Marshal of the air force
Marshal of the air force is the English term for the most senior rank in a number of air forces. The ranks described by this term can properly be considered marshal ranks. No air force in an English-speaking country formally uses the exact title "marshal of the air force", although it is sometimes used as a shortened form of the full title. In several Commonwealth air forces and many Middle Eastern air forces the most senior rank is named "marshal of the", followed by the name of the air force. Brazil and Italy have used rank titles which translate as marshal of the air, whereas Portugal's rank translates as "marshal of the air force". Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe used the rank of Generalfeldmarschall The premier rank of Reichsmarschall was held by Hermann Göring; the first instance of this rank was marshal of the Royal Air Force, established on paper in 1919 and was first held by Lord Trenchard. Other Commonwealth countries adopted their own national versions of the rank but, unlike the United Kingdom, they have only used it as a ceremonial honour.
Marshals of the air force can be properly considered marshals and such ranks are equivalent to the army rank of field marshal and the navy rank of admiral of the fleet. Marshal of the air force is a five-star rank and in NATO countries it is described by the ranking code of OF-10; as such a senior rank, it is seldom held. It is awarded either in a ceremonial capacity to heads of state or members of royal families, or to the most senior officers in large air forces. In the air forces of Australia, India and the United Kingdom, marshals of the air force are senior to air chief marshals. In the case of New Zealand, although the rank of marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force has been bestowed, no Royal New Zealand Air Force officer has attained higher rank than air marshal and the New Zealand rank of air chief marshal only exists on paper. A similar situation to the one in New Zealand existed in Malaysia until the 1970s when the Royal Malaysian Air Force replaced its air-officer ranks with general-officer ranks, although it retained the rank of marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force.
The rank of marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force was never granted. During Germany's Nazi period, the Luftwaffe, in common with the Heer, used the rank of generalfeldmarschall, equivalent to großadmiral in the navy. Generalfeldmarschall was senior to generaloberst and it was the most senior German air force and army rank until the promotion of Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe, to the higher rank of reichsmarschall in July 1940; the German ranks of reichsmarschall and generalfeldmarschall ceased to exist with the fall of the Third Reich. There are a variety of rank insignia in use by the different air forces which maintain a rank of marshal of the air force. Some, such as the Royal Air Force, derive the pattern from the sleeve lace for an admiral of the fleet, using one broad light blue band on a wider broad black band with four narrow light blue bands each on wider black bands. Others use a pattern of stars numbering five in total; the following command or rank flags are or have been in use: As of 2017, there are 14 living individuals who hold or have held the rank, or its equivalents, of Marshal of the Air Force.
10 of those are royalty who have been appointed to the rank in a ceremonial capacity, including Queen Sirikit of Thailand, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales and the current head of state of Malaysia. In the case of Malaysia, the elected Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed a Marshal of the Air Force for his tenure as head of state, but relinquishes the rank after completing his term in office, he can, however, be re-appointed to the rank if he serves another term. The Duke of Edinburgh holds the ceremonial rank of a Marshal of the Royal Air Force, as well as the honorary ranks of Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force and Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. Although the rank of Marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force existed on paper until 1968, the Duke of Edinburgh was never appointed to this rank nor to the other Canadian 5-star ranks before they were abolished that year. In 2012, his son, the Prince of Wales, was appointed to the British rank; the remaining four holders of the rank were all serving air officers, three of whom served as Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Air Force, were promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Royal Air Force upon concluding their tenure.
Of those, only Lord Craig did not retire as he went on to serve as Chief of the Defence Staff as a Marshal of the RAF. In June 2014, retired Air Chief Marshal the Lord Stirrup was promoted to Marshal of the RAF in a ceremonial capacity, marking the first time since 1992 that an RAF air officer had been awarded the rank; the rank exists or has existed in Afghanistan, Brunei, South Korea, Nigeria and South Vietnam, but not all of these countries have used it. The Turkish Air Force maintains a rank of hava mareşalı; the Indonesian Air Force maintains the rank of marsekal besar although no Indonesian Air Force officer has been promoted to the rank. The French Air Force, in common with the French Army has marshal of France as its most se
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
Seaman is a military rank used in many navies around the world. It is considered a junior enlisted rank and, depending on the navy, it may be a single rank on its own or a name shared by several similarly-junior ranks. In the Commonwealth, it is the lowest rank in the navy, while in the United States, it refers to the three lowest ranks of the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard; the equivalent of the seaman is the matelot in French-speaking countries, Matrose in German-speaking countries. The Royal Australian Navy features one Seaman rank. There are 4 grades of seaman/matelot in the Royal Canadian Navy: The rank of master seaman is unique because it was created only for the Canadian Navy, it does not follow the British tradition of other Canadian ranks. It corresponds to the rank of master corporal/caporal-chef. Matelot 2e classe, or apprentice seaman, matelot breveté are designations of the French Navy. Matelots are colloquially known as "mousses". Madrus is the lowest rank in the Estonian Navy, it is equivalent to OR-1 in NATO The German rank of "seaman" is the lowest enlisted rank of the German Navy.
It is equivalent to OR1 in NATO and is a grade A3 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence. There is one grade of seaman in the Hellenic Navy. In the Indonesian Navy this rank is referred to as "kelasi". There are three levels of this rank in the Indonesian Navy which are: "seaman recruit", "seaman apprentice", "seaman", the rating system thus mirrors the one used in the US Navy; the Italian rank of "seaman" is the lowest enlisted rank of the Italian Navy equivalent in NATO to OR1. See Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces Much Russian military vocabulary was imported, along with military advisers, from Germany in the 16th and 17th centuries; the Russian word for "seaman" or "sailor" was borrowed from the German "matrose". In Imperial Russia the most junior naval rank was "seaman 2nd class"; the 1917 Revolution led to the term "Red Fleet man" until 1943, when the Soviet Navy reintroduced the term "seaman", along with badges of rank. The Russian federation inherited the term in 1991, as did several other former Soviet republics, including Ukraine and Belarus, with Bulgaria using the same word and the same Cyrillic orthography.
Estonia and Latvia use related loanwords. In the Royal Navy the rate is split into two divisions: AB1 and AB2; the AB2 rating is used for those. The rate of ordinary seaman has been discontinued. Seaman is the third enlisted rank from the bottom in the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard, ranking above seaman apprentice and below petty officer third class; this naval rank was called "seaman first class". The rank is used in United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, a naval-themed uniformed youth program under the sponsorship of the Navy League of the United States; the actual title for an E-3 in the U. S. Navy varies based on the subset of the Navy or Coast Guard known as a group rate, to which the member will be assigned; the color of their group rate mark depends on that subset of the Navy or Coast Guard in which they are serving and which technical rating they will pursue. Those in the general deck, technical and administrative groups are called "seamen" and they represent the largest group of Navy and Coast Guard personnel in pay grades E-3 and below.
They wear white stripes on their blue uniforms, navy blue stripes on their white uniforms. Those in the medical group are now called "hospitalmen." In October 2005, the USN dental technician rating was merged into the hospital corpsman rating, eliminating the "dentalman" title for E-3 and below. Those who once held the rank of "dentalman" have become "hospitalmen", they wear white stripes on their blue uniforms, navy blue stripes on their white uniforms. After the completion of their "A" school, they wear a caduceus of the same color as the stripes on their uniforms. On their combat uniforms, a hospitalman wears their caduceus on the tab of their left collar tab; this rating was called pharmacist's mate and HMs are colloquially referred to as "corpsman" in the naval service. Hospitalmen exist only in the U. S. Navy. S. Coast Guard is the health services technician, sourced from seamen in that service's administrative and scientific group; those in the shipboard engineering and hull group, comprising conventional and nuclear powerplants and propulsion, as well as the hull maintenance area, are called "firemen."
They wear red stripes on both their USN and USCG blue uniforms and, in the case of the Navy, white uniforms. Those in the aviation group of the Navy and Coast Guard are called "airmen", they wear green stripes on blue uniforms and white uniforms. Enlisted personnel in the construction group, which populates the U. S. Navy's civil engineering construction battalions, are called "constructionmen" and they wear light blue stripes on both their blue and white uniforms. Constructionmen are unique to the U. S. Navy. S. Coast Guard equivalent. No such stripes for E-1, E-2 or E-3 are authorized to be worn on working uniforms, e.g. navy work uniform, USCG operational dress uniform, utility wear, flight suits and clinic garb, diving suits, etc. However, sailors with the pay grade of E-2 o
Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it. It is best known for its use in Germany as Großadmiral. A comparable rank in other navies is that of fleet admiral. In Bourbon Restoration France, the rank was an honorific one equivalent to that of marshal in the French Army. In the Imperial German Navy, in the Kriegsmarine, the rank Großadmiral was the equivalent of a British admiral of the fleet or a United States fleet admiral. Like field marshals its holders were authorised to carry a baton; the rank was discontinued in 1945, after eight men were promoted to it. The next most junior rank was Generaladmiral. Before and during World War I, the following were made grand admirals of the Imperial German Navy: King Edward VII of the United Kingdom Hans von Koester King Oscar II of Sweden Prince Henry of Prussia Alfred von Tirpitz Henning von Holtzendorff Großadmiral was the most senior rank of the Kriegsmarine senior to Generaladmiral. There were no more grand admirals until 1939.
The following men were made grand admirals during the Nazi regime: Erich Raeder, then-Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine, was made a grand admiral on 1 April 1939. Karl Dönitz, commander of the U-Boat fleet, was made a grand admiral on 30 January 1943 upon succeeding Raeder as Commander-in-Chief. Anton Haus, commander of the Austro-Hungarian navy for part of World War I, was given the title of Großadmiral in 1916. No other active-duty officer was given this rank. May 12, 1916: Anton Haus October 9, 1916: Prince Henry of Prussia November 1, 1916: Kaiser Charles I of Austria February 22, 1917: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany The rank of grand admiral was created by Benito Mussolini in 1924, it was established to honour Paolo Thaon di Revel, head of the Italian Regia Marina during World War I — he was the only person to be awarded the rank. It was equivalent to marshal of Italy in the army and marshal of the Air Force. Under the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko in the Republic of Zaire, Mavua Mudima, the commander of the Zairian navy and the country's defense minister from 1994 to 1997, held the rank of "grand admiral" though the Zairian navy only consisted of some small patrol and river boats.
Among the several grand admirals appearing in fiction and science fiction, one notable figure is Grand Admiral Thrawn of the Star Wars science fiction franchise