Application software is software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, an email client,a media player, a file viewer, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor; the collective noun application software refers to all applications collectively. This contrasts with system software, involved with running the computer. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its system software or published separately, may be coded as proprietary, open-source or university projects. Apps built for mobile platforms are called mobile apps. In information technology, an application, application program or software application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity. An application thus differs from an operating system, a utility, a programming tool. Depending on the activity for which it was designed, an application can manipulate text, audio, graphics, or a combination of these elements.
Some application packages focus on a single task, such as word processing. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written software includes spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, audio and animation scripts. Email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and overlook how important it is; the delineation between system software such as operating systems and application software is not exact, is the object of controversy. For example, one of the key questions in the United States v. Microsoft Corp. antitrust trial was whether Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser was part of its Windows operating system or a separable piece of application software. As another example, the GNU/Linux naming controversy is, in part, due to disagreement about the relationship between the Linux kernel and the operating systems built over this kernel. In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or microwave oven.
The above definitions may exclude some applications that may exist on some computers in large organizations. For an alternative definition of an app: see Application Portfolio Management; the word "application", once used as an adjective, is not restricted to the "of or pertaining to application software" meaning. For example, concepts such as application programming interface, application server, application virtualization, application lifecycle management and portable application apply to all computer programs alike, not just application software; some applications are available in versions for several different platforms. Sometimes a new and popular application arises which only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform; this is called a killer killer app. For example, VisiCalc was the first modern spreadsheet software for the Apple II and helped selling the then-new personal computers into offices. For Blackberry it was their email software. In recent years, the shortened term "app" has become popular to refer to applications for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, the shortened form matching their smaller scope compared to applications on PCs.
More the shortened version is used for desktop application software as well. There are many different and not alternative ways in order to order and classify application software. By the legal point of view, application software is classified with a black box approach, in relation to the rights of its final end-users or subscribers. Software applications are classified in respect of the programming language in which the source code is written or executed, respect of their purpose and outputs. Application software is distinguished among two main classes: closed source vs open source software applications, among free or proprietary software applications. Proprietary software is placed under the exclusive copyright, a software license grants limited usage rights; the open-closed principle states that software may be "open only for extension, but not for modification". Such applications can only get add-on by third-parties. Free and open-source software shall be run, sold or extended for any purpose, -being open- shall be modified or reversed in the same way.
Lawrence Rosen (attorney)
Lawrence Rosen is an attorney and computer specialist. He is a founding partner of Rosenlaw & Einschlag, a Californian technology law firm, specializing in intellectual property protection and business transactions for technology companies, he served as general counsel and secretary of the Open Source Initiative, participates in open source foundations and projects, such as the Apache Software Foundation, Python Software Foundation, the Free Standards Group. Rosen was a lecturer in Law at Stanford Law School in Spring 2006, he is the author of the Open Software License. He is a member of the board of the Open Web Foundation. Rosen was a director of the Apache Software Foundation from July 2011 to March 2012. Lawrence Rosen's page at Rosenlaw & Einschlag
Carl Sassenrath is an architect of operating systems and computer languages. He brought multitasking to personal computers in 1985 with the creation of the Amiga Computer operating system kernel, he is the designer of the REBOL computer language, REBOL/IOS collaboration environment, the Safeworlds AltME private messaging system, other products. Carl is a Principal Engineer at Roku, Inc. Carl Sassenrath was born in 1957 to Carolyn Sassenrath in California, his father was a chemical engineer involved in research and development related to petroleum refining, paper production, air pollution control systems. In the late 1960s his family relocated from the San Francisco Bay Area to the small town of Eureka, California. From his early childhood Sassenrath was involved in electronics, amateur radio and filmmaking; when he was 13, Sassenrath began working for KEET a PBS public broadcasting television station. A year he became a cameraman for KVIQ and worked his way up to being technical director and director for news and local programming.
In 1980 Sassenrath graduated from the University of California, Davis with a B. S. in EECS. During his studies he became interested in operating systems, parallel processing, programming languages, neurophysiology, he was a teaching assistant for graduate computer language courses and a research assistant in neuroscience and behavioral biology. His uncle, Dr. Julius Sassenrath, headed the educational psychology department at UC Davis, his aunt, Dr. Ethel Sassenrath, was one of the original researchers of THC at the California National Primate Research Center. During his final year at the university, Sassenrath joined Hewlett Packard's Computer Systems Division as a member of the Multi-Programming Executive file system design group for HP3000 computers, his task was to implement a compiler for a new type of control language called Outqueue—a challenge because the language was both descriptive and procedural. A year Sassenrath became a member of the MPE-IV OS kernel team and part of the HPE kernel group.
While at HP Sassenrath became interested in minimizing the high complexity found in most operating systems of that time and set out to formulate his own concepts of a microkernel-based OS. He found the large company complacent to the "smaller OS" ideas. In late 1981 and early 1982 Sassenrath took an academic leave to do atmospheric physics research for National Science Foundation at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. Upon returning, Sassenrath reached an agreement with HP to pursue independent research into new areas of computing, including graphical user interfaces and remote procedure call methods of distributed computing. In 1982, impressed by the new computing ideas being published from Xerox PARC and the MIT Media Lab, Sassenrath formed an HP project to develop the modern style of window-based mouse-driven GUIs; the project, called Probus was created on a prototype Sun Microsystems workstation borrowed from Andy Bechtolsheim while he was at Stanford University. Probus demonstrated the power of graphical user interfaces, the system incorporated hyperlinks and early distributed computing concepts.
At HP, Sassenrath was involved with and influenced by a range of HP language projects including Ada, Smalltalk, Forth, SPL, a variety of experimental languages. In 1983, Carl Sassenrath joined Inc. a small startup company in Silicon Valley. As Manager of Operating Systems he was asked to design a new operating system for the Amiga, an advanced multimedia personal computer system that became the Commodore Amiga; as a sophisticated computer for its day, Sassenrath decided to create a preemptive multitasking operating system within a microkernel design. This was a novel approach for 1983 when other personal computer operating systems were single tasking such as MS-DOS and the Macintosh; the Amiga multitasking kernel was one of the first to implement a microkernel OS methodology based on a real-time message passing core known as Exec with dynamically loaded libraries and devices as optional modules around the core. This design gave the Amiga OS a great extensibility and flexibility within the limited memory capacity of computers in the 1980s.
Sassenrath noted that the design came as a necessity of trying to integrate into ROM dozens of internal libraries and devices including graphics, graphical user interface, floppy disc, file systems, others. This dynamic modular method allowed hundreds of additional modules to be added by external developers over the years. After the release of the Amiga in 1985, Sassenrath left Commodore-Amiga to pursue new programming language design ideas that he had been contemplating since his university days. In 1986, Sassenrath was recruited to Apple Computer's Advanced Technology Group to invent the next generation of operating systems, he was part of the Aquarius project, a quad-core CPU project, intended to become a 3D-based successor to the Macintosh. During that period the C++ language had just been introduced, but Sassenrath, along with many other Apple researchers, preferred the more pure OO implementation of the Smalltalk language. Working at ATG with computing legends like Alan Kay, Larry Tessler, Dan Ingalls, Bill Atkinson and others provided Sassenrath with a wealth of resources and knowledge that helped shape his views of computing languages and systems.
In 1988, Sassenrath left Silicon Valley for the m
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
"Hello, World!" program
A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!". Because it is simple in most programming languages, it is used to illustrate the basic syntax of a programming language and is the first program that those learning to code write. A "Hello, World!" program is traditionally used to introduce novice programmers to a programming language. "Hello, world!" is traditionally used in a sanity test to make sure that a computer language is installed, that the operator understands how to use it. While small test programs have existed since the development of programmable computers, the tradition of using the phrase "Hello, world!" as a test message was influenced by an example program in the seminal book The C Programming Language. The example program from that book prints "hello, world", was inherited from a 1974 Bell Laboratories internal memorandum by Brian Kernighan, Programming in C: A Tutorial: The C version was preceded by Kernighan's own 1972 A Tutorial Introduction to the Language B, where the first known version of the program is found in an example used to illustrate external variables: main a'hell'.
The phrase is divided into multiple variables because in B, a character constant is limited to four ASCII characters. The previous example in the tutorial printed hi! on the terminal, the phrase hello, world! was introduced as a longer greeting that required several character constants for its expression. The Jargon File claims that hello, world originated instead with BCPL; this claim is supported by the archived notes of the inventors of BCPL, Prof. Brian Kernighan at Princeton and Martin Richards at Cambridge. For modern languages, world programs vary in sophistication. For example, the Go programming language introduced a multilingual program, Sun demonstrated a Java hello, world based on scalable vector graphics, the XL programming language features a spinning Earth hello, world using 3D graphics. While some languages such as Perl, Python or Ruby may need only a single statement to print "hello, world", a low-level assembly language may require dozens of commands. Mark Guzdial and Elliot Soloway have suggested that the "hello, world" test message may be outdated now that graphics and sound can be manipulated as as text.
There are many variations on the punctuation and casing of the phrase. Variations include the presence or absence of the comma and exclamation mark, the capitalization of the'H', both the'H' and the'W', or neither; some languages are forced to implement different forms, such as "HELLO WORLD", on systems that support only capital letters, while many "hello, world" programs in esoteric languages print out a modified string. For example, the first non-trivial Malbolge program printed "HEllO WORld", this having been determined to be good enough. There are variations in spirit, as well. Functional programming languages, like Lisp, ML and Haskell, tend to substitute a factorial program for Hello, World, as functional programming emphasizes recursive techniques, whereas the original examples emphasize I/O, which violates the spirit of pure functional programming by producing side effects. Languages otherwise capable of Hello, World may be used in embedded systems, where text output is either difficult or nonexistent.
For devices such as microcontrollers, field-programmable gate arrays, CPLD's, "Hello, World" may thus be substituted with a blinking LED, which demonstrates timing and interaction between components. The Debian and Ubuntu Linux distributions provide the "hello, world" program through the apt packaging system. While of itself useless, it serves as a sanity check and a simple example to newcomers of how to install a package, it is more useful for developers, however, as it provides an example of how to create a.deb package, either traditionally or using debhelper, the version of hello used, GNU Hello, serves as an example of how to write a GNU program. Time to "Hello World" is a metric for how long it takes to get a "Hello World" program running from scratch in a given programming language. "99 Bottles of Beer" as used in computer science Foobar Java Pet Store Just another Perl hacker List of basic computer science topics Trabb Pardo-Knuth algorithm List of hello world programs at Wikibooks Rösler, Wolfram.
"Hello World Collection". Helloworldcollection.de. "Hello world/Text". Rosetta Code. "Unsung Heroes of IT / Part One: Brian Kernighan". TheUnsungHeroesOfIT.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2014-08-23
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Douglas Crockford first popularized the JSON format. The acronym originated at State Software, a company co-founded by Crockford and others in March 2001; the co-founders agreed to build a system that used standard browser capabilities and provided an abstraction layer for Web developers to create stateful Web applications that had a persistent duplex connection to a Web server by holding two HTTP connections open and recycling them before standard browser time-outs if no further data were exchanged. The co-founders had a round-table discussion and voted whether to call the data format JSML or JSON, as well as under what license type to make it available. Crockford, being inspired by the words of President Bush, should be credited with coming up with the "evil-doers" JSON license in order to open-source the JSON libraries, but force corporate lawyers, or those who are overly pedantic, to seek to pay for a license from State. Chip Morningstar developed the idea for the State Application Framework at State Software.
String: a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters. Strings support a backslash escaping syntax. Boolean: either of the values true or false Array: an ordered list of zero or more values, each of which may be of any type. Arrays use square bracket elements are comma-separated. Object: an unordered collection of name–value pairs where the names are strings. Since objects are intended to represent associative arrays, it is recommended, though not required, that each key is unique within an object. Objects are delimited with curly brackets and use commas to separate each pair, while within each pair the colon':' character separates the key or name from its value. Null: An empty value, using the word nullLimited whitespace is allowed and ignored around or between syntactic elements. Only four specific characters are considered whitespace for this purpose: space, horizontal tab, line feed, carriage return. In particular, the byte orde