Atlantic Recording Corporation is an American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding, its position was improved by its distribution deal with Stax. In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, expanded into rock and pop music with releases by Led Zeppelin and Yes. In 2004, Atlantic and its sister label. Craig Kallman is the chairman of Atlantic. Ahmet Ertegün served as founding chairman until his death on December 14, 2006, at age 83. In 1944, brothers Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun remained in the United States when their mother and sister returned to Turkey after the death of their father Munir Ertegun, Turkey's first ambassador to the U. S; the brothers were fans of jazz and rhythm & blues, amassing a collection of over 15,000 78 RPM records.
Ahmet ostensibly stayed in Washington to undertake post-graduate music studies at Georgetown University but immersed himself in the Washington music scene and entered the record business, enjoying a resurgence after wartime restrictions on the shellac used in manufacture. He convinced the family dentist, Dr. Vahdi Sabit, to invest $10,000 and hired Herb Abramson, a dentistry student. Abramson had worked as a part-time A&R manager/producer for the jazz label National Records, signing Big Joe Turner and Billy Eckstine, he had no interest in its most successful musicians. In September 1947, he sold his share in Jubilee to his partner, Jerry Blaine, invested $2,500 in Atlantic. Atlantic was run by Abramson and Ertegun. Abramson's wife Miriam ran the label's publishing company, Progressive Music, did most office duties until 1949 when Atlantic hired its first employee, bookkeeper Francine Wakschal, who remained with the label for the next 49 years. Miriam gained a reputation for toughness. Staff engineer Tom Dowd recalled, "Tokyo Rose was the kindest name some people had for her" and Doc Pomus described her as "an extraordinarily vitriolic woman".
When interviewed in 2009, she attributed her reputation to the company's chronic cash-flow shortage: "... most of the problems we had with artists were that they wanted advances, and, difficult for us... we were undercapitalized for a long time." The label's office in the Ritz Hotel in Manhattan proved too expensive, so they moved to a room in the Hotel Jefferson. In the early fifties, Atlantic moved from the Hotel Jefferson to offices at 301 West 54th St and to 356 West 56th St. Atlantic's first recordings were issued in late January 1948 and included "That Old Black Magic" by Tiny Grimes and "The Spider" by Joe Morris. In its early years, Atlantic concentrated on modern jazz although it released some country and western and spoken word recordings. Abramson produced "Magic Records", children's records with four grooves on each side, each groove containing a different story, so the story played would be determined by the groove in which the stylus happened to land. In late 1947, James Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians, announced an indefinite ban on all recording activities by union musicians, this came into effect on January 1, 1948.
The union action forced Atlantic to use all its capital to cut and stockpile enough recordings to last through the ban, expected to continue for at least a year. Ertegun and Abramson spent much of the late 1940s and early 1950s scouring nightclubs in search of talent. Ertegun composed songs under the alias "A. Nugetre", including Big Joe Turner's hit "Chains of Love", recording them in booths in Times Square giving them to an arranger or session musician. Early releases included music by Sidney Bechet, Barney Bigard, The Cardinals, The Clovers, Frank Culley, The Delta Rhythm Boys, Erroll Garner, Dizzy Gillespie, Tiny Grimes, Al Hibbler, Earl Hines, Johnny Hodges, Jackie & Roy, Lead Belly, Meade Lux Lewis, Professor Longhair, Shelly Manne, Howard McGhee, Mabel Mercer, James Moody, Joe Morris, Art Pepper, Django Reinhardt, Pete Rugolo, Pee Wee Russell, Bobby Short, Sylvia Syms, Billy Taylor, Sonny Terry, Big Joe Turner, Jimmy Yancey, Sarah Vaughan, Mal Waldron, Mary Lou Williams. In early 1949, a New Orleans distributor phoned Ertegun to obtain Stick McGhee's "Drinking Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee", unavailable due to the closing of McGhee's previous label.
Ertegun knew Stick's younger brother Brownie McGhee, with whom Stick happened to be staying, so he contacted the McGhee brothers and re-recorded the song. When released in February 1949, it became Atlantic's first hit, selling 400,000 copies, reached No. 2 after spending six months on the Billboard R&B chart – although McGhee himself earned just $10 for the session. Atlantic's fortunes rose rapidly: recorded 187 songs were recorded in 1949, more than three times the amount from the previous two years, received overtures for a manufacturing and distribution deal with Columbia, which would pay Atlantic a 3% royalty on every copy sold. Ertegun asked about artists' royalties, which he paid, this surprised Columbia executives, who did not, the deal was scuttled. On the recommendation of broadcaster Willis Conover and Abramson visited Ruth Brown at the Crystal Caverns club in Washington and invited her to audition for Atlantic, she was injured in a car accident en route to New York City, but Atlantic supported her for nine months and signed her.
Vibe is an American music and entertainment magazine founded by producer Quincy Jones. The publication predominantly features R&B and hip hop music artists and other entertainers. After shutting down production in Summer 2009, Vibe was purchased by the private equity investment fund InterMedia Partners and is now issued bi-monthly with double covers, with a larger online presence; the magazine's target demographic is predominantly urban followers of hip hop culture. In 2014, the magazine moved online-only; the magazine owed its success to featuring a broader range of interests than its closest competitors The Source and XXL which focus more narrowly on rap music, or the rock and pop-centric Rolling Stone and Spin. Quincy Jones launched Vibe in 1993, in partnership with Time Inc; the publication had been called Volume before co-founding editor, Scott Poulson-Bryant gave it the name Vibe. Though hip hop mogul Russell Simmons was rumored to be an initial partner, publisher Len Burnett revealed in a March 2007 interview that Simmons clashed with editor-in-chief Jonathan Van Meter.
Miller Publishing bought Vibe in 1996, shortly afterward bought Spin. Private equity firm, Wicks Group, bought the magazine in 2006. Jonathan Van Meter's successors were Alan Light, Danyel Smith, Emil Wilbikin, Mimi Valdes, Danyel Smith again. On June 30, 2009, it was announced that Vibe was shutting its doors and ceasing publication although according to Essence, Quincy Jones has stated he would like to keep it alive online. After shutting down, private equity investment fund InterMedia Partners bought Vibe magazine, they added Uptown magazine to Vibe Holdings. Ronald Burkle and Magic Johnson invested in the company. Vibe Holdings merged with BlackBook Media to form Vibe Media in 2012. On April 25, 2013 it was announced that Vibe magazine along with vibe.com and vibevixen.com had been sold to Spin Media for an undisclosed sum. Spin Media was thought to shut down Vibe's print magazine by the end of 2013, which a representative stating: "We're still trying to find a print model that makes economic sense in the digital age."
Instead, they cut the magazine's frequency to quarterly. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. Vibe magazine was known for the creative direction of their covers. R&B singer Mary J. Blige made the cover of Vibe, with countless articles following her career. Trio TLC were photographed for the cover in firefighters' gear, referencing the fact that member Lisa Lopes burned down the house of then-boyfriend and NFL star Andre Rison; the first non-photograph cover of Vibe was an illustration of late singer Aaliyah by well-known artist/illustrator Alvaro. Other famous cover subjects are, Trey Songz, Snoop Dogg, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Jennifer Lopez, Keyshia Cole, Janet Jackson, Lil Wayne, The Fugees, Eminem, T. I. R. Kelly, Michael Jackson, who appeared on the cover numerous times and rap legend Tupac Shakur's famous cover story in which he reveals important details about his non-fatal 1994 NYC shooting. Electro-rapper Kesha made Vibe history when she appeared on the cover in October 2012, earning her the honor of being the first white female artist to appear on the cover as a solo act.
Featured segments included the back page list 20 Questions, the Boomshots column about reggae and Caribbean music by Rob Kenner. The magazine devoted several pages to photo spreads displaying high-end designer clothing as well as sportswear by urban labels such as Rocawear and Fubu. Vibe made a consistent effort to feature models of all ethnicities in these pages. Former editor Emil Wilbikin was credited with styling those pages and keeping fashion in the forefront of the magazine's identity during the early 2000s. Many clothing brands created or linked to hip hop celebrities, such as Sean Combs' Sean John, Nelly's Apple Bottoms, G-Unit by 50 Cent found plenty of exposure in Vibe's pages. In the September 2003 issue commemorating ten years of publication, the magazine created different covers using black and white portraits of its most popular cover subjects, it contained "The Vibe 100: The Juiciest People and Things of the Year". Many successful writers and editors contributed to the publication, including Alan Light, Jeff Chang, Dream Hampton, Cheo Hodari Coker, Kevin Powell, Erica Kennedy, Sacha Jenkins, Noah Callahan-Bever and Miles Marshall Lewis.
Mark Shaw was the magazine's art director. In addition to the magazine, Vibe publishes books on hip hop culture. To celebrate the magazine's tenth anniversary, it published VX: Ten Years of Vibe Photography, which featured a bare-chested 50 Cent on the cover; the volume includes photos of Alicia Keys, RZA from the Wu-Tang Clan, Chuck D of Public Enemy, Run-D. M. C. Works by prominent photographers Albert Watson, Ellen von Unwerth, David LaChapelle, Sante D'Orazio are among the 150 photographs in the hardcover edition. Other books published under the Vibe banner cover the history of hip hop, the women of hip hop, rappers Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B. I. G. Additionally, the magazine published a spin-off publication, Vibe Vixen, from 2004 to 2007. Aimed at Vibe's female multicultural demographic, Vibe Vixen included features on beauty and female entertainers. R&B starlet Ciara appeared on the inaugural issue's cover. Spencer
Robert Sylvester Kelly is an American singer, record producer, former professional basketball player. A native of Chicago, Kelly began performing during the late 1980s and debuted in 1992 with the group Public Announcement. In 1993, Kelly went solo with the album 12 Play, he is known for various songs including "I Believe I Can Fly", "Bump N' Grind", "Your Body's Callin'", "Gotham City", "Ignition", "If I Could Turn Back the Hands of Time", "The World's Greatest", "I'm a Flirt", the hip-hopera "Trapped in the Closet". In 1998, Kelly won three Grammy Awards for "I Believe I Can Fly". Although Kelly is a singer-songwriter, he has written and remixed songs and albums for many artists. In 1996, he was nominated for a Grammy for writing Michael Jackson's song "You Are Not Alone". In 2002 and 2004, Kelly released collaboration albums with rapper Jay-Z and has been a featured vocalist for other hip hop artists like Nas, Sean Combs, The Notorious B. I. G; as of 2019, Kelly was the 55th best-selling music artist in the United States, with over 32 million album sales according to the Recording Industry Association of America.
He has released 12 solo studio albums, sold over 75 million records worldwide, making him the most successful R&B male artist of the 1990s and one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He is credited for helping redefine R&B and hip hop, earning the nicknames "King of R&B" and "King of Pop-Soul", he is listed by Billboard as the most successful R&B/Hip Hop artist of the years 1985-2010 and the most successful R&B artist in history. He has won awards including BET, Soul Train, Billboard, NAACP, American Music Awards. Since the 1990s, Kelly has been the subject of numerous allegations of sexual abuse and misconduct with underage girls, all charges he "categorically denies". In 2002 he was indicted on 13 counts of child pornography, but was acquitted of all charges in 2008. In January 2019, a viewed Lifetime docuseries titled Surviving R. Kelly detailed allegations of sexual abuse by multiple women, allegations Kelly denies. Facing pressure from the public using the Mute R. Kelly hashtag, RCA Records dropped Kelly.
On February 22, 2019, Kelly was indicted on 10 counts of aggravated criminal sexual abuse. Robert Sylvester Kelly was born on January 8, 1967, at Chicago Lying-in Hospital in Hyde Park, Chicago, he is the third of four children. His mother, was a singer and raised her children in the Baptist church. Kelly's father remains absent in his son's life, his family lived in the Ida B. Wells Homes public housing project in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood. Kelly's high school music teacher Lena McLin described Kelly's childhood home: "It was bare. One table, two chairs. There was no father there, I knew that, they had little." Kelly began singing in the church choir at age eight. Kelly grew up in a house full of women, who he said would act differently when his mother and grandparents were not home. At eight years of age Kelly was sexually abused by a woman, at least ten years older than himself. "I was too afraid and too ashamed," Kelly wrote in his 2012 autobiography Soulacoaster about why he never told anyone.
The abuse ended when he was 14. At age 11, he was shot in the shoulder while riding his bike home. Kelly was eight when he had his first girlfriend, Lulu, they would hold hands and eat make-believe meals inside their playhouse built from cardboard, where they "vowed to be boyfriend and girlfriend forever." Kelly wrote in his autobiography that their last play date turned tragic when, after fighting with some older children over a play area by a creek, Lulu was pushed into the water. A fast-moving current swept her away. Shortly thereafter, she was found lifeless downstream. Kelly calls Lulu his first musical inspiration. Kelly entered Kenwood Academy in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood in the fall of 1981, where he met music teacher Lena McLin, encouraged Kelly to perform the Stevie Wonder classic "Ribbon in the Sky" in a high school talent show. McLin encouraged a young Kelly to leave the high school basketball team, she said he was furious at first, but after his performance at the school talent show, he changed his mind.
