A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
I Love My Lady
I Love My Lady is an album by American pop singer Johnny Mathis, completed in 1981 but not released in its entirety until December 8, 2017, when it was included in the box set The Voice of Romance: The Columbia Original Album Collection. It was written and produced by Chic founders Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers and represented an attempt at shifting away from the easy listening style of music that Mathis had been recording for 25 years to the more contemporary sound of the team behind "Le Freak" and "We Are Family"; as part of Record Store Day on April 21, 2018, Legacy Recordings gave I Love My Lady its standalone debut with a pressing on clear smoke vinyl. Mathis experienced a career resurgence in the spring of 1978 with the release of a duet he recorded with Deniece Williams titled "Too Much, Too Little, Too Late"; the single was his first to achieve Gold certification from the Recording Industry Association of America, which at the time was awarded for sales of one million units in the US.
The duet gave Mathis a resurgence in album sales with its inclusion on You Light Up My Life, his first top 10 entry on the magazine's LP chart since 1966 and his first non-holiday studio album to receive Platinum certification since 1959's Heavenly. Mathis was able to sustain some of the momentum in album sales by re-teaming with Williams for an entire album of duets: That's What Friends Are For went Gold and had a respectable peak at number 19 on the album chart but managed only the number 47 "You're All I Need to Get By" as far as pop chart entries, his first album release in 1979, The Best Days of My Life, only got as high as number 122 with two songs just making the Adult Contemporary chart, his second, Mathis Magic, missed the Billboard album chart altogether and had no charting singles. Although he had been leaning more on original material since the success with Williams, he had worked with the same producer, Jack Gold, on eight of the albums that he recorded between 1975 and 1980 and was willing to explore other options.
In late December 1980 and January 1981 Mathis recorded the album I Love My Lady with Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers at the helm. All tracks for the album were written by the duo, whose songwriting credits included hits by their own band, Chic, as well as Sister Sledge and Diana Ross. Mathis was quoted as having enjoyed the project: "'What a joy to work and sing with Bernard and Nile... A unique experience that introduced me to new and exciting singing, as though using musical notes and phrases as brush strokes. A true departure for me as a vocalist and a milestone in my career.'" After the completion of the album, "nobody said anything over at Columbia, a best-of album came out instead."In 2004 a spokeswoman for Mathis explained the efforts, made to get the album released. "We have forwarded to Sony, by way of our attorney, inquiries, etc. from fans who were hoping to hear this album. This seems to have had no impact." When asked in a 2011 radio interview as to why the album had never been released, Mathis gave a brief chuckle as he replied, "Probably because the record company is almighty when you're making music to sell.
They have their likes and dislikes.... I guess because they didn't think it would sell." At the EMP Pop Conference on April 19, 2009, music historian Andy Zax gave the presentation "Lost in Lost Music: Rediscovering Johnny Mathis' I Love My Lady" in which he describes his interest in producing a CD box set that would cover the music that Edwards and Rodgers produced for Chic and other artists. He discovered the unreleased Mathis album in August 2007 while looking through the vault of tapes that would've held much of the material he was wanting for the project. Music journalist Ned Raggett included his notes in his report on the presentation that described the album as "less funk and more jazz, like Weather Report but with bright melodic hooks. Sounds like Al Jarreau’s This Time and Steely Dan’s Gaucho."Four of the eight tracks from the album have made their way onto compilations by Rodgers. The 2010 release Nile Rodgers presents The Chic Organization Boxset Vol 1 / "Savoir Faire" included the tracks "I Want to Fall in Love", "It's Alright to Love Me", "Something to Sing About".
The title track from the album, along with "Something to Sing About", was released on Mathis' UK-only Ultimate Collection in 2011. "I Love My Lady" appeared in 2013 on two two-disc compilations: Nile Rodgers presents The Chic Organization — Up All Night and Nile Rodgers presents The Chic Organization — Up All Night Disco Edition. The Shapeshifters' 2006 single "Sensitivity" features samples from an out-take version of "Love and Be Loved" supplied to them by Nile Rodgers. Chic are given a featured artist credit on the track. All tracks written by Bernard Edwards & Nile Rodgers "Fall in Love" – 6:00 "It's Alright to Love Me" – 4:20 "Something to Sing About" – 4:13 "I Love My Lady" – 5:26 "Take Me" – 6:50 "Judy" – 3:11 "Stay with Me" – 3:38 "Love and Be Loved" – 4:54 From the liner notes for The Voice of Romance: The Columbia Original Album Collection: December 23, 1980 – "Love and Be Loved", "Something to Sing About" January 6, 1981 – "Fall in Love", "I Love My Lady" January 8, 1981 – "It's Alright to Love Me", "Stay with Me", "Take Me" January 21, 1981 – "Judy" From the liner notes for The Voice of Romance: The Columbia Original Album Collection: Johnny Mathis –
Tongue in Chic
Tongue in Chic is the sixth studio album by American R&B band Chic, released on Atlantic Records in late 1982. The album includes the singles "Hangin'" and "I Feel Your Love Comin' On". Tongue in Chic was the second Chic album to peak outside Billboards 100 chart, it did however reach #47 on the R&B chart; the album was the second of two projects to be written and produced by Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers in 1982, the other being the soundtrack to movie Soup For One. Tongue in Chic was transferred to compact disc and re-released by Atlantic Records/Warner Music in 1991; the album was digitally remastered and re-issued by Wounded Bird Records in 2003. All tracks written by Nile Rodgers. Side A"Hangin'" – 5:12 Listen "I Feel Your Love Comin' On" – 6:52 "When You Love Someone" – 5:06Side B"Chic" – 4:46 "Hey Fool" – 3:40 "Sharing Love" – 2:40 "City Lights" – 4:26 Bernard Edwards - Lead vocals, bass guitar Alfa Anderson - Lead vocals Luci Martin - vocals Nile Rodgers - guitar, vocals Tony Thompson - drums Dolette McDonald – vocals Fonzi Thornton – vocals Jocelyn Brown – vocals Michelle Cobbs – vocals Marty Celay – additional guitar on "When You Love Someone" Raymond Jones – keyboards Rob Sabino – keyboards Sammy Figueroa – percussion Robert Aaron – saxophone Ray Maldonado – trumpet Gene Orloff – strings Bernard Edwards – producer for Chic Organization Ltd.
Nile Rodgers – producer for Chic Organization Ltd. Bill Scheniman – sound engineer Jason Corsaro, Dave "The Rave" Greenberg – second engineer Scott Litt – sound mix Bob Ludwig – mastering Bob Defrin - art direction Herbert Schulz - photography Recorded and mixed at Power Station NYC. Mastered at Atlantic Studios NYC
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin