regular producer and engineer Mark Tucker. Whilst the duo's previous two albums featured Miranda Sykes as a large guest contributor, Covers 2 is presented as a collaboration album between the duo and her; the album intentionally stays "very close" to the duo's live sound of the duo and Sykes, to achieve this, minimal overdubs and few production changes were made to the album. This follows in the footsteps of Covers, which featured no overdubs or production changes at all, whilst UK Folk Music opted not to refer to the album as folk music but rather acoustic music. Spiral Earth observed that some of the cover versions were played at the band's live gigs over the previous couple of years, that "recording them is the right thing to do as they have gone beyond the status of filler material and their versions are something special."

They noted that, as the duo "often bring cover versions into their live sets to great audience approval, collecting them together on an album is a great chance to hear those moments that otherwise would be lost." The BBC said the album contained "favourite songs" that exemplify Knightley's admiration or "great pop writers", whilst Bradley Torreano of Allmusic noted the album's "diverse repertoire." Both members of the duo, Steve Knightley and Phil Beer, sing lead vocals across the album. The album opens with a cover of Richard Shindell's "You Stay Here", featuring Syke's "brooding bowed double bass that resonates chillingly beneath Steve's anguished vocals"; the cover of Mark Knopfler's "Tunnel of Love" is "transformed into something different", whilst the cover of Tom Robinson"2-4-6-8 Motorway" was described as a "blast" showing the duo "imbue King of El Paso with more Texas menace than a couple of Devon boys have any right to." Their cover of Peter Gabriel's "Secret World", which Gabriel had composed for his album Us, was recorded and released by Show of Hands for their previous album Arrogance Ignorance and Greed, before being re-recorded for Covers 2.

The album contains an acoustic re-recording of the title track from Arrogance Ignorance and Greed, with its name changed to "AIG 2" and subtitled "The'Lite' Version". The song is the only song on the album, not a cover version, instead being a Knightley composition; the duo said to reflect that the album was recorded for "friends and fans only", it would only be sold at the duo's gigs and by mail order, would not be available through shops or as a download. This follows in the footsteps of their previous album Folk Music, only released in that way; the duo began a small tour in promotion of Covers 2 in November–December 2010 under the unofficial name of "the Autumn tour", which began on 17 November with a performance at Salisbury. The album was first made available when the duo sold the album at the performances, they would sign copies at each performance. After the inaugural Salisbury performance, copies were dispatched to those who had pre-ordered the album on the duo's website; the duo's own record


Opodeldoc is a medical plaster or liniment invented, or at least named, by the German Renaissance physician Paracelsus in the 1500s. In modern form opodeldoc is a mixture of soap in alcohol, to which camphor and sometimes a number of herbal essences, most notably wormwood, are added. In his Bertheonea Sive Chirurgia Minor published in 1603, Paracelsus mentioned "oppodeltoch" twice, but with uncertain ingredients; as to the origin of the name, Kurt Peters speculated that it was coined by Paracelsus from syllables from the words "opoponax and aristolochia." Opoponax is a variety of myrrh. The name suggests. In his Medicina Militaris of 1620, German military physician Raymund Minderer praised the Paracelsus compound as a plaster, good for wounds. Minderer compared it to his own variant. Opodeldoc and Paracelsus were acknowledged in English no than 1646, in Sir Thomas Browne's popular and influential Pseudodoxia Epidemica. Paracelsus's recipe is unrelated to preparations of the same name. By the second printing of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia in 1722 the name applied to a soap-based liniment.

Such a liniment in patent form, sold by John Newbery's company in Great Britain "ever since A. D. 1786", was called "Dr. Steer's Opodeldoc". Produced for decades, the "Dr. Steer" preparation had been imported into the U. S. and was common enough there to rank as one of the eight patent medicines to be analyzed by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1824. The name Old Opodeldoc was used as a standard name for a stock character, a physician when played as a comic figure. Edgar Allan Poe used "Oppodeldoc" as a pseudonym for a character in the short story "The Literary Life of Thingum Bob, Esq." The Pharmacopoeia of the United States gives a recipe for opodeldoc that contains: Powdered soap, 60 grams.

Ivan Šola

Ivan Šola is a Croatian bobsledder who has competed since 1999. Competing in three Winter Olympics, he earned his best finish of 20th in the four-man event at Vancouver in 2010. Šola competed in the FIBT World Championships, earning his best finish of 24th in the four-man event at Calgary in 2005. Prior to his bobsleigh career, Šola was a multiple Croatian champion in motorcycle racing. In 2003 Šola competed in Formula 2000 speedboat races; as of 2002, he was an owner of a driving school. In 2007 he was elected member of the board of the Croatian Motorcycling Federation; as of 2011, Šola is the president of the Croatian Skeleton Federation. Ivan Sola at the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation Ivan Sola profile at "Ivan Sola: Yahoo! Sports profile for the 2006 Winter Olympics". Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown