Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé
Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé, Duke of Fronsac, Marquis of Brézé was a French admiral. He was born in one of the most powerful French families of the time. Thanks to his uncle, at the age of seventeen, he received the title of grand-maître de la navigation, a new title created by King Louis XIII for Cardinal Richelieu and equivalent to Grand Admiral of France. One of the leading figures in the Eighty Years' War, he defeated the Spanish fleet near Cadiz, seized Villafranca. In 1641, he arrived in Portugal to help in the Portuguese Restoration War against Spain. In 1642, he fought an indecisive action against the Spanish forces near Barcelona, nearly destroyed their fleet near Cartagena on 3 July 1643, he was killed on 16 June 1646, during the Battle of Orbetello. His remains were buried in the church of Milly le Meugon, abutted to the castle walls. Three ships were named in his honor: see French ship Maillé Brézé 46-gun ship of the line Brézé Maillé-Brézé, a Vauquelin class destroyer destroyed in the accidental explosion of one of her torpedoes on 30 April 1940 in Greenock, Scotland Maillé-Brézé, T 47 class destroyer, presently a museum Les bâtiments ayant porté le nom de Maillé-Brézé Louis Gabriel Michaud.
"Maillé-Brézé". Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne: histoire par ordre alphabétique de la vie publique et privée de tous les hommes avec la collaboration de plus de 300 savants et littérateurs français ou étrangers. Vol. 26 La Bruyère, René, La marine de Richelieu.
Diego Felipez de Guzmán, 1st Marquis of Leganés
Diego Mexía Felípez de Guzmán y Dávila, Viscount of Butarque and first Marquis of Leganés, was a Spanish politician and army commander. He was the youngest son of Diego Velázquez Dávila y Bracamonte, marquis of Loriana, Leonor de Gúzman, aunt of the Count-Duke of Olivares. Since 1600, he fought during more than 20 years in the Spanish Netherlands in the service of Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. After his death, Diego returned to Spain where his cousin Olivares had become valido, under his patronage, Diego soon became influential, he became a member of the State Council in 1626, was made Marquis of Leganés in 1627 and married in the same year with Polixena Spinola, the rich daughter of the great general Ambrosio Spinola. In 1627 he was sent back to Flanders to force the States General to accept Olivares' project of the Unión de Armas, pay for an extra 12,000 infantry soldiers. On his way back, he and general Ambrosio Spinola visited the Siege of La Rochelle by the French, on which occasion they discussed the succession of the Duchy of Mantua, which would lead to the War of the Mantuan Succession.
After this mission, he held several important political and military posts in the Spanish Netherlands, which earned him the title of Grandee of Spain in 1634. On September 24, 1635 he was named Captain General and Governor of the Duchy of Milan, was soon involved in the Franco-Spanish War and the Piedmontese Civil War against France, Parma and Savoy, he defeated Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza and forced him to sign a peace treaty in 1637. He prevented the French to take the Valtellina and won some victories against Savoy. In 1638 Leganés conquered Breme and Vercelli, launched the next year a great offensive against Piedmont, he conquered a large number of cities, but suffered a great defeat near Casale and failed in the Siege of Turin. He was called back to Spain and in November 1641 given the command of the army of Catalonia to push back the French and Catalan troops in the Catalan Revolt. After some initial successes in defending Tarragona, he suffered a defeat in the Battle of Lerida, which made him fall from grace.
In 1645 he was rehabilitated and made nominal Viceroy of Catalonia where he defended the city of Lérida in 1646. He remained viceroy until 1648, he spent the last years of his life in Italy as president of the council of Italy. First he married daughter of Ambrosio Spinola, they had two children: Gaspar Felípez de Guzmán y Spinola, second marquis of Leganés, governor of Oran and Viceroy of Valencia. Father of Diego Dávila Mesía y Guzmán, 3rd Marquis of Leganés. Ambrosio Ignacio Mexía Felípez de Guzmán y Spinola, tutor of Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias and Archbishop, he next married Juana Fernández de Córdoba y Rojas, daughter of Luis Fernández de Córdoba, 6th Duke of Sessa. The marquis of Leganés was one of the greatest art collectors of his time, he is said to have owned a total of 1.330 paintings. He was painted by Anthony van Dyck, a painting which today can be found in the Banco Santander Foundation in Madrid. El conde duque de Olivares, John Elliott. En estado de guerra. Felipe IV y Flandes, 1629-1648.
Milán español, Gianvittorio Signorotto. Liedtke, Walter A.. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870993569.. Retrato de Diego Felipez de Guzmán, Marquis of Leganés, his biography in Spanish from 1791
Habsburg Spain refers to Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries, when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their power, they controlled territory that included the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has been referred to as the "Age of Expansion". Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily for much of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the seventeenth century under the Habsburg kings; the Habsburg years ushered in the Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. Among the most outstanding figures of this period were Teresa of Ávila, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, El Greco, Domingo de Soto, Francisco Suárez, Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Vitoria.
"Spain" or "the Spains" in this period covered the entire peninsula, politically a confederacy comprising several, nominally independent kingdoms or realms in personal union: Aragon, Castile, León, Navarre and, from 1580, Portugal. In some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were confederations, most notably, the Crown of Aragon; the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 had enabled the union of two of the greatest of these kingdoms and Aragón, which led to their successful campaign against the Moors, peaking at the conquest of Granada in 1492. Isabella and Ferdinand were bestowed the title of Most Catholic Monarchs by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, the term Monarchia Catholica remained in use for the monarchy under the Spanish Habsburgs; the Habsburg period is formative of the notion of "Spain" in the sense, institutionalized in the 18th century. From the 17th century and after the end of the Iberian Union, the Habsburg monarchy in Spain was known as "Spanish Monarchy" or "Monarchy of Spain", along with the common form Kingdom of Spain.
Spain as a unified state came into being de jure only after the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707 from the contested successor to the multiple Crowns of its former realms. After the death in 1700 of Charles II and with it the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, the Spanish Succession war lasted for many years between its contesting dynasties from France and Austria and their respective supporting allies, until the ascension of Philip V and the inauguration of the Bourbon dynasty when this centralizing legal vehicle for new State formation, without legal precedent in the Iberian realms and of clear foreign origin, in all comparable after those in France under the Old Regime Absolutism, were established after de facto. In 1504, Isabella I died, although Ferdinand II tried to maintain his position over Castile in the wake of her death, the Castilian Cortes Generales chose to crown Isabella's daughter Joanna as queen, her husband Philip I was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy.
Shortly thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though the extent of her mental illness was the topic of some debate. In 1506, Philip I was declared jure uxoris king, but he died that year under mysterious circumstances poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand II. Since their oldest son Charles was only six, the Cortes reluctantly allowed Joanna's father Ferdinand II to rule the country as the regent of Joanna and Charles. Spain was now in personal union under Ferdinand II of Aragon; as undisputed ruler in most of the Peninsula, Ferdinand adopted a more aggressive policy than he had as Isabella's husband, going on to crystallize his long-running designs over Navarre into a full-blown invasion led by a Castilian military expedition, supported by Aragonese troops. He attempted to enlarge Spain's sphere of influence in Italy, strengthening it against France; as ruler of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and the Republic of Venice for control of Italy. Ferdinand's first investment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venice, where the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello.
Only a year Ferdinand joined the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Naples — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre, claimed through his marriage to Germaine of Foix. The war was less of a success than that against Venice, in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre. Ferdinand would die that year. Ferdinand's death led to the ascension of young Charles to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon founding the monarchy of Spain, his Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions in the New World and around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, growing up in Flanders. In 1519, with the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I, Charles inherited the Habsburg territo
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Treaty of the Pyrenees
The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war, a part of the wider Thirty Years' War. It was signed on Pheasant Island, a river island on the border between the two countries which has remained a French-Spanish condominium since the treaty; the kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro, respectively. France entered the Thirty Years' War after the Spanish Habsburg victories in the Dutch Revolt in the 1620s and at the Battle of Nördlingen against Sweden in 1634. By 1640, France began to interfere in Spanish politics, aiding the revolt in Catalonia, while Spain responded by aiding the Fronde revolt in France in 1648. During the negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, France gained the Sundgau and cut off Spanish access to the Netherlands from Austria, leading to open warfare between the French and Spanish. After 23 years of war, an Anglo-French alliance was victorious at the Battle of the Dunes in June 14, 1658, but the following year the war ground to a halt when the French campaign to take Milan was defeated.
Peace was settled by means of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in November 1659. France gained Roussillon and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune and Thionville, a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees. However, the treaty stipulated only that all "villages" north of the Pyrenees should become part of France; because it was a villa, the historic town of Llívia, once the capital of Cerdanya, was thus unintentionally exempted from the treaty and became a Spanish exclave as part of the comarca of Baixa Cerdanya, in the Spanish province of Girona. This border was not properly settled until the Treaty of Bayonne was signed in 1856, with its final acts accepted 12 years later. On the western Pyrenees a definite borderline was drawn and decisions made as to the politico-administrative affiliation of bordering areas in the Basque region—Baztan, Valcarlos. Spain was forced to confirm all of the French gains at the Peace of Westphalia.
In exchange for the Spanish territorial losses, the French king pledged to quit his support for Portugal and renounced to his claim to the county of Barcelona, which the French crown had claimed since the Catalan Revolt. The Portuguese revolt in 1640, led by the Duke of Braganza, was supported monetarily by Cardinal Richelieu of France. After the Catalan Revolt, France had controlled the Principality of Catalonia from January 1641, when a combined Catalan and French force defeated the Spanish army at Battle of Montjuïc, until it was defeated by a Spanish army at Barcelona in 1652. Though the Spanish army reconquered most of Catalonia, the French retained Catalan territory north of the Pyrenees; the treaty arranged for a marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain, the daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Maria Theresa was forced to renounce her claim to the Spanish throne, in return for a monetary settlement as part of her dowry; this settlement was never paid, a factor that led to the War of Devolution in 1668.
At the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants in June 1660, the two monarchs and their ministers met, the princess entered France. In addition, the English received Dunkirk, although they elected to sell it to France in 1662; the Treaty of the Pyrenees was the last major diplomatic achievement by Cardinal Mazarin. Combined with the Peace of Westphalia, it allowed Louis XIV remarkable stability and diplomatic advantage by means of a weakened Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and a weakened Spanish Crown, along with the agreed dowry, an important element in the French king's strategy: All in all, by 1660, when the Swedish occupation of Poland was over, most of the European continent was at peace, the Bourbons had ended the dominance of the Habsburgs. In the Pyrenees, the treaty resulted in the establishment of border customs and restriction of the free cross-border flow of people and goods. In the context of the territorial changes involved in the Treaty, France gained some territory, on both its northern and southern borders.
In the north, France gained French Flanders. In the south:On the east: The northern part of the Principality of Catalonia, including Roussillon, Vallespir and French Cerdagne, was transferred to France, i.e. what came to be known as "Northern Catalonia". On the west: The parties agree to put together a field group to compromise a borderline on disputed lands along the Basque Pyrenees, involving Sareta—Zugarramurdi, etc.— Aldude, the Spanish wedge of Valcarlos. Language policy in France Parliament of Quillín "Full Text of Treaty". Archived from the original on 2005-09-18. France National Archives Transcription
Philippe de La Mothe-Houdancourt
Philippe, comte de la Mothe-Houdancourt, Duke of Cardona, was French Viceroy of Catalonia and a Marshal of France who fought in the Thirty Years' War. Philippe de la Mothe-Houdancourt was one of 12 children of Philippe, Seigneur de La Mothe-Houdancourt, de Sacy et de Rucoin, his third wife, Louise Charles du Plessis-Picquet. Since 1622 he fought in the Chevau-légers against the Huguenots and was present at the Siege of La Rochelle and the defeat of the English in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, he fought in the War of the Mantuan Succession and at the taking of Pinerolo in 1630, the battle of Carignano bridge, where he was wounded. On September 1, 1632 he fought in the Battle of Castelnaudary against Henri II de Montmorency. In the same year he was made governor of Bellegarde. At the outbreak of the Franco-Spanish War he fought at the head of his own infantry regiment in the Siege of Nancy, the Battle of Les Avins, the Siege of Leuven and the taking of the Schenk-fortress. In 1636 he defended Saint-Jean-de-Losne against Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine and general Matthias Gallas.
The next years he fought several battles in Germany at the head of his own Army Corps under Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville. As lieutenant general he was sent to Piedmont to temporary take command of the army after the death of Louis, cardinal de La Valette, waiting the arrival of Henri de Lorraine, count of Harcourt. Here La Mothe-Houdancourt distinguishes himself in taking Chieri and defeating the Spanish in the Battle of Casale and the Siege of Turin against Diego Felipez de Guzmán, Marquis of Leganés. In 1641 he was sent to Catalonia at the head of the French Army to support the Catalan Revolt. After some initial victories he besieges Tarragona, but the city can be supplied by the Spanish over sea and he was forced to withdraw. In September he takes the castle of Tamarite in Aragon, returns to Tarragona and lifts the siege of Almenar by the Spanish in November. In 1642, La Mothe won the important Battle of Montmeló on March 28 capturing a Spanish force of 3.600 men. For this victory he is made a Marshal of France on April 2, Duke of Cardona in October.
On October 7, he obtained his most important victory, the Battle of Lleida, against Diego Felipez de Guzmán, Marquis of Leganés. By 1644 the balance was shifting in favor of the Spanish, they besieged Lleida again, when La Mothe tried to lift the siege though outnumbered, he lost the Second Battle of Lleida. For this defeat, he was locked up for 4 years in the Pierre-Encise castle. Bitter by this experience he supported the claims of the Fronde and was for this relieved of command of his troops. In 1651 he was rehabilitated and reinstated as Viceroy of Catalonia, replacing Louis II de Bourbon-Vendôme to save the desperate situation there, he broke through the Spanish siege of Barcelona and defended the city for several months, but was forced to surrender on October 13, 1652. With Catalonia definitively lost for France and Marshal de La Mothe withdrew from active service, spending the last years of his life on his domain at Fayel, he married in 1650 with Louise de Prie, Marchioness of Toucy, had 3 daughters: Françoise Angélique, married Louis Victor d'Aumont, Duke of Aumont.
Lacour, Louis. "La Mothe-Houdancourt", vol. 29, columns 247–250, in Nouvelle biographie générale, edited by Ferdinand Hoefer
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between; the Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain. In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess; the Greek historian Herodotus says. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon during his famous Labours.
Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains; as is the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges. … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa fictional. Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "..in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was consumed.
The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Lleida, Huesca and Gipuzkoa. The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the independent principality of Andorra is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees and French Pyrenees. Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic, the Central, the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains near the Bay of Biscay of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation increases from west to east; the Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Somport pass to the Aran Valley, they include the highest summits of this range: Pico d'Aneto 3,404 metres in the Maladeta ridge, Pico Posets 3,375 metres, Monte Perdido 3,355 metres.
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères. Most foothills of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia reaching the Mediterranean coast with summits reaching 2,600 m. At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees. On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif in the northeastern corner of the mountain system; the Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock.
The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone; the massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain; this peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. It formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base