Cosworth is a British automotive engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in high-performance internal combustion engines and electronics. Cosworth is based in Northampton, with American facilities in Indianapolis, Shelby Charter Township and Mooresville, North Carolina. Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One as engine supplier, ranking second with most wins behind Ferrari; the company was founded as a British racing internal combustion engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth. Its company name:'Cosworth', was derived as a portmanteau of the surnames of its two founders. Both of the co-founders were former employees of Lotus Engineering Ltd. and Cosworth maintained a strong relationship with Colin Chapman. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, leaving Costin at the company; until 1962, Costin worked on Cosworth projects in his private time, while being active as a key Lotus engineer on the development of Lotus 15 through 26, as well as leading the Team Lotus contingent at foreign races, as evidenced by the 1962 Le Mans Lotus scandal.
Initial series production engines were sold to Lotus and many of the other racing engines up to Mk. XII were delivered to Team Lotus; the success of Formula Junior engines started bringing in non-Lotus revenues, the establishment of Formula B by the Sports Car Club of America allowed the financial foundation of Cosworth to be secured by the increased sales of Mk. XIII, a pure racing engine based on Lotus TwinCam, through its domination of the class; this newly found security enabled the company to distance itself from the Lotus Mk. VII and Elan optional road engine assembly business, allowed its resources to be concentrated on racing engine development; the first Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series. A real success was achieved with the next gear-driven double overhead camshaft four-valve FVA in 1966, when Cosworth, with a help from Chapman, convinced Ford to purchase the rights to the design, sign a development contract – including an eight-cylinder version; this resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years.
From this time on, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, many of the Cosworth designs were owned by Ford and named as Ford engines under similar contracts. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track. Cosworth went through a number of ownership changes. After Duckworth decided he didn't want to be involved with the day-to-day business of running a growing company, he sold out the ownership to United Engineering Industries in 1980, retaining his life presidency and day-to-day technical involvement with Cosworth, becoming a UEI board director. In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Ford. In September, 2004 Ford announced that it was selling Cosworth and Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd, its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, the current Cosworth Group; the road car engine aspect of the business was split from the racing division, following the sale of the engineering division of Cosworth to Volkswagen / Audi Group in September 1998, renamed Cosworth Technology, before being subsequently acquired by Mahle GmbH in 2005.
Cosworth Technology was renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005. Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide engineering consultancy, high performance electronics, component manufacture services outside of its classic motorsport customer base. Current publicised projects range from an 80 cubic centimetres diesel engine for unmanned aerial vehicles, through to an engineering partnership on some of the world's most powerful aspirated road car engines, including upcoming Aston Martin Valkyrie 1000+bhp V12. Cosworth supplied its last premier class racing engines to one F1 team in 2013, the Marussia F1 Team; the following is the list of initial products, with cylinder heads modified, but not designed by Cosworth, on Ford Kent engine cylinder blocks. The exceptions were Mk. XVII and MAE, which had intake port sleeves for downdraft carburetors brazed into the stock cast iron cylinder head, in place of the normal side draft ports, thus could be considered Cosworth designs. In addition to the above, Cosworth designed and provided the assembly work for Lotus Elan Special Equipment optional road engines with special camshafts and high compression pistons.
The final model of the above initial series was the MAE in 1965, when new rules were introduced in Formula 3 allowing up to 1,000 cubic centimetres engines with 36mm intake restrictor plate. MAE used one barrel of a two barrel Weber IDA downdraft carburetor with the other barrel blanked off; the domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted until 1968. As Cosworth had a serious difficulty
John Barnard is a race car designer and is working with Terence Woodgate designing high specification carbon fibre furniture. Barnard is credited with the introduction of two new designs into Formula 1: the carbon fibre composite chassis first seen in 1981 with McLaren, the semi-automatic gearbox which he introduced with Ferrari in 1989. Barnard gained a diploma from Watford College of Technology in the 1960s and unlike many of his contemporaries he did not follow a lengthy academic career, instead choosing to join General Electric Company plc. In 1968 Barnard was recruited by Lola Cars in Huntingdon as a junior designer and began working on many of the chassis manufacturer's projects, including Formula Vee racers and numerous sports cars. While at Lola, Barnard was introduced to Patrick Head, who helped Frank Williams found the Williams Formula One team; the two engineers became Head was best man at Barnard's wedding in the early 1970s. In 1972 Barnard joined the McLaren Formula One team and remained for three years working alongside Gordon Coppuck on the design of the Championship-winning M23 chassis and other McLaren projects, including the team's Indycar.
By 1975 Barnard had been hired by Parnelli Jones to work with Maurice Philippe designing the team's Formula One racer which campaigned from 1974 to 1976. The cars best finish. After Philippe left Vel's Parnelli Jones Racing, Barnard modified the design for the Indycar circuit. Further Indycar designs followed and in 1980 the Barnard-designed Chaparral 2K chassis took Johnny Rutherford to the prestigious Indianapolis 500 and the CART drivers title, his success in the United States brought Barnard to the attention of new McLaren team boss Ron Dennis, in 1980 he joined the team and began working on the McLaren MP4, the first Carbon-Fibre-Composite chassis in Formula One, alongside the Lotus 88 designed by Colin Chapman. The chassis itself was built by one of the team's sponsors Hercules Aerospace in the US after former Hercules apprentice and McLaren engineer Steve Nichols had advised Barnard, who along with Dennis had been unsuccessfully searching in England for a company willing to take on the job, that the US based company might be their best choice, revolutionised car design in Formula One with new levels of rigidity and driver protection.
At the 1981 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the strength of the MP4/1 was given a public test when John Watson suffered a massive crash in his MP4/1 coming out of the second Lesmo turn. Many feared the worst for the Irishman as crashes like that in Formula One led to the death of the driver. However, the strength of the Carbon Fibre monocoque saw Watson survive unhurt to the surprise and delight of many, not the least being Watson himself and Barnard. Within months the design had been copied by many of McLaren's rivals. In 1983, Barnard pioneered the'coke-bottle' shape of sidepods still visible to this day. During his time with the team McLaren became the dominant force within Formula One, taking drivers titles for Niki Lauda in 1984, Alain Prost in 1985 and 1986, with the first two seasons seeing constructors honours and the team narrowly missing out to Williams in 1986 for a third; the 1984 season saw McLaren drivers Lauda and Prost win an amazing 12 of 16 races with the TAG-Porsche powered McLaren MP4/2.
By the time Barnard left McLaren for Ferrari at the end of 1986 his cars had won 31 Grands Prix for the team. The 80° V6 TAG engine had been financed by Mansour Ojjeh of Techniques d'Avant Garde and was built by Porsche to Barnard's specification for the MP4/1E and its successful replacement the MP4/2. After debuting in Lauda's new MP4/1E at the 1983 Dutch Grand Prix with 700 bhp, power rose until the 1.5-litre turbocharged engine named the TTE PO1 produced around 950 bhp at the end of its life in 1987. By 1986, the working relationship between Barnard and McLaren boss Ron Dennis had deteriorated; this led to speculation that Barnard would leave the team and it came as no surprise when it was announced before the 1986 German Grand Prix that he would be joining Ferrari in 1987. The Scuderia had not won a Grand Prix since Michele Alboreto had won the 1985 German Grand Prix, the designer had been able to name his terms. Given a large sum of money by the team to set up a design office in Guildford in England, Barnard founded the Ferrari Guildford Technical Office in early 1988 and began work on returning Ferrari to regular winning.
Gerhard Berger won the last 2 races of the 1987 season, followed by a lucky victory for Berger at the Italian Grand Prix in September 1988 in a season of total domination by McLaren, whose Honda powered MP4/4 had been designed by former colleague Steve Nichols, with some help from Barnard's replacement in the team, long time Brabham designer Gordon Murray. Ferrari finished 4th in the Constructors' Championship in 1987 and 2nd in 1988. Of the Gustav Brunner designed Ferrari F1/87 and the updated F1/87/88C used in the 1987 and 1988 seasons, Barnard stated that the car had a different design than he would have chosen given the regulations, but that by the time he arrived at the team work had begun on the cars' construction and little could be done to change things without considerable expense. With 1988 being the last year for turbo powered cars, his main focus was on designing the 1989 car to conform to the FIA's new reg
1978 Italian Grand Prix
The 1978 Italian Grand Prix was the 14th motor race of the 1978 Formula One season. It was held on 10 September 1978 at Monza, it was marred by the death of Ronnie Peterson following an accident at the start of the race. With three races remaining, Mario Andretti led the World Drivers' Championship by 12 points from his team-mate Ronnie Peterson. Niki Lauda, in third place, was 28 points behind Andretti, with only 9 points for a win, could not overtake him. Andretti took pole position alongside Gilles Villeneuve, with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in third place, Lauda in fourth and Peterson in fifth; the race starter was overenthusiastic, turning on the red lights before all the cars had lined up, several cars in the middle of the field got a jump on those at the front. The result was a funneling effect of the cars approaching the chicane, the cars were bunched together with little room for maneuver. James Hunt was overtaken on the right hand side by Riccardo Patrese and Hunt instinctively veered left and hit the rear right wheel of Peterson's Lotus 78, with Vittorio Brambilla, Hans-Joachim Stuck, Patrick Depailler, Didier Pironi, Derek Daly, Clay Regazzoni and Brett Lunger all involved in the ensuing melee.
Peterson's Lotus caught fire. He was trapped, but Hunt and Depailler managed to free him from the wreck before he received more than minor burns, he was dragged free and laid in the middle of the track conscious, but with severe leg injuries. It took 20 minutes. Brambilla —, hit on the head by a flying wheel and rendered unconscious— and Peterson were taken to the Niguarda hospital nearby Milan; the race was restarted nearly three hours during which time on the formation lap for the second race, Jody Scheckter's Wolf lost a wheel and crashed at the second Lesmo curve, bending the Armco barrier, situated right next to the track. Andretti, Lauda, Carlos Reutemann and Emerson Fittipaldi all went to the spot where Scheckter crashed and upon inspection of the state of the barrier, they refused to start until it was repaired; because of the amount of time between the first and second races. At the second start at nearly 6:00 P. M. Villeneuve overtook Andretti at the restart, but both drivers were judged to have gone early and given a one-minute penalty.
Andretti re-took the lead with only five laps remaining. With Jabouille having retired, Lauda finished third ahead of John Watson, Carlos Reutemann, Jacques Laffite and Patrick Tambay. Since all of those finished less than a minute behind and Villeneuve were dropped to sixth and seventh place. Andretti had won the championship. Following surgery, Peterson died the following day of an embolism. † Peterson suffered severe leg trauma in a multi-car accident and while in hospital the night following the race he was diagnosed with a fat embolism. He died the following morning as a result of the fat embolism. Lap leaders: Jean-Pierre Jabouille 5 laps. Mario Andretti and Gilles Villeneuve finished 1st and 2nd on the road but were assessed a 1-minute penalty for a jump start. Due to the long delay to clean up the debris from the opening lap accident, the race was shortened to 40 laps from the original 52, to avoid dusk. Jody Scheckter spun his Wolf at the Curve Di Lesmo on the formation lap. Harald Ertl failed to pre-qualify his Ensign and got another chance with the German ATS of injured Jochen Mass.
Last race: McLaren M23 Peterson's death guaranteed Andretti the Driver's Championship with two races left. Last Formula One race win as a manufacturer or engine supplier; this was Niki Lauda's last victory until the 1982 United States Grand Prix West. This was the final time that Brabham scored a 1–2 until the 1982 Canadian Grand Prix. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Report and Results - Grandprix.com encyclopedia
Hesketh Racing was a Formula One constructor from the United Kingdom, which competed from 1973 to 1978. The team competed in 52 World Championship Grands Prix, winning one and achieving eight further podium finishes, its best placing in the World Constructors' Championship was fourth in 1975. Hesketh gave James Hunt his Formula One debut, he brought the team most of its success. Alan Jones began his Formula One career in a entered Hesketh. Englishman Lord Hesketh, in partnership with Anthony'Bubbles' Horsley as driver, entered various Formula Three events around Europe in 1972, with the mission objective to have as much fun as possible. Due Horsley's lack of experience, there were few results. Hesketh subsequently employed James Hunt, who had a reputation for being fast, but for writing off cars, who, at the time, was unemployed. Hesketh took on Hunt as one of his drivers for F3; the Hesketh team had a growing reputation for their playboy style, arriving at races in Rolls-Royce cars, drinking champagne regardless of their results, checking the entire team into five-star hotels.
The team had a patch specially made for Hunt's driving suit which read: "Sex – The Breakfast of Champions". By the middle of the season Hunt and Horsley had written off both of the team's Formula Three cars. Horsley decided switching to the team's management. Hesketh rented a Formula Two March for the rest of 1972, bought Hunt a Surtees Formula Two car for 1973. Hunt promptly wrote the car off at the Pau Grand Prix, in typical style, Hesketh worked out that the cost involved in competing in the top flight was hardly more expensive than F2, decided to move the team up to Formula One. Hesketh rented a Surtees TS9 for the non-championship Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, with Hunt finishing third; this success led to the purchase of a March 731, with Hesketh signing junior March Engineering designer Harvey Postlethwaite to modify the chassis, working from Hesketh's Easton Neston estate. The car made its first appearance at the 1973 Monaco Grand Prix, where Hunt ran sixth before the engine failed.
He scored a point at the team's next entry, the French Grand Prix, improved to fourth for the British Grand Prix, third for the Dutch Grand Prix. He took second place in the season-closing United States Grand Prix. In 1974, Postlethwaite designed an all-new car for the team, the Hesketh 308, ready for the Silverstone International Trophy, which Hunt won, making its championship debut at the South African Grand Prix; the car was strong, taking third place at the Swedish Grand Prix, the Austrian Grand Prix and the United States Grand Prix. For 1975, examples of the 308 were sold to Harry Stiller Racing, who gave Alan Jones his grand prix debut. Polar Caravans purchased a Hesketh chassis, while the works team modified the 308 for Hunt. At the same time, Horsley was developing into an efficient and competent team manager and under his guidance, the team moved forward. Hunt won the wet-dry 1975 Dutch Grand Prix, holding off Niki Lauda's dominant Ferrari, led at the British Grand Prix and the Austrian Grand Prix, taking several placings on his way to fourth overall.
In late 1975 Lord Hesketh announced he could no longer afford to try to produce the next British world champion, having raced without sponsorship, ended the team. Hunt was offered the lead drive at McLaren; the Hesketh name would live on in Formula One. First, Postlethwaite took his upgraded 308C design to Wolf–Williams Racing. Horsley upgraded the 308 to the 308D and continued as Hesketh Racing. Harald Ertl signed to drive the car, with the team's image landing Penthouse Magazine and Rizla as sponsors. Guy Edwards joined in a second car from the Belgian Grand Prix onwards with Alex Ribeiro bringing in some funds in the year. Ertl's seventh place at the British Grand Prix was the team's best result of the year. Frank Dernie designed the new 308E chassis for the 1977 season, with Rupert Keegan driving alongside Ertl. In the season a third car was entered for Héctor Rebaque, with Horsley trying to bring in money to the team. Ertl left and was replaced by Ian Ashley, but by now Keegan's was the only entry that made it to the grid, his seventh place at the Austrian Grand Prix was the team's best finish of the year.
In 1978 the team slimmed down with backing from Olympus Cameras. The car itself was upgraded, Divina Galica failed to qualify for the first two races. Eddie Cheever managed to get into the South African Grand Prix, retiring with a fractured oil line. Derek Daly was the next to try the car, at the wet International Trophy at Silverstone, in his debut, diced for the lead with James Hunt's McLaren before a stone cracked his visor and ended his race. However, in world championship events he failed to qualify for the next three races, after which the team folded; the Ibec-Hesketh 308LM later referred to as the "Ibec P6" and the "Ibec 308LM Cobra", is a one-off sports prototype racing car, built in 1978, was designed by Postlethwaite around many components of the Hesketh 308 Formula One car. The car was funded by Lloyd's of London insurance broker Ian Bracey, who formed the Ian Bracey Engineering Company to oversee the project. Unlike many privateer sports car entrants in the late 1970s, Bracey harboured serious hopes of winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race.
Rather than buy an only competitive off-the-peg chassis on which to build, Bracey commissioned former Hesketh chief designer Postlethwaite to design a brand new chassis around a detuned 3.0-litre Cosworth DFV engine. Postlethwaite used his Hesketh connections to buy both front an
Héctor Alonso Rebaque is a former racing driver from Mexico. He participated in 58 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 5 June 1977, he scored a total of 13 championship points. He ran his own Formula One team, Rebaque, in 1978 and 1979. In the middle of 1980, he substituted for Ricardo Zunino as team mate to Nelson Piquet at Brabham, where he stayed throughout the 1981 season achieving his best Formula One results, finishing 10th in the Championship, he drove in the 1982 CART IndyCar season for Forsythe Racing including the 1982 Indianapolis 500 where he finished 13th after a pit fire on lap 151. He won his final CART race, the first one held at Road America. However, he was injured a week in a testing crash at the Milwaukee Mile and decided to return to road racing as he felt oval racing was too dangerous. Rebaque's helmet was black with a green and red design surrounding the visor area; the colours used are the colours of the Mexican flag. After his retirement from racing tracks Rebaque is dedicated to business related to architecture in Mexico.
Héctor Alonso Rebaque – El ùltimo amateur de la F1, Carlos Eduardo Jalife Villalon, Scuderia Hermanos Rodriguez, 2010 ISBN
The Williams FW07 was a ground effect Formula One racing car designed by Patrick Head, Frank Dernie, Neil Oatley for the 1979 F1 season. It was based on the Lotus 79 being developed in the same wind tunnel at Imperial College London; some observers, among them Lotus aerodynamicist Peter Wright felt the FW07 was little more than a re-engineered Lotus 79. The car was small and simple and light, powered by the ubiquitous Ford Cosworth DFV, it had clean lines and seemed to be a strong challenger for the new season, but early reliability problems halted any serious threat for the title. While not the first to use ground effects in Formula One, an honour belonging to Colin Chapman and the Lotus 78, Head may have had a better grasp of the principles than Chapman; the car made its debut at the Spanish Grand Prix at Jarama in 1979, the 5th round of the season and the first European round after the non-ground effect FW06 was used for the first 4 rounds in the Americas and South Africa. The car proved to be reasonably competitive.
But when the British Grand Prix at Silverstone came around, chief designer Frank Dernie had designed and implemented a system that ensured that the car's all-important skirts touched the ground at all times and had corrected some aerodynamic leakage at the back of the chassis between the French and British Grand Prix. Jones stuck the revised Williams on pole and was 2 seconds faster than the next fastest car; the car served to make Team Williams a contender for the first time. Jones won 4 of the next 5 Grand Prix in Germany, Austria and Canada in a car, so much quicker than any of the others around high-speed circuits, but because the car's competitiveness came only at mid-season and Williams lost the driver's and constructor's championships to South African Jody Scheckter and Ferrari, respectively. But the FW07's competitiveness meant that Williams was a top contender for the 1980 season and beyond; the FW07 became FW07B in 1980, Regazzoni was replaced by Carlos Reutemann. While the latter and Williams's other driver, Alan Jones, formed a successful partnership, they were not comfortable with each other.
Both drivers developed the FW07 further, working on setup and suspension strengthening. The car was now so efficient in creating downforce from its ground effect design that the front wings were unnecessary. Jones won five races in Argentina, Britain and Watkins Glen in the USA to win his only world championship, while Reutemann won at a wet race in Monaco. Williams won their first Constructors' Championship; the main challenge to the FW07 came from Nelson Piquet in Brabham's neat BT49. The FW07B evolved into the FW07C for 1981, this time it was Reutemann who challenged Piquet for the championship, narrowly missing out in the final race, but Williams took home the constructors' championship after four more wins. Further work was done to the suspension after the FIA banned the moveable skirts needed for effective ground effect; the hydraulic suspension systems were developed by Jones. During a winter test session at the Paul Ricard Circuit in the south of France, he suggested to Frank Williams that to compensate for the harsh ride and the pounding the driver gets while driving the car that he "put suspension on the seat", which Frank thought was a good idea.
However, he replied that Jones should sit on his wallet.'Yeah,' drawled the tough Aussie,'then give me something to put in it!' Jones temporarily left Formula One because of the unpleasant ride the FW07C gave, he described driving the car as "wrecking the internals". The FW07D was an experimental six-wheeled test car, tested by Alan Jones on one single occasion at the Donington Park circuit. With the FW07D proving the concept, its unique design was incorporated into the six-wheeled FW08B. After Jones retired, Williams took on Keke Rosberg in 1982, his mercurial driving seemed to suit the FW07, which although it was now three years old, was still competitive. After 15 wins, 300 points, one drivers' and two constructors' titles the FW07 was replaced by the engineered FW08 from early 1982. * 4 points in 1979 scored using the FW06* 44 points in 1982 scored using the FW08 Lotus 79 Brabham BT49
The Lotus 78'wing car' was a Formula One racing car used in the 1977 and 1978 seasons. It was designed by Peter Wright, Colin Chapman, Martin Ogilvie and Tony Rudd, was the car that started the ground effect revolution in Formula One. In early 1976, spurred on by the disappointing lack of pace of the ageing Lotus 72 the previous season, the indifferent performance of the current Lotus 77, Chapman wrote a 27-page document detailing his ideas on low drag air penetration. After he had studied a de Havilland Mosquito fighter bomber, he paid close attention to its wing mounted radiators, the hot air outlets that were designed to induce lift. Chapman realised. Careful examination of Bernoulli's principle of fluid dynamics confirmed his thoughts on the effects of an upturned aeroplane wing profile fitted to the car, gave the document to his head of engineering Tony Rudd. Rudd appointed a team to work on the project: chief designer Ralph Bellamy, vehicle engineer Martin Ogilvie and aerodynamicist Peter Wright.
Rudd and Wright had worked for BRM, before joining Lotus in 1970 had done a design study into the possibility of an inverted wing profile fitted to one of their cars. Rudd had tested a number of scale models, but lack of the right testing methods and BRM's declining fortunes meant development had never got beyond the experimental stage. However, Wright brought it into the project. Wright set about experimenting with F1 car body shapes using a wind tunnel and a rolling road, when by happy accident he began to get remarkable results in one of the models. Closer inspection found that as the rolling road's speed increased, the shaped underbody was being drawn closer to the surface of the road. Wright experimented with pieces of cardboard attached to the side of the model car body, the level of perceived downforce produced was phenomenal; the results were presented to Colin Chapman, who gave the team free rein to come up with an F1 chassis design. After a round of design sketches and engineering drawings, further work in the wind tunnel at Imperial College the car was put into production.
Five examples were built, codenamed John Player Special Mk. III, otherwise known as the Lotus 78 which appeared in July 1976. Mario Andretti wanted to introduce the car early at the Dutch Grand Prix that year but was overruled by Chapman, as he didn't want other teams discovering what Lotus had achieved; the 78 was introduced at the first race of 1977, proved to be the class car of the field that season, winning five races. The car proved easy to set up and modify, with particular attention paid to the undercar aerodynamics and their interaction with the track surface, hence a stiffer suspension design, required to maintain the aerodynamic effects; the 78 was loosely based on the Lotus 72, sharing the same basic wedge shape and internal layout, but featuring detailed aerodynamic improvements, better weight distribution and a longer wheelbase. It had a slimmer, stronger monocoque made from aluminium sheet and honeycomb, developed from the 77; the bodywork was made up of fibreglass body panels with aluminium used to strengthen the chassis at points.
The car created quite a stir when it first appeared, outwardly seemed ahead of its time. Internally of course, it was a quantum leap ahead. Andretti worked hard with the car, testing for many thousands of miles at the Lotus test track in Hethel. Based on Bernoulli's discoveries, the underside of the sidepods were shaped as inverted aerofoils, in the same vein as conventional wings but on a much larger scale. Wright and Chapman had discovered that by shaping the floor of the car in this way, they could accelerate the air passing through the gap between the ground and the underside, thereby reducing the air pressure under the car relative to that over it; this created a partial vacuum sucking the vehicle down which forced the tyres harder onto the track. Copying the Mosquito's radiator design, the radiators were positioned so that the hot air escaping would pass over the upper bodywork of the car, creating more downforce. To make the suction effect as great as possible, the monocoque was slimmer, forcing the air passing through between the ground and the inverted wing shape cover as much as possible.
The greater force downwards on the tyres gave more grip and thus higher cornering speeds. This ground effect had the great advantage of being a low drag solution unlike conventional wings, meaning that the increased cornering ability was not compromised by a decrease in straight-line speed. If anything, because of the decreased air resistance, the top speed of the car increased accordingly. To begin with, brushes were fitted to the base of each sidepod to keep the low pressure area under the car; when these proved insufficient, Lotus tried plastic skirts, but these abraded quickly, until moveable rubber skirts were developed which proved effective. The sliding skirts sealed the gap between the sides of the cars and the ground and prevented excessive air being sucked into the low pressure area under the car and dissipating the ground effect. Andretti described driving the 78 as if it were'painted to the road'; the fuel tanks were three separate cells, with one behind the driver and one each in the midsection of each sidepod.
The sidepod tanks could be controlled from the cockpit by the driver and could be used to fuel the engine separately or together, improving performance and weight bias in cornering. The suspension set up from the previous Lotus 77 was used, with the suspension designed for quick changes in geometry; this helped set the car up for a specific circuit. After first tests were done, the low pressure area under th