Kelly played basketball with the late Illinois state champion basketball player Ben Wilson and sang "It's So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday" at Wilson's funeral. An undiagnosed learning disability left Kelly unable to write, he dropped out of high school and as a teenager, Kelly began street performing under the Chicago Transportation Authority "L" tracks and formed a group with friends Marc McWilliams, Vincent Walker and Shawn Brooks. In 1989, they formed the group MGM. In 1990, MGM recorded and released one single "Why You Wanna Play Me". In 1991, Kelly signed with Jive Records and teamed with a new group from Chicago called Public Announcement. Kelly was close to his mother Joanne who took him with her to church and a local club where she performed, she died from cancer in 1993. He would name his eldest daughter after her. R. Kelly gained national recognition in 1989 when he, along with Marc McWilliams, Vincent Walker and Shawn Brooks, participated on the talent TV show Big Break, hosted by Natalie Cole.
Kelly went on to win the $100,000 grand prize. Subsequently, Kelly's debut album Born into the 90's was released in early 1992. Released during the new jack swing period of the early 1990s, the album yielded the R&B hits "She's Got That Vibe", "Honey Love", "Dedicated", "Slow Dance"
Cocky & Confident
Cocky & Confident is the eighth studio album by American rapper Juvenile. The album was released on December 2009, by Atlantic Records, UTP Records and E1 Entertainment; the album is the rapper's follow up to his album Reality Check, which landed at #1 on Billboard's Top 200 chart when the album was released in March 2006. It features artists such as B. G. Dorrough, Kango Slim, Q Corvette, Rico Love and Pleasure P and others making guest appearances. Producers on the album include S-8ighty & more, it is the first album. The album debuted at #49 on the Billboard 200 with 23,000 copies sold in its first week; the first promo single is "Hands On You", produced by Lu Balz. It was released on iTunes on September 8, 2009; the first single is "Gotta Get It", produced by Precise. It was released on iTunes a week after "Hands On You" on September 15, 2009; the second single is "We Be Getting Money", featuring Shawty Lo, Dorrough, & Kango Slim and produced by S-8ighty. It was released on iTunes on October 27, 2009.
Cocky & Confident at Metacritic
Byron Otto Thomas, better known by his stage name Mannie Fresh, is an American rapper, record producer and DJ, best known for his work with Cash Money Records from 1993 to 2005 and one half of the hip hop duo Big Tymers. He produced all or most of the songs on 17 multi-platinum, platinum or gold albums for Cash Money from 1998 to 2004 before leaving the label. Mannie Fresh is signed to both Def Jam South and his own division company, Chubby Boy Records. Thomas was raised in the 7th Ward of New Orleans. Influenced by his father who worked as a DJ, Thomas became a DJ for New Orleans hip hop crew New York Incorporated in 1984 at age 15. In the late 1980s, he began a partnership with New Orleans rapper MC Gregory D, they released their first album together Throwdown in 1987, with Mannie Fresh producing and MC Gregory D rapping. They would release two more records together in early 1990s. After their last album together, in 1993 Thomas met Bryan "Baby" Williams, who gave him an opportunity to become the in-house producer of his record label Cash Money Records.
With Williams's help, Thomas made chart-topping albums for the Hot Boys, composed of Lil Wayne, B. G. Juvenile, Turk, producing all of the group's singles, he produced all tracks on the members' solo works as well. Thomas formed the Big Tymers along with Williams, as Mannie Fresh and Birdman bringing him fame, released five albums. In 2004, he released his own debut solo album The Mind of Mannie Fresh, which consisted of 30 tracks and featured the single "Real Big," which peaked at #72 on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2005, he split from Cash Money for financial reasons, joined Def Jam South, to which he is signed. On October 27, 2009, Mannie Fresh released his second solo album, Return of the Ballin'; the album was produced by Fresh himself and featured prominent guests Rick Ross and Lil Jon. Studio albumsThe Mind of Mannie Fresh Return of the Ballin' Collaboration albumsAs Promised
Brian McKnight is an American R&B singer-songwriter, arranger and musician. He is a multi-instrumentalist who plays piano, bass guitar, trombone, tuba and trumpet. McKnight is most recognized for his strong belting range. McKnight's work has earned him 16 Grammy Awards nominations, he is third only to Morten Lindberg and Snoop Dogg for the record of most Grammy nominations without a win. McKnight was born in New York, his musical career began in childhood. In 1990, McKnight's older brother, Claude McKnight III, his band, Take 6, signed a record deal with Warner Brothers; this encouraged McKnight to shop his own demo tapes and by the age of 19, he signed his first recording deal with Mercury Records subsidiary, Wing Records. In 1992, Brian McKnight was released, his self-titled debut album peaked at fifty-eight in the Billboard 200 chart, which featured the ballad "One Last Cry", it was followed by two more albums for Mercury, 1995's I Remember 1997's Anytime. Anytime, McKnight's final album with Mercury, sold over two million copies and was nominated for a Grammy.
The video for "Anytime", directed by Darren Grant, was nominated for Best Male Video at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards. In 1997, McKnight recorded "Remember the Magic" for Disney World's 25th anniversary. McKnight signed with Motown in 1998 and released the Christmas album Bethlehem, the first of five albums he released on Motown. In 1999, McKnight released Back at One, his most successful album to date, which went on to sell over three million copies. "Back at One" is one of four of McKnight's studio albums to reach the Top 10 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, reaching number 7 on October 9, 1999. In 2004, McKnight co-wrote with Australian Soul artist Guy Sebastian the song "Wait", off Sebastian's Beautiful Life album. In late 2005, McKnight signed with Warner Bros. Records, released the album, Ten. Released December 2006, his only studio album with the label. Three singles released from the album: "Find Myself in You" "Used to Be My Girl", "What's My Name". In October 2007, McKnight made his Broadway debut in the show Chicago.
From 2006 to 2010 he hosted a radio show, The Brian McKnight Morning Show with Pat Prescott on KTWV The Wave in Los Angeles, CA. The show was simulcast on KHJZ-FM, Smooth Jazz 95.7 The Wave in Houston, TX from 6AM-9AM CST. On January 26, 2009, McKnight hosted "The Brian McKnight Show" from 7PM-Midnight on 98.7 KISS FM in New York City. In 2009, he appeared in the second season of Celebrity Apprentice; each celebrity played to raise money for the charity of her choice. From September 2009 to May 2010, McKnight served as the media personality and hosted The Brian McKnight Show, a late night talk show billed as a combination of talk and variety, aired in syndication. On March 31, 2011, McKnight sang the National Anthem for MLB Opening Day in Cincinnati, Ohio with his sons Brian, Jr. and Niko. He had sung the National Anthem for the 1997 NBA All-Star Game in Cleveland, Game 6 of the 2002 World Series in Anaheim, near his Los Angeles home, the 2005 Major League Baseball All-Star Game in Detroit. McKnight has made numerous other "National Anthem" appearances throughout his career.
On October 22, 2012, McKnight sang "God Bless America" in the 7th inning of Game 7 of the National League Champion Series in San Francisco, California. On April 23, 2012 McKnight posted to YouTube "If You're Ready To Learn", characterized by Billboard as a "filthy jam." Billboard selected this lyric from the work to quote: "Let me show you how your p—y works/Since you didn't bring it to me first." Other media outlets such as MTV, the Toronto Sun, NewMediaRockstars have written about McKnight's recent, more adult-oriented efforts. Shortly after the single's release, McKnight and known humor website "Funny or Die" revealed that the single was a collaboration between the two parties. McKnight would explain that he wrote the parody as a commentary on the state of R&B, which he noted was in a period of degradation overall with famous radio station 98.7 Kiss FM shuttering and hit singles being inferior quality music, among other ailments. On August 14, 2015, McKnight released the single "Uh Oh Feeling", the first track from his album Better, released on his own label Brian McKnight Music LLC via Kobalt Label Services.
"Better was released on February 2016, followed by positive reviews. On September 23, 2016, McKnight released his first live CD, DVD, Blu-ray collection entitled An Evening With in partnership with independent recording label The SoNo Recording Group through the Universal Music Group; the concert was recorded in Los Angeles at the historic Saban Theatre. The release includes fourteen songs performed live with his full band plus three newly written and recorded songs; the first single "Everything" reached the top twenty on the national Adult Contemporary charts in September 2016. The CD version of the concert debuted on the Billboard R&B chart at number thirteen as a Hot Shot Debut. Included is a duet with Gino Vannelli on the song "Brothers in the End"; the Blu-ray and DVD version of the release premiered on the Billboard Music DVD chart at number nine. On August 25, 2017, McKnight released the album Genesis. Featuring three top 30 Urban AC and AC hits, "Everything", "Forever", "I Want U",'Genesis' premiered in the Top 10 on the Nielsen SoundScan Top 10 Current R&B albums and Top 20 Current Hip Hop/R&B albums.
The album was produced by Tim Kelley par
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular