Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC
Paul John Manafort Jr. is an American lobbyist, political consultant, former lawyer, convicted felon. A long time Republican Party campaign consultant, he joined Donald Trump's presidential campaign team in March 2016, was campaign chairman from June to August 2016, he was convicted of tax and bank fraud in 2018 and forfeited his license to practice law in January 2019. Manafort has served as an adviser to the U. S. presidential campaigns of Republicans Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bob Dole. In 1980, he co-founded the Washington, D. C.-based lobbying firm Black, Manafort & Stone, along with principals Charles R. Black Jr. and Roger J. Stone, joined by Peter G. Kelly in 1984. Manafort lobbied on behalf of foreign leaders such as former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych, former dictator of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos, former dictator of Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko, Angolan guerrilla leader Jonas Savimbi. Lobbying to serve the interests of foreign governments requires registration with the Justice Department under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.
On October 27, 2017, Manafort and his business associate Rick Gates were indicted in the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia on multiple charges arising from his consulting work for the pro-Russian government of Viktor Yanukovych in Ukraine before Yanukovych's overthrow in 2014; the indictment had been requested by Robert Mueller's Special Counsel investigation. In June 2018, additional charges were filed against Manafort for obstruction of justice and witness tampering that are alleged to have occurred while he was under house arrest, he was ordered to jail. Manafort was prosecuted in two federal courts. In the Eastern District of Virginia, in August 2018, Manafort was convicted on eight charges of tax and bank fraud. A mistrial was declared on ten other charges, though he admitted to them. In the DC District Court, Manafort pleaded guilty to two charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States and witness tampering, while agreeing to cooperate with prosecutors. On November 26, 2018, Robert Mueller reported that Manafort violated his plea deal by lying to investigators, on February 13, 2019, DC District Court Judge Amy Berman Jackson concurred, voiding the plea deal.
Mueller advised the Virginia court that sentencing guidelines call for Manafort to serve 19 and a half years to 24 years in prison. On March 7, 2019, Judge T. S. Ellis, calling the Mueller applicable sentencing guideline "excessive", sentenced Manafort to 47 months in prison. On March 13, 2019, Judge Amy Berman Jackson of the D. C. Circuit Court sentenced Manafort to an additional 43 months in prison. Minutes after his sentencing, New York state prosecutors charged Manafort with sixteen state felonies. Paul John Manafort Jr. was born on April 1949, in New Britain, Connecticut. Manafort's parents are Antoinette Mary Manafort and Paul John Manafort Sr.. His grandfather immigrated to the United States from Italy in the early 20th century, settling in Connecticut, he founded the construction company New Britain House Wrecking Company in 1919. His father served in the U. S. Army combat engineers during World War II and was mayor of New Britain from 1965 to 1971, his father was not convicted. In 1967, Manafort graduated from St. Thomas Aquinas High School, a private Roman Catholic secondary school, closed in 1999, in New Britain.
He attended Georgetown University, where he received his B. S. in business administration in 1971 and his J. D. in 1974. Between 1977 and 1980, Manafort practiced law with the firm of Vorys, Sater and Pease in Washington, D. C, he forfeited his Connecticut Bar license on January 11, 2019. In 1976, Manafort was the delegate-hunt coordinator for eight states for the President Ford Committee. Between 1978 and 1980, Manafort was the southern coordinator for Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign, the deputy political director at the Republican National Committee. After Reagan's election in November 1980, he was appointed Associate Director of the Presidential Personnel Office at the White House. In 1981, he was nominated to the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Manafort was an adviser to the presidential campaigns of George H. W. Bush in 1988 and Bob Dole in 1996. In February 2016, Manafort approached Donald Trump through Thomas J. Barrack Jr.. He pointed out his experience advising presidential campaigns in the United States and around the world, described himself as an outsider not connected to the Washington establishment, offered to work without salary.
In March 2016, he joined Trump's presidential campaign to take the lead in getting commitments from convention delegates. On June 20, 2016, Trump fired campaign manager Corey Lewandowski and promoted Manafort to the position. Manafort gained control of the daily operations of the campaign as well as an expanded $20 million budget, hiring decisions and media strategy. On June 9, 2016, Donald Trump Jr. and Jared Kushner were participants in a meeting with Russian attorney Natalia Veselnitskaya and several others at Trump Tower. A British music agent, saying he was acting on behalf of Emin Agalarov and the Russian government, had told Trump Jr. that he could obtain damaging information on Hillary Clinton if he met with a lawyer connected to the Kremlin. At first, Trump Jr. said the meeting had been about the Russian ban on international adoptions and mentioned nothing about Mrs. Clinton.
Renaissance Technologies LLC is an American hedge fund firm based in East Setauket, New York, on Long Island, which specializes in systematic trading using quantitative models derived from mathematical and statistical analyses. The company was founded in 1982 by James Simons, an award-winning mathematician and former Cold War code breaker. In 1988, the firm established its most profitable portfolio, the Medallion Fund, which used an improved and expanded form of Leonard Baum's mathematical models, improved by algebraist James Ax, to explore correlations from which they could profit. Simons and Ax started a hedge fund and named it Medallion in honor of the math awards that they had won. Renaissance's flagship Medallion fund, run for fund employees, "is famed for one of the best records in investing history, returning more than 35 percent annualized over a 20-year span". From 1994 through mid-2014 it averaged a 71.8% annual return. Renaissance offers two portfolios to outside investors—Renaissance Institutional Equities Fund and Renaissance Institutional Diversified Alpha.
Simons ran Renaissance until his retirement in late 2009. The company is now run by Peter Brown, both of them were computer scientists specializing in computational linguistics who joined Renaissance in 1993 from IBM Research. Simons continues to play a role at the firm as non-executive chairman and remains invested in its funds the secretive and profitable black-box strategy known as Medallion; because of the success of Renaissance in general and Medallion in particular, Simons has been described as the best money manager on earth. By October 2015, Renaissance had $65 billion worth of assets under management, most of which belong to employees of the firm. James Simons founded Renaissance Technologies following a decade as the Chair of the Department of Mathematics at Stony Brook University. Simons is a 1976 recipient of the Oswald Veblen Prize of the American Mathematical Society, geometry’s highest honor, he is known in the scientific community for his work, Chern–Simons theory, fundamental in modern theoretical physics, including advanced theories of how invisible fields like those of gravity interact with matter to produce everything from superstrings to black holes.
The firm is an early pioneer of quantitative trading, where researchers tap decades of diverse data in its vast petabyte-scale data warehouse to assess statistical probabilities for the direction of securities prices in any given market. Experts attribute the breadth of data on events peripheral to financial and economic phenomena that Renaissance takes into account, the firm's ability to manipulate enormous amounts of data by deploying efficient and scalable technological architectures for computation and execution, for its consistent success in beating the markets. In many ways, Renaissance Technologies, along with a few other firms, has been synthesizing terabytes of data daily and extracting information signals from petabytes of data for two decades now, well before big data and data analytics caught the imagination of mainstream technology. For more than twenty years, the firm's Renaissance Technologies hedge fund, which trades in markets around the world, has employed complex mathematical models to analyze and execute trades, many of them automated.
The firm uses computer-based models to predict price changes in traded financial instruments. These models are based on analyzing as much data as can be gathered looking for non-random movements to make predictions; some attribute the firm's performance to employing financial signal processing techniques such as pattern recognition. The book The Quants describes the hiring of speech recognition experts, many from IBM, including the current leaders of the firm. Renaissance employs specialists with non-financial backgrounds, including mathematicians, signal processing experts and statisticians; the firm's latest fund is the Renaissance Institutional Equities Fund. RIEF has trailed the firm's better-known Medallion fund, a separate fund that contains only the personal money of the firm's executives. In a 2013 article in The Daily Telegraph, journalist Sarfraz Manzoor described Renaissance staff as math geniuses running Wall Street. "Of his 200 employees, ensconced in a fortress-like building in unfashionable Long Island, New York, a third have PhDs, not in finance, but in fields like physics and statistics.
Renaissance has been called “the best physics and mathematics department in the world” and, according to Weatherall, “avoids hiring anyone with the slightest whiff of Wall Street bona fides. Renaissance is a firm run by and for scientists, employing preferably those with non-financial backgrounds for quantitative finance research like mathematicians, statisticians and experimental physicists and computer scientists. Wall Street experience is frowned on and a flair for science is prized, it is a held belief within Renaissance that the herdlike mentality among business school graduates is to blame for poor investor returns. Renaissance engages 150 researchers and computer programmers, half of whom have PhDs in scientific disciplines, at its tranquil 50-acre East Setauket campus in Long Island, New York, near the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Mathematician Isadore Singer referred to Renaissance's East Setauket office as the best physics and mathematics department in the world; the firm’s administrative and back-office functions are handled from its Manhattan office in New York City.
The firm is intensely secretive about the inner workings of its business and little is known about it. The firm is known for its ability to recruit and retain top scienti
Erik Dean Prince is an American businessman and former U. S. Navy SEAL officer best known for founding the government services and security company Blackwater USA, now known as Academi, he served as its CEO until 2009 and as chairman, until Blackwater Worldwide was sold in 2010 to a group of investors. Prince heads the private equity firm Frontier Resource Group and is chairman of Hong Kong-listed Frontier Services Group Ltd, he is the brother of U. S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. Prince was born on June 6, 1969, in Holland, the son of Edgar D. Prince and his wife and the youngest of four children, he graduated from Holland Christian High School. Prince's father had started as a salesman making 40 cents an hour, who founded a die cast machine manufacturing firm, Prince Machine Corporation, in 1965, which became a supplier to the automobile manufacturing industry and a billion-dollar company; as business "exploded" Prince began to invest some of the profit through the Prince Group into other types of car parts and shopping malls, creating a network of companies and real estate worth a billion dollars.
In the early 1970s, Edgar Prince's company patented a sun visor that could light up and sold 5,000 to General Motors. In the'90s, the company produced 20,000 a day. Prince and his father toured the world together, visiting the Dachau concentration camp in Germany, a divided Berlin, Normandy. According to his mother, these trips "made a big impression" on the young Prince. Prince was accepted into the United States Naval Academy and attended it for three semesters before leaving, citing that he loved the Navy but disliked the Academy, he went on to receive his B. A. in economics from Hillsdale College in 1992. Some sources say Prince dropped out of the Naval Academy, while others say he transferred to Hillsdale. During his time at Hillsdale, he served as a volunteer firefighter and as a cold-water diver for the Hillsdale County Sheriff's Department. Prince became an emergency medical technician. In 1990, Prince secured a low-level internship in the White House under George H. W. Bush, but soon left to intern for California congressman Dana Rohrabacher, President Ronald Reagan's former speechwriter.
Rohrabacher described Prince as "a bright, driven young man." At the age of 21, Prince volunteered to search for a mass grave in Nicaragua, to expose killings under President Daniel Ortega and said that he had found one. After college, Prince was commissioned as an officer in the United States Navy via Officer Candidate School in 1992, he went on to become a Navy SEAL and deployed with SEAL Team 8 to Haiti, the Middle East, the Balkans. He credits the SEALs for being an outlet for his entrepreneurial spirit. In his autobiography he states that during the Yugoslav Wars in the early 1990s, he realized that there was a need for private training facilities for special operations. Prince ended his U. S. Navy service prematurely in 1995. Erik assumed control of daily operations at Prince Machine Corporation for a year until 1996 when his mother sold the company for $1.35 billion in cash to Johnson Controls. Prince moved to Virginia Beach and financed the formation of Blackwater Worldwide in 1997, he bought 6,000 acres of the Great Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and set up a school for special operations.
The name "Blackwater" comes from the peat-colored bogs. Prince credits the 1994 Rwandan genocide with his decision to start Blackwater, he said, "It bothered me. It made me realize you pontificate. You have to act."From 1997 to 2010, Blackwater was awarded $2 billion in government security contracts, more than $1.6 billion of which were unclassified federal contracts and an unknown amount of classified work. From 2001 to 2010, the Central Intelligence Agency awarded up to $600 million in classified contracts to Blackwater and its affiliates, it became the largest of the State Department's three private security companies, providing 987 guards for embassies and bases abroad. Prince built a shooting range on his rural Virginia land to serve as a nearby training facility to CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. In his memoir Prince says that he provided the CIA with links to Afghan warlords who helped "topple the Taliban and drive al Qaeda into hiding."Blackwater came under increasing criticism after the Nisour Square massacre in September 2007, in which Blackwater employees opened fire in a crowded square in Baghdad, killing 17 Iraqi civilians and wounding 20 more.
Three guards were convicted in October 2014 of 14 manslaughter charges, another of murder, in a U. S. court. The criticism continued after president Barack Obama took office in 2009. Prince said. "I put myself and my company at the CIA's disposal for some risky missions," Prince told Vanity Fair for its January 2010 issue. "But when it became politically expedient to do so, someone threw me under the bus."Nevertheless, in 2010 the Barack Obama administration awarded the company a $120 million United States Department of State security contract and about $100 million in new CIA work. Prince has defended Blackwater's work, pointing to the fact that in 40,000 personal security missions, only 200 involved guards firing their weapons, he has said, "No one under our care was killed or injured. We kept them safe, all the while we had 30 of our men killed."Prince, according to author Robert Young Pelton thinks of Blackwater's relationship to the military as something similar to FedEx's relationship to the U.
S. Post Office: "an efficient, privatized solution to sclerotic and wasteful government bureaucracy." He credits his father's competitive streak in the automotiv
Willard Mitt Romney is an American politician and businessman serving as the junior United States senator from Utah since January 2019. He served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election. Raised in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, by his parents and Lenore Romney, he spent two-and-a-half years in France as a Mormon missionary starting in 1966, he married Ann Davies in 1969, they have five sons. By 1971, he had participated in the political campaigns of both parents. Romney earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from Brigham Young University in 1971 and a joint JD–MBA from Harvard University in 1975. Romney became a management consultant and in 1977 secured a position at Company. Serving as Bain's chief executive officer, he helped lead the company out of a financial crisis. In 1984, he co-founded and led the spin-off company Bain Capital, a profitable private equity investment firm that became one of the largest of its kind in the nation.
Active in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints throughout his adult life, Romney served as bishop of his ward and as a stake president near Boston. After stepping down from Bain Capital and his local leadership role in the LDS Church, Romney ran as the Republican candidate in the 1994 United States Senate election in Massachusetts. After losing to longtime incumbent Ted Kennedy, he resumed his position at Bain Capital. Years a successful stint as President and CEO of the then-struggling Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympics led to a re-launch of his political career. Elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, Romney helped develop and signed a health care reform law that provided near-universal health insurance access through state-level subsidies and individual mandates to purchase insurance, he presided over the elimination of a projected $1.2–1.5 billion deficit through a combination of spending cuts, increased fees and closing corporate tax loopholes. He did not seek re-election in 2006, instead focusing on his campaign for the Republican nomination in the 2008 U.
S. presidential election. Though he won several primaries and caucuses, Senator John McCain was chosen as the Republican Party's nominee. Romney's considerable net worth, estimated in 2012 at $190–250 million, helped finance his political campaigns prior to 2012. Romney won the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, becoming the first LDS Church member to be a presidential nominee of a major party, he was defeated by incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election, losing the Electoral College by a margin of 206–332 and the popular vote by a margin of 47%–51%. After re-establishing residency in Utah, Romney announced his campaign for the U. S. Senate seat held by the retiring Orrin Hatch in the 2018 election. In doing so, he became only the third individual to be elected governor of one state and U. S. senator for another state. Romney was sworn in on January 3, 2019. Willard Mitt Romney was born on March 12, 1947, at Harper University Hospital in Detroit, one of four children born to automobile executive George W. Romney and homemaker Lenore Romney.
His mother was a native of Logan and his father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico. Of English descent, he has Scottish and German ancestry. A fifth-generation member of the LDS Church, he is a great-grandson of Miles Park Romney and a great-great-grandson of Miles Romney, who converted to the faith in its first decade. Another great-great-grandfather, Parley P. Pratt, helped lead the early church. Romney has three older siblings, Margo and Scott. Mitt was the youngest by nearly six years, his parents named him after a family friend, businessman J. Willard Marriott, his father's cousin, Milton "Mitt" Romney, a former quarterback for the Chicago Bears. Romney was referred to as "Billy" until kindergarten, when he expressed a preference for "Mitt". In 1953, the family moved from Detroit to the affluent suburb of Bloomfield Hills and his father became the chairman and CEO of American Motors the following year and helped the company avoid bankruptcy and return to profitability.
By 1959, his father had become a nationally known figure in print and on television, Mitt idolized him. Romney attended public elementary schools until the seventh grade, when he enrolled as one of only a few Mormon students at Cranbrook School, a private upscale boys' preparatory school a few miles from his home. Many students there came from backgrounds more privileged than his. Not athletic, he did not distinguish himself academically, he did participate in his father's successful 1962 Michigan gubernatorial campaign, worked as an intern in the Governor's office. Romney took up residence at Cranbrook when his newly elected father began spending most of his time at the state capitol. At Cranbrook, Romney helped manage the ice hockey team, he joined the pep squad. During his senior year, he joined the cross country running team, he belonged to eleven school organizations and school clubs overall, including the Blue Key Club, a booster group that he had started. During his final year there, his academic record fell short of excellence.
Romney was involved in several pranks while attending Cranbrook. He has since apologized for those. In March of his senior year, he began dating Ann Davies.
Climate change denial
Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy. It involves denial, dismissal, or unwarranted doubt that contradicts the scientific opinion on climate change, including the extent to which it is caused by humans, its impacts on nature and human society, or the potential of adaptation to global warming by human actions; some deniers endorse the term. Several scientists have noted that "skepticism" is an inaccurate description for those who deny anthropogenic global warming. In effect, the two terms form a continuous, overlapping range of views, have the same characteristics: both reject, to a greater or lesser extent, the scientific consensus on climate change. Climate change denial can be implicit, when individuals or social groups accept the science but fail to come to terms with it or to translate their acceptance into action. Several social science studies have analyzed these positions as forms of denialism and pseudoscience; the campaign to undermine public trust in climate science has been described as a "denial machine" organized by industrial and ideological interests, supported by conservative media and skeptical bloggers to manufacture uncertainty about global warming.
In the public debate, phrases such as climate skepticism have been used with the same meaning as climate denialism. The labels are contested: those challenging climate science describe themselves as "skeptics", but many do not comply with common standards of scientific skepticism and, regardless of evidence, persistently deny the validity of human caused global warming. Although scientific opinion on climate change is that human activity is likely to be the primary driver of climate change, the politics of global warming have been affected by climate change denial, hindering efforts to prevent climate change and adapt to the warming climate; those promoting denial use rhetorical tactics to give the appearance of a scientific controversy where there is none. Of the world's countries, the climate change denial industry is most powerful in the United States. From 2015 to 2017, the United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works was chaired by oil lobbyist and climate change denier Jim Inhofe, who had called climate change "the greatest hoax perpetrated against the American people" and claimed to have debunked the alleged hoax in February 2015 when he brought a snowball with him in the Senate chamber and tossed it across the floor.
He was succeeded in 2017 by John Barrasso, who said: "The climate is changing. The role human activity plays is not known." Organised campaigning to undermine public trust in climate science is associated with conservative economic policies and backed by industrial interests opposed to the regulation of CO2 emissions. Climate change denial has been associated with the fossil fuels lobby, the Koch brothers, industry advocates and conservative think tanks in the United States. More than 90% of papers sceptical on climate change originate from right-wing think tanks; the total annual income of these climate change counter-movement-organizations is $900 million. Between 2002 and 2010, nearly $120 million was anonymously donated via the Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund to more than 100 organisations seeking to undermine the public perception of the science on climate change. In 2013 the Center for Media and Democracy reported that the State Policy Network, an umbrella group of 64 U. S. think tanks, had been lobbying on behalf of major corporations and conservative donors to oppose climate change regulation.
Since the late 1970s, oil companies have published research broadly in line with the standard views on global warming. Despite this, oil companies organized a climate change denial campaign to disseminate public disinformation for several decades, a strategy, compared to the organized denial of the hazards of tobacco smoking by the tobacco industry. "Climate change skepticism" and "climate change denial" refer to denial, dismissal or unwarranted doubt of the scientific consensus on the rate and extent of global warming, its significance, or its connection to human behavior, in whole or in part. Though there is a distinction between skepticism which indicates doubting the truth of an assertion and outright denial of the truth of an assertion, in the public debate phrases such as "climate scepticism" have been used with the same meaning as climate denialism or contrarianism; the terminology emerged in the 1990s. Though all scientists adhere to scientific skepticism as an inherent part of the process, by mid November 1995 the word "skeptic" was being used for the minority who publicized views contrary to the scientific consensus.
This small group of scientists presented their views in public statements and the media, rather than to the scientific community. This usage continued. In his December 1995 article The Heat is On: The warming of the world's climate sparks a blaze of denial, Ross Gelbspan said industry had engaged "a small band of skeptics" to confuse public opinion in a "persistent and well-funded campaign of denial", his 1997 book The Heat is On may have been the first to concentrate on the topic. In it, Gelbspan discussed a "pervasive denial of global warming" in a "persistent campaign of denial and suppression" involving "undisclosed funding of these'greenhouse skeptics' " with "the climate skeptics" confusing the public and influencing decision makers. A November 2006 CBC Television documentary on the campaign was titled "The Denial Machine". In 2007 journalist Sharon Begley reported on the "denial machine", a phras
University Club of New York
The University Club of New York is a private social club located at 1 West 54th Street at Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, New York. It received its charter in 1865, but the origins date back to the autumn of 1861 when a group of college friends, principally Yale alumni, founded the club hoping to extend their collegial ties; the club is not affiliated with any other University Club or college alumni clubs. The club is considered one of the most prestigious in New York City; the first meeting was held in the rooms of the Columbia College Law School, where Theodore Dwight, the Club's first president and a Hamilton College alumnus, was a professor. After several moves, the club took over an existing townhouse at 26th Street and Madison Avenue, in 1883. Founded to celebrate the union of social duty and intellectual life, the Club states in its charter that the purpose of the organization shall be the "promotion of Literature and Art by establishing and maintaining a Library, Reading Room and Gallery of Art, by such other means as shall be expedient and proper for such purposes."
In addition to its many grand architectural features, the University Club hosts one of New York's great private art collections, with a strong group of works by great American painters such as Gilbert Stuart and Childe Hassam, who featured the Club's facade in his work Allies Day, May 1917. The club was all-male until 1987. By the 1890s, with its membership limited by the size of its building to 1,500 resident members and 900 who lived elsewhere, the Club was looking for a larger space, because it had nearly 600 people on a waiting list to join, it proceeded to seek an architecture firm. The firm of Charles McKim, William Mead and Stanford White, who were all members, got the architectural commission and went on to design what remains one of the grandest clubhouses of the city's prominent social clubs. Erected in 1899, in a Mediterranean Revival Italian Renaissance palazzo-style, the building is noted for its reading room, dining room, the attempt made by the architects to disguise a nine-story building behind what seems to be a three-story facade.
McKim and White commissioned Edward F. Caldwell & Co. to provide light fixtures for the University Club among other architectural commissions for the company. Columbia University Club of New York Cornell Club of New York Harvard Club of Boston Harvard Club of New York List of American gentlemen's clubs Metropolitan Club Penn Club Princeton Club Princeton Club of New York Williams Club Yale Club Yale Club of New York City List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 59th to 110th Streets National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan above 59th to 110th Streets Horsley, Carter B. "The Midtown Book: The University Club". The City Review. Article about the building. Official Site at universityclub.org "University Club". Greatbuildings.com. Extensive list of sources] C. Justin. "University Club review". Yelp. Report of a visit to the gym