2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
Sofiya Aleksandrovna Velikaya is a Russian sabre fencer, Olympic gold and silver medalist, seven-times World champion and nine-times European champion. Velikaya collected her first Olympic gold medal with her team at the 2016 Summer Olympics. Velikaya began, her first coach was Valery Dyakokin. She placed fourth in the 2008 Beijing Games after losing to Rebecca Ward by one point in the bronze medal match. On 12 October 2011, she became the World Champion after beating two-time Olympic champion Mariel Zagunis in the final. One year after, she took part in the Summer Olympics in London, where she advanced to finals after defeating Olga Kharlan of Ukraine, she captured silver. After the Olympics Velikaya took a break in her career, she gave birth with Olympic wrestler Aleksey Mishin. She came back to international competition in March 2014 at the Antalya World Cup, where she was defeated in the second round by Hungary's Anna Várhelyi. At the European Championships in Strasbourg, she was stopped in the second round again, this time by Italy's Rossella Gregorio.
In the team event, Russia defeated Hungary to meet France in the final. After being led 30–35 Russia overcame France in the last two relays to win the gold medal. At the World Championships in Kazan Velikaya made her way to the quarter-finals, where she met reigning World champion Olga Kharlan of Ukraine. After a good beginning Velikaya could not prevent Kharlan's comeback and was defeated 9–15, she was however pleased by her return to form. In the team event, Russia overcame Canada in the round of 16 and met France in the quarter-finals. Surprised by France's outright attack, Russia did not manage to regain control and suffered a shock 41–45 defeat, they finished 5th after prevailing over South Korea and Poland. In the 2014–15 season, Velikaya won the first event held in Cancún after defeating France's Charlotte Lembach in the final, she placed second with Russia in the team event. In Orléans, Velikaya put an end to the invincibility of the world no.1 Olga Kharlan, who had not taken part in the Cancún tournament.
Velikaya proceeded to the final where she defeated Italy's Rossella Gregorio and earned her second gold medal in a row. In the team event, Russia stormed through the competition and saw off the United States in the final to win team gold. Velikaya reached again the final in the New York Grand Prix, she met Kharlan. The same scenario played out in Athens at the first World Cup event of 2015, Velikaya losing only by a single hit that time. In the team event, Russia fenced Ukraine in the final. After a tight match Russia lost ground in the penultimate relay, which ended on 33–40. Velikaya came away with a second silver medal, she took her revenge at the Ghent World Cup, defeating Kharlan 15–3 in the semi-finals Zagunis 15–10 in the final, to take her third gold medal of the season. This result caused her to jump to the third place in World rankings. Velikaya qualified for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro alongside her teammates Yana Egorian and Ekaterina Dyachenko. In women's sabre in the table of 32 she defeated Bogna Jóźwiak from Poland.
In the table of 16, quarter-finals and semi-finals, Velikaya prevailed over Charlotte Lembach, Cécilia Berder and Manon Brunet of France, respectively. She lost 14–15 to her teammate Yana Egorian in the finals, winning her second consecutive silver medal at the Olympics in the individual women's sabre. Velikaya managed to claim the Olympic gold a few days in the team event. Russia defeated Mexico in the quarter-finals, prevailed over the USA in the semi-finals and met the Ukrainian in the final. Velikaya and her teammates, including Yuliya Gavrilova, came away with the gold medal, defeating Ukraine 45–30. Velikaya was ranked Nr. 1 in the women's sabre for the most of 2016. She was succeeded by Yana Egorian as the new #1. Velikaya finished 2016 as the world's #3. On 17 November 2016, Velikaya was elected the head of the Russian Olympic Committee Athletes' Commission. Order of Merit for the Fatherland 1st class – for outstanding contribution to the development of physical culture and sports, high achievements at the Games of the 30th Olympic Games in London, United Kingdom.
Athlete of the Year Order of Honour – for high achievements at the 31st Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, the will to win and goal-oriented approach. Medal of Military Valour – 1st class. Velikaya is married to Aleksey Mishin, they have two child together, a son, named Oleg, born on 30 November 2013, a girl named Zoya, born in 2018. Sofiya Velikaya at the Russian Fencing Federation Sofiya Velikaya at the European Fencing Confederation Sofiya Velikaya at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Ned Dixon "Dickie" Hemric was an American collegiate and professional basketball player for Wake Forest University and the NBA's Boston Celtics. Hemric played the first two college years at Wake Forest when the school was a member of the Southern Conference; the Atlantic Coast Conference Male Athlete of the Year was created at the start of the 1954 season, he played his last two seasons in the ACC, setting conference records for scoring and rebounding that were untouched for the first 50 years of the conference's existence. He was honored as the second recipient of the ACC Athlete of the Year in 1955. In 2002 Hemric was selected to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team, honoring the fifty greatest players in ACC history. Hemric's ACC scoring record of 2,587 points was untouched from 1956 until it was broken in 2006 by Duke University's J. J. Redick and in 2009 by Tyler Hansbrough of the University of North Carolina. Hemric held the NCAA record for free throws made in a career with 905 for 54 years until it was passed by Hansbrough.
Hemric still holds the Division I record for most free throw attempts in a career. Hemric's ACC record of 1,802 career rebounds may never face a serious challenge - for four decades the nearest runner-up was his contemporary Ronnie Shavlik, now third on the list with 1,567 rebounds from 1954 to 1956. Second is legendary NBA power forward Tim Duncan, who pulled down 1,570 rebounds at Wake Forest from 1994 to 1997. With most of today's elite ACC players leaving for the NBA before completing four seasons, it is difficult to project a scenario in which Hemric's record could be broken. Nationally Hemric is still fifth all-time in Division I career rebounds. Hemric died on August 3, 2017 at his home in North Canton, Ohio nearly four weeks shy of his 84th birthday. List of NCAA Division I men's basketball career free throw scoring leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball career rebounding leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball players with 2000 points and 1000 rebounds
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Leonard Robert Rosenbluth is an American former basketball player and All-American at the University of North Carolina, NBA basketball player. In college, he was Helms Foundation Player of the Year, Consensus first-team All-American, Second-team All-American – AP, UPI, INS, Third-team All-American – NEA, Collier's, ACC Player of the Year, 3× First-team All-ACC, had his No. 10 retired by UNC. Rosenbluth was born in the Bronx in New York city, is Jewish, he attended James Monroe High School in the Bronx, Staunton Military Academy in Staunton, Virginia for the 1952-53 school year. He played only eight games in high school. In his first year of varsity basketball at the University of North Carolina in 1955, the 6’ 5" small forward was the Tar Heels' leading scorer, he was named third team All-America, averaging 11.7 rebounds. In 1956 he achieved All-America honors, but this time they were split between various first and second team selections, he again led the Tar Heels in scoring with a 26.7 average.
In his senior season in 1957 Rosenbluth averaged 27.9 points and 8.6 rebounds per game while leading the Tar Heels to a 32–0 record. His regular season performance earned him the Helms Hall of Fame "Collegiate Player of the Year" designation over the University of Kansas's Wilt Chamberlain. Tar Heels went on to defeat Chamberlain's Jayhawks 54–53 in triple overtime for the NCAA Basketball Championship, North Carolina's first, which brought credibility to the fledgling Atlantic Coast Conference. Rosenbluth's scored 20 points in the championship final, was the tournament's overall top scorer at 28.0 ppg, was named to the All-Tournament Team. He was named the ACC Player of the Year and ACC Male Athlete of the Year. Rosenbluth has been honored for his athletic achievements while at North Carolina. In 2002, he was named to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team as one of the 50 greatest players in Atlantic Coast Conference history, he was selected to the "All-Decade Final Four" team for the 1950s.
He is in the Helms College Basketball Hall of Fame, is listed by some as one of the "100 Greatest College Players of All-Time", is a member of the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Rosenbluth received a number of other accolades and awards during his playing career: Three-time All-ACC selections 1957 ACC Player and Athlete of the Year MVP of the'57 ACC Tournament All-Tournament at three Dixie Classics; until Duke University's Christian Laettner, Rosenbluth was the only collegian to be named NCAA National Player of the Year, ACC Player of the Year, ACC Tournament MVP, NCAA regional MVP in the same season. Rosenbluth holds several UNC records, including most points in a single season, highest single-season average. In the 1957 NBA Draft he was the sixth player picked by the Philadelphia Warriors, his professional career included a brief stint with the Warriors. He played for them from 1957–59, he played in 82 games, averaged 4.2 points per game. After he retired from basketball, he had a long career as coach.
He moved with his wife to Fort Myers, Florida. List of select Jewish basketball players NBA career statistics
Olha Hennadiyivna Kharlan is a Ukrainian sabre fencer. She holds a bronze medal from both the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Olympics and is a three-time World champion and five-time European champion, she was Olympic team champion in the 2008 Summer Olympics, twice World team champion and twice European team champion. Kharlan was named athlete of the year at the 2009 Ukrainian Heroes of Sports Years awards, she pursued a political career. Kharlan was born in a shipbuilding town in the south of Ukraine, her father was a sailing and swimming coach, taught her to swim when she was still a baby. He moonlighted as a construction worker and a cab driver, her mother worked as a plasterer. Kharlan first interest was in dancing; when she was 10, her godfather, sabre coach Anatoly Shlikar, suggested she take up fencing, where the lessons were free. She came under the training of Artem Skorokhod, who remains her coach as of 2014, her first success was the national Junior title, won when she was only 13 against teenagers up to five years older.
Kharlan was educated at the Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding in Mykolaiv. She married fellow sabre fencer Dmytro Boiko in August 2014. Kharlan joined the Ukrainian national team at the age of 14, her first medal in an international competition was a bronze in the 2005 Junior World Championships in Linz after a defeat against Olympic champion Mariel Zagunis. That same year, she reached the quarter-finals in the 2005 European Fencing Championships at Zalaegerszeg despite still being a cadet. In 2006, she placed second in the 2006 European Seniors Fencing Championship at İzmir after a close 14–15 defeat against Russia's Sofiya Velikaya. At the age of 17 Kharlan took part in the 2008 Summer Olympics at Beijing, she was eliminated by No.1 seed Sada Jacobson in the third round of the individual event. In the team event, Ukraine made their way to the final. Kharlan proved decisive in the last bout. In the 2008–09 season Kharlan won the gold medal at the European Championships in Plovdiv both in the individual and the team event, where Ukraine overcame Russia.
At the World Championships in Antalya, Kharlan once again made her way to the final, only to be stopped by Mariel Zagunis. She was described as "one of the most precocious talents in this category, she is steady and consistent, but above all she is the star of the future." In the team event, Ukraine defeated France in the final to come away with the gold medal. For this performance Kharlan and her team were named athlete and team of the year at the Ukrainian Heroes of Sports Year ceremony held in April 2010. In the 2009–10 season Kharlan won her fourth Junior World Championship in a row, equalling the record established by Jacques Brodin in the 1960s, she is however the only fencer to have claimed these consecutive golds both in the individual and team events. She was defeated by Germany's Sibylle Klemm in the quarter-finals of the European Championships and failed to earn a medal. In the team event Ukraine won gold after beating Russia once again in the final. In the 2013 World Championships Kharlan made her way to the final after defeating reigning Olympic champion Kim Ji-yeon in a tight 15–14 bout.
She took an early 8–1 lead in the bout against Yekaterina Dyachenko of Russia, who managed to get back to 12–12. Kharlan struck three hits in a row to win her first individual World title. In the team event Ukraine met once again Russia in the final. After a tight match Kharlan managed a comeback in the last leg and received her second gold medal in the competition, she finished the season No.1 in world rankings for the first time of her career and she was inducted in the hall of fame of the International Fencing Federation. In the 2013 -- 14 season Kharlan won four World Cups out of seven competitions. At the European Championships in Strasbourg she earned her fourth European gold medal in a row and the fifth of her career after defeating Dyachenko again in the final. In the team event she had to rescue her team against underdogs Spain in the quarter-finals, scraping a 45–43 victory, but could not prevent a 45–30 defeat at the hands of France. Kharlan's contribution proved once again decisive in the match against Poland and Ukraine came away with a bronze medal.
In the World Championships Kharlan won her second title in a row after prevailing 15–12 over No.2 seed Zagunis. In the team event, Ukraine were defeated by 44–45 by the United States and met Italy for the third place. Again Kharlan came back in the last leg to win her team a bronze medal, she finished the season No.1 in rankings for the second time in a row. In the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, she bested French competitor Manon Brunet for the bronze medal, with a score of 15-10. In the 2010 Ukrainian local elections Kharlan was elected a member of the Mykolaiv City Council for Party of Regions despite living in Kiev, she was notoriously absent during its sessions She was standing for election to the Ukrainian Parliament in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election but due to a 194th place on the list of Party of Regions she was not elected. Kharlan left the Party of Regions faction in the Mykolaiv City Council late March 2014. In May 2014 she was a candidate for the Party of Greens of Ukraine in the Kiev local election.
The website of the Party of Greens of Ukraine claimed Kharlan was third on its election list in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamenta
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher