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Jimmy Nelson (rugby union)

James Edward Nelson was a rugby union international who represented Ireland from 1947 to 1954. James Edward Nelson was born on 16 September 1921 in Belfast, he became a qualified accountant. Nelson made his international debut on 6 December 1947 at Lansdowne Road in the Ireland vs Australia match and went on to play a further fifteen times for Ireland In 1950 he toured Australasia with the British Lions and he played in 19 games, including the four test matches. Of the twenty test matches he played for his national side and the Lions, he was on the winning side on eleven occasions, he played his final match for Ireland on 23 January 1954 at Colombes in the France vs Ireland match. He played nine games for the Barbarians and captained the side against Cardiff in 1951 and South Africa in 1952, he went on to serve on the Barbarians' committee from 1963 to 1967 and in 1982 was president of the IRFU

LNWR DX Goods class

The London and North Western Railway DX Goods class was a class of 0-6-0 steam locomotive, designed by John Ramsbottom for freight duties. 943 were constructed making them the largest single class of steam locomotives built in the United Kingdom. Despite this, none were preserved; the "DX" goods engine was the first original design produced by Ramsbottom, shortly after becoming Locomotive Superintendent of the Northern Division. An experimental prototype was developed at Longsight whilst Ramsbottom was only in charge of the North-Eastern Division; the first regular example was completed at Crewe in September 1858, was given the running number 355. This was the 399th locomotive built at Crewe, but it was the practice of the LNWR to reuse the numbers of withdrawn locomotives; the first DX, No. 355, was named Hardman, carried the name on a curved brass plate above the driving wheels. It was painted in the same dark green livery as used by Ramsbottom's predecessor, Francis Trevithick, but edged with a single black line.

Fifty-four of the early DX locomotives were given names, but all were removed by 1864, with some re-used on passenger locomotives. Four 0-4-2 versions of this locomotive type were built by Robert Stephenson and supplied to the Sydney Railway Company in 1855 as the first motive power for the new railway company, they were identical in specification, except for larger driving wheels at 5 ft 6 in diameter and cylinders being a smaller 16-inch bore than the 17 in of the original design. 857 examples of Ramsbottom’s standard goods design were built for the LNWR at Crewe works between 1858 and 1872. The class has been described as ‘the earliest example of standardization and mass productions of locomotives on a large scale,' and ‘a remarkable instance of standardisation at a time when most railways had many different classes, each class with only few engines.’. During the 1870s driving cabs were added. 278 examples of a saddle tank version of the design were built after 1870, known as the LNWR Special Tank.

In addition to the 857 examples used by the LNWR, a further 86 examples of the original design were constructed at Crewe for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway between 1871 and 1874. This alarmed independent locomotive manufacturers. In April 1881 Francis Webb rebuilt 500 examples with a new 150 psi boiler and vacuum brakes for working passenger trains; these became. On 12 January 1899, locomotive 1418 was hauling a freight train, derailed at Penmaenmawr, Caernarfonshire due to the trackbed being washed away in a storm. Both locomotive crew were killed. Withdrawals began in 1902 but there were still 88 in existence on the formation of the London Midland and Scottish Railway in 1923; the last survivor was withdrawn in 1930. Despite the large number of the Class produced, all were scrapped. Between 1900 and 1901, four LNWR Special DX were sold to the Société Anonyme du Chemin de Fer International de Malines à Terneuzen, a private railway between Belgium and the Netherlands, they were renumbered 15, 16, 17 and 18.

Three of them were rebuilt between 1910 and 1911 with larger cabs of Belgian design and all of them were fitted with Westinghouse brakes sometimes after 1911. One of them was still on the active roster in 1948 when the Malines - Terneuzen was taken over by SNCB. All the M. T. engines were scrapped. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 1: General Summary and Index of Locomotive-Owning Companies. Hartington, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-50-8. Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 2A: London and North Western Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-51-6. Casserley, H. C. & Johnston, Stuart W.. Locomotives at the Grouping 3: London and Scottish Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0554-0. Nock, O. S.. The Premier Line – The Story of London & North Western Locomotives. London: Ian Allan Ltd. Trevena, Arthur. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2.

Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-03-6

Constitutional history of Turkey

Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be characterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state and recognition of international law. The Turkish constitution was ratified in 1921, revised in 1924, 1961, 1982, most in 2010. A proposal for yet another constitution is being discussed, to allow Turkey to comply with EU accession political criteria. 1808: Sened-i İttifak prepared by Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, in period of Mahmud II was signed on September 29, among Rumelian and Anatolian chief men and the Ottoman State in order to make the central authority dominant over the provinces. 1839: Imperial Edict of Reorganization prepared by Mustafa Reşid Pasha on November 3, during the rule of Abdulmejid I. 1856: Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856 that complemented and reinforced the Imperial Edict of Reorganization. 1876: Ottoman constitution of 1876, during the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. 1909: Revisions to the 1876 constitution during the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire.

1921: 1921 Constitution. 1924: Revised constitution of 1924. 1961: 1961 constitution. 1982: 1982 constitution. 2017: Revisions to the 1982 constitution. 1961 Turkish constitutional referendum 1982 Turkish constitutional referendum 2007 Turkish constitutional referendum 2010 Turkish constitutional referendum 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum Media related to Ottoman Empire at Wikimedia Commons

Kumgangsan Chongnyon Line

The Kŭmgangsan Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line is an electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway in North Korea running from Anbyŏn to Kamho. The total length of the line is 114.8 km, but it is only in regular use as far as Kŭmgangsan Ch'ŏngnyŏn. The line was built by the Chosen Government Railway as part of the Tonghae Pukpu Line, from Anbyŏn on Sentetsu's Kyŏngwŏn Line to Yangyang; the construction and opening of the line took place in several stages, with the first section opening on 1 September 1929, the last on 1 December 1937. Plans were made to extend the line from Yangyang to Pohang, but Japan's defeat in the Pacific War and the subsequent collapse of the General-Government of Korea prevented completion of the extension. After the partition of Korea, the line was split between the North and South, with the section from Anbyŏn to Kamho becoming the Kŭmgangsan Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line in the north, while the section from Chejin to Yangyang became the Tonghae Pukpu Line operated by the Korean National Railroad.

Electrification of the line was completed on 15 April 1997. In 2007, after the reconstruction of the disused section between Kamho and Jejin, passenger trains began operating from the south to bring southern tourists to the Mount Kŭmgang Tourist Region. More than one million civilian visitors crossed the DMZ until the route was closed following the shooting death of a 53-year-old South Korean tourist in July 2008. Plans are being considered which would see the line become part of a trans-Korean line from Pohang to Tumangang, to connect South Korea's railway network to the Trans-Siberian Railway. A yellow background in the "Distance" box indicates that section of the line is not electrified

Acquisition Intelligence

Acquisition Intelligence is the field that combines military intelligence, acquisition processes, logistics fundamentals to ensure supportability of weapons systems. Acq Intel originated within the Air Force Materiel Command at Wright Patterson AFB circa 2004, matured into a numbered USAF Squadron, it is offered as a college certificate program. Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportability requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it; the Air Force Material Command has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies.

Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements