The Pontiac Fiero is a mid-engined sports car built by Pontiac from 1983 to 1988. The Fiero was designed by George Milidrag and Hulki Aldikacti as a sports car, the Fiero was the first two-seater Pontiac since the 1926 to 1938 coupes, and the first and only mass-produced mid-engine sports car by a U. S. manufacturer. Many technologies incorporated in the Fiero design such as body panels were radical for their time. Other features included hidden headlamps and, integrated stereo speakers within the driver and passenger headrests. A total of 370,168 Fieros were produced over the short production run of five years. At the time, its reputation suffered from criticisms over performance, the word fiero means very proud in Italian, and wild, fierce, or ferocious in Spanish. Alternative names considered for the car were Sprint, P3000, Fiamma, the Fiero 2M4 was on Car and Driver magazines Ten Best list for 1984. The 1984 Fiero was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 for 1984, the Fiero was conceived as a small, two-seat sports car with all new suspension and V6 engine.
These figures are U. S. Environmental Protection Agency test-circuit results, published by Pontiac and it was impressive mileage for a 2.5 L engine of the period, and still good by todays standards, but the three-speed automatic reduced highway mileage to only 32 mpg‑US. With respect to economy, the Fiero was intended to appeal to a market niche for which the Corvette with its V8 engine was unsuitable. A mid-engine layout was chosen as a way to reduce both aerodynamic drag and vehicle weight to improve fuel efficiency, and for its handling, traction. However, the sports car potential of the layout was not realized when the Fiero debuted. As a cost-saving measure commonly employed at GM, the tires, brakes, as a result, the handling and cornering abilities of the initial Fiero were merely on par with other contemporary sporty coupes. As drivers attempted to run the engine at greater RPM than it was designed for. The public had high expectations for the Fiero with its layout and aggressive styling.
While initially garnering good reviews for its handling, the Fiero soon received negative reviews from automotive critics who expected higher performance from a mid-engine two-seater. Despite the critical press, the Fiero sold well and although Pontiac operated three shifts at the factory during 1984, they could not keep up with initial demand. The front suspension was derived from the Chevette, and Chevette enthusiasts found that they could upgrade their undersized front brakes, by 1985, the oil crisis was long past and demand developed for a Fiero having more engine power and better sports car performance
Ferdinand Porsche was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, in addition, Porsche designed the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen, which was the first racing car with a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Porsche was an important contributor to the German war effort during World War II. He was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK4501, Tiger I, Tiger II, Porsche was a member of the German Nazi party and allegedly the SS. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and he was called the Great German Engineer by Nazi propaganda. In 1996 Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Ferdinand Porsche was born to German-speaking parents in Maffersdorf, northern Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire at that time, and today part of the Czech Republic. Ferdinand was his parents third child and his father, Anton Porsche, was a master panel-beater.
He showed an aptitude for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended classes at the Imperial Technical School in Reichenberg at night while helping his father in his shop by day. Thanks to a referral, Porsche landed a job with the Béla Egger Electrical company in Vienna when he turned 18, in Vienna he would sneak into the local university whenever he could after work. Other than attending classes there, Porsche never received any higher engineering education, during his five years with Béla Egger, Porsche first developed the electric hub motor. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, in 1934 Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels made Porsche a naturalized German citizen. In 1898, Porsche joined the Vienna-based factory Jakob Lohner & Company, which produced coaches for Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as well as for the monarchs of the UK, and Romania. Jakob Lohner had begun construction of automobiles in 1896 under Ludwig Lohner in the suburb of Floridsdorf.
Their first design was the Egger-Lohner vehicle, first unveiled in Vienna, Austria, on 26 June 1898, Porsche had engraved the code P1 onto all the key components. The Egger-Lohner was a car driven by two electric motors within the front wheel hubs, powered by batteries. This drive train construction was expanded to four-wheel drive, by mounting two more electric motors to the rear wheels, and a four-motor example was ordered by Englishman E. W. Hart in 1900. In December that year, the car was displayed at the Paris World Exhibition under the name Toujours-Contente, even though this one-off vehicle had been commissioned for the purposes of racing and record-breaking, its 1,800 kg of lead–acid batteries was a severe shortcoming
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the axle and the rear bumper. Most of the traits of the RR configuration are shared with the mid-engine rear-wheel-drive, the front-engine front-wheel-drive layout has this advantage. The farther back the engine, the greater the bias, typical weight bias for an FR, is 55/45 front/rear, for MR, 45/55, for RR, 35/65. Rear weight bias reduces forward weight transfer under braking, and increases rear weight transfer under acceleration, the former means that traction is more evenly distributed among all four wheels under braking, resulting in shorter stopping times and distances. The latter means that the wheels have increased traction when accelerating, allowing them to put more power on the ground. The disadvantage to a weight bias is that the car can become unstable. When this happens, rotational inertia dictates that the added weight away from the axis of rotation will be likely to maintain the spin.
This is an inherent instability in the design, making it easier to induce, all cars, regardless of drivetrain layout, obey the same laws of physics and can do this, but it is much easier to do and harder to correct in MR and RR vehicles. When not braking, the weight over the front wheels means less traction, resulting in the car having a tendency to understeer. To counteract this, it is necessary to induce forward weight transfer to increase front grip, but this significantly destabilizes the car and can be hard to do properly, that is, without spinning. In these respects, an RR can be considered to be an exaggeration of MR - harder braking and earlier acceleration, and increased oversteer, in off road and low-traction situations, the RR layout has some advantages compared to other 2WD layouts. The weight is biased towards the driven wheels- as with FF vehicles and this both improves drive-wheel traction and reduces the tendency for the undriven wheels to dig in. In addition, the driving and steering requirements are split between front and rear- as with FR vehicles- making it likely for either to lose traction.
Many dune buggies successfully use a Volkswagen beetle as the car for this reason. The relative simplicity and light compared to 4WD can therefore sometimes outweigh the disadvantage of only having two driven wheels. Where RR differs from MR is in that the engine is located outside the wheelbase, the major advantage of MR - low moment of inertia - is negated somewhat, and there is more room for passengers and cargo. Furthermore, because both axles are on the side of the engine, it is technically more straightforward to drive all four wheels
Autodromo Nazionale Monza
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the worlds third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands, the circuits biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the seriess inception, the circuit is generally flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the hosts a endurance event, the 1000 km Monza, which has been run as part of the World Sportscar Championship. Current major events are races of the World Touring Car Championship, the Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents, especially in the early years of the Formula One world championship, and has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators.
The first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, the initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, and a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that years Grand Prix, the accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track, the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948, Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948.
In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight, the track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars. The races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, ecurie Ecosses three Jaguar D-type sports cars used their Le Mans-specification tyres with no ill-effects, but were completely out paced. Two heats in 1957 were won by Jimmy Bryan in his Kuzma-Offenhauser Dean Van Lines Special, Formula One used the 10 kilometres high speed track in the 1955,1956,1960 and 1961 Grands Prix. Stirling Moss and Phil Hill both won twice in this period, with Hills win at Monza making him the first American to win a Formula One race
Moment of inertia
It depends on the bodys mass distribution and the axis chosen, with larger moments requiring more torque to change the bodys rotation. It is a property, the moment of inertia of a composite system is the sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems. One of its definitions is the moment of mass with respect to distance from an axis r, I = ∫ Q r 2 d m. For bodies constrained to rotate in a plane, it is sufficient to consider their moment of inertia about a perpendicular to the plane. When a body is rotating, or free to rotate, around an axis, the amount of torque needed to cause any given angular acceleration is proportional to the moment of inertia of the body. Moment of inertia may be expressed in units of kilogram metre squared in SI units, moment of inertia plays the role in rotational kinetics that mass plays in linear kinetics - both characterize the resistance of a body to changes in its motion. The moment of inertia depends on how mass is distributed around an axis of rotation, for a point-like mass, the moment of inertia about some axis is given by mr2, where r is the distance to the axis, and m is the mass.
For an extended body, the moment of inertia is just the sum of all the pieces of mass multiplied by the square of their distances from the axis in question. For an extended body of a shape and uniform density. In 1673 Christiaan Huygens introduced this parameter in his study of the oscillation of a body hanging from a pivot, the term moment of inertia was introduced by Leonhard Euler in his book Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum in 1765, and it is incorporated into Eulers second law. Comparison of this frequency to that of a simple pendulum consisting of a single point of mass provides a mathematical formulation for moment of inertia of an extended body. Moment of inertia appears in momentum, kinetic energy, and in Newtons laws of motion for a rigid body as a physical parameter that combines its shape. There is a difference in the way moment of inertia appears in planar. The moment of inertia of a flywheel is used in a machine to resist variations in applied torque to smooth its rotational output.
Moment of inertia I is defined as the ratio of the angular momentum L of a system to its angular velocity ω around a principal axis, if the angular momentum of a system is constant, as the moment of inertia gets smaller, the angular velocity must increase. This occurs when spinning figure skaters pull in their arms or divers curl their bodies into a tuck position during a dive. For a simple pendulum, this yields a formula for the moment of inertia I in terms of the mass m of the pendulum and its distance r from the pivot point as. Thus, moment of inertia depends on both the mass m of a body and its geometry, or shape, as defined by the distance r to the axis of rotation
Auto Union AG, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, during the Great Depression. It is the predecessor of Audi as it is known today. As well as acting as a firm for its four constituent brands. The companys distinctive logo, of four interlocking rings to represent the four members of the Auto Union. Horch – founded 1904 by August Horch in Zwickau and it built cars starting from straight-two engines to luxury models with V8- and V12 engines. Audi – because of disputes with the CFO, August Horch in 1909 left his namesake enterprise and founded Audi across town, building inline-four-, six-, in 1928 Audi became a subsidiary of Zschopauer Motorenwerke. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the US automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the equipment for eight-. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau, Audi Imperator and Audi Dresden models, at the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured.
Although all four continued to sell cars under their own names and brands. Auto Union chairman, Baron von Oertzen, wanted a project to announce the new brand. Ferdinand Porsche, who had work for him before. This highly annoyed Mercedes, who had developed their Mercedes-Benz W25. It resulted in a heated exchange both on and off the track between the two companies until World War II. Having garnered state funds, Auto Union bought Porsches Hochleistungsfahrzeugbau GmbH and hence the P-Wagen Project for 75,000 RM, the Auto Union racing cars types A to D were built as Grand Prix racing cars from 1934 to 1939. They resembled the earlier Benz Tropfenwagen, built in part by Rumpler engineers, The only Grand Prix racers to wear Auto Unions four-ringed logo, they were particularly dominant in 1936. From 1935 to 1937, Auto Union cars car won 25 races, driven by Ernst von Delius, Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck Sr. and Achille Varzi. Much has been written about the handling characteristics of this car. The cars used supercharged engines, eventually producing almost 550 hp
Group B was a set of regulations introduced in 1982 for competition vehicles in sportscar racing and rallying regulated by the FIA. The Group B regulations fostered some of the fastest, most powerful, however, a series of major accidents, some of them fatal, were blamed on their outright speed and lack of crowd control. The short-lived Group B era has acquired legendary status among rally fans, Group B was introduced by the FIA in 1982 as a replacement for both Group 4 and Group 5 cars. Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, allowed technology, the base model had to be mass-produced and had to have 4 seats. Group A was aimed at ensuring a large number of privately owned entries in races, by contrast, Group B had few restrictions on technology and the number of cars required for homologation to compete—200, less than other series. In just 5 years, the output of rally cars had more than doubled. The category was aimed at car manufacturers by promising outright competition victories, there was a Group C, which had a similarly lax approach to chassis and engine development, but with strict rules on overall weight and maximum fuel load.
Group B was initially a successful group, with many manufacturers joining the premier World Rally Championship. But the cost of competing quickly rose and the performance of the cars proved too much resulting in a series of fatal crashes. As a consequence Group B was canceled at the end of 1986, in the following years Group B found a niche in the European Rallycross Championship, with cars such as the MG Metro 6R4 and the Ford RS200 competing as late as 1992. Until 1983 the two classes of rallying were called Group 2 and Group 4. Major manufacturers competed in Group 4, which required a minimum of 400 examples of a competition car, notable cars of the era included the Lancia Stratos HF, the Ford Escort RS1800 and the Fiat 131 Abarth. In 1979 the FISA legalized four-wheel drive, Car companies were not keen on using 4WD as it was generally felt that the extra weight and complexity of 4WD systems would cancel out any performance benefits. This belief was shattered when Audi launched a car in 1980.
That year a Quattro was used in Portugals Algarve Rallye, registered by the Audi Sport Factory Rally Team, IN-NE3, as an opening car, it was driven by professional driver Hannu Mikkola. IN-NE 3s combined time for all stages on this rally was over 30 minutes quicker than that of the winner, while the new car was indeed heavy and cumbersome, its standing starts on gravel and road grip on Special Stages was staggering. The Quattro was officially entered in the 1980 Jänner-Rallye in Austria, Audi kept on winning throughout the 1980 and 1981 seasons, although lack of consistent results meant that Ford took the drivers title in 1981 with Ari Vatanen driving a rear-wheel-drive Escort. The teams victory at the 1981 Rallye San Remo was notable, Piloted by Michèle Mouton, Mouton placed second in the drivers championship the next year, behind Opels Walter Röhrl
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915, just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was renamed Coventry Climax and moved to East Street, in the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to electric generators. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems.
In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps. In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck, the ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, and with a 9 ft lift height. This was designated the FW, for Feather Weight, the engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its very high horsepower per pound of weight. The FWA became popular in racing and was followed by the Mark II. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1. 5-litre engine, the following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis. Initially, these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed, Stirling Moss scored the companys first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite, there were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV.
This combination was considered radical at the time, especially the syncromesh on all forward gears. The adoption to mass-production was successful, and the project out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. Nonetheless, Coventry Climax remained in Formula One until they were unable to come up with a new engine for the three-litre formula, the company was purchased by Jaguar Cars in 1963, which itself merged with the British Motor Corporation in 1966 to form British Motor Holdings. The citation reads, Awarded to Coventry Climax Engines Ltd. for the design, the history of this trophy dates back to 1906
The 1962 Matra Djet was a French sports car designed by René Bonnet and modified by Matra. The Bonnet Djet was the worlds first rear mid-engined production road car, the car started out as the René Bonnet Djet in June 1962. The car was named Djet, because Bonnet thought the French could not pronounce the word jet correctly. It was powered by a 65 PS1,108 cc Renault 8 mid-engine mated to a Renault Estafette gearbox, giving a top speed of 165 km/h or, the fiberglass body was made by Matra, and was glued to a steel chassis. Matra provided the factory where the Djets were built, in Romorantin, there was the competition Aérodjet of 1963, with a special long tail and bigger fenders to accommodate wider wheels. The Djet had a modern design with disc brakes and independent suspension with wishbones. The car accommodated two people, there was no seat as the engine took that place. The car measured 3.80 m by 1.40 m by 1.15 m, the 1962 Bonnet Djet was the worlds first mid-engined production road car, beating the de Tomaso Vallelunga which was introduced in 1963.
The first production Djets actually only left the factory in July 1963, the Lamborghini Miura was not introduced until 1966 four years after the Djet. There were 198 Bonnet Djet produced during the two years before Matra took over Bonnet, and the car became the Matra Djet in 1964 with a further 1,491 cars produced before production ended in 1968. There were less than 60 de Tomaso Vallelunga produced before it was replaced by the Mangusta in 1967, the Djet was priced at 20,000 francs at launch, the same at the time as the much larger and more luxurious Facel-Vega Facellia. Bonnet believed that the record of the Djet and his company would be enough to convince the public to purchase the Djet. When Bonnet got into financial troubles, Matra took over René Bonnet Automobiles and its debts in October 1964 and it was considered a great opportunity by Matras CEO, Jean-Luc Lagardère, to expand Matras business to the automobile market. Matra hired former Simca designer Philippe Guédon and modified the original Bonnet Djet, the production resumed in April 1965 with two new versions, called the Matra Bonnet Djet V and Djet V S.
During his 1965 tour to France, Yuri Gagarin was presented with a Matra Bonnet Djet V S coupé by the French government, after the Salon de lAuto Paris auto show in 1965, the Roman numerals and the Bonnet name were dropped. The car was now called the Matra Sports Djet 5, in 1966, a version with a bigger Gordini engine became available and the Djet name was dropped in favour of its original meaning, Jet. The model range now consisted of the Jet 5, Jet 5 S, there were four types of René Bonnet Djet, René Bonnet Djet I1108 cc Renault 8 Major engine,165 km/h. René Bonnet Djet II1108 cc Renault 8 Gordini engine,190 km/h, René Bonnet Djet III / Djet IV996 cc engine with double overhead camshaft