Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Aley is a district in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south-east of the Lebanons capital Beirut. Aley city was known as the bride of the summers during the 1960 and 1970s. During the 1975-1990 Civil War in Lebanon, Aley witnessed several battles around its environs, the largest religious community in the Aley district is the Druze denomination, followed by the Maronite, and Greek Orthodox Christian denominations. There are communities of Sunni, and Shiite Muslims. It is estimated that roughly 65% of the district is of the Druze sect, while the remaining 35% is of the Christian sect
Ain Ksour, is a village in Aley District, Lebanon. Municipal elections are every four years. There are two churches in Ain Ksour, one is Saint Peter and Pauls church, which was built around 800 AD, destroyed during the Lebanese civil war, and rebuilt. The other is Saint Eliass church, which is newer, was destroyed during the Lebanese civil war, the church plaza has an altitude of 717 m, and is located at 33°4456.50 N, 35°3205.00 E. Ain Ksour, Localiban
Aalay, is a city in Lebanon. It is located 15 km uphill from Beirut on the Freeway that leads to Damascus and it is the capital of the Aalay District and fourth largest city in Lebanon and one of the most important cities in Lebanon. Aley earns the nickname Bride of the Summer due to its importance in Tourism and it earns many other nicknames like The capital of the Mountains and the Lebanese City of Fog due to its foggy weather even in the summer. Aley can be claimed to be the city with the biggest Druze population in the world, the natives are predominantly Druze, there are Christian Melkite and Maronite minorities. Many outsiders, especially from Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, own homes in Aley where they spend their summers, escaping the heat, the word Aley derivatives from Aramaic, and means high place, referring to the towns high altitude above sea level. Aley gained prominence upon the completion of the Beirut–Damascus Railway in the mid-1890s, the railroad provided the residents of Beyrouth easy means of transportation to the mountains, and this made Aley a popular destination to spend the summer months and enjoy its pleasant climate.
It was the site of an accident on 12 April 1904, when part of the locomotive exploded. The city was for a while the capital of the Ottoman governors of Mount Lebanon. Kamil Pasha made Aley his capital and organised a Diwan, where he executed a number of Lebanese. Also, a Jewish community once frequented this multi-cultural city, and they maintained a synagogue in Souk Aley, in 2001, the municipality of Aley began renovating the downtown area, especially its historic souk, and the city quickly revived its role in Lebanons tourism. Aley is a major tourist destination in Lebanon and the Middle East and its location and climate made it a favorable venue for shopping and dining, especially for wealthy Arabs from Persian Gulf states. This resort city with its number of tourists and visitors has become the most flourishing resort in Mount Lebanon. In addition to these, there are tens of shops and retail boutiques along the street. Aley hosts a casino and many public swimming pools like the Piscine Aley, Country Club.
Theres many hotels like the Highland and the Golden Tulip that has a bowling arena, theres malls in Aley like the Aley Center, and many Lebanese and international restaurants. In 1910 Aley received the founders of the American University of Beirut, they built castles, during the 1960s several artists performed in the hotels and the casinos of Aley such as Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Farid Al Atrash. Aley is the capital of the Aley District and it has 18 municipality members, in 2009 the municipality joined the Yasa in a safety program to reduce the rate of accidents. The municipality contains 14 schools,4 public and 10 private, the largest and most important of these schools is the Universal College of Aley which is considered one of the best schools in the country
Mount Lebanon Governorate
Mount Lebanon is one of the eight governorates of Lebanon. Its capital is located in Baabda, the majority of its population is Christian, with minorities of Druze, Muslims of various sects, as well as irreligious people. This governorate is named after the region of Mount Lebanon and, except for Beirut. The governorate is divided into six districts, Christians are the majority, comprising 70% of the population, followed by Druze, the irreligious and others
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, Lebanons location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized country on the entire mainland Asian continent, the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, in the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion, however, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries.
During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church, the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918, following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was populated by Maronites and Druze. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946. Lebanon has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie since 1973, despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, commerce. At the end of the war, there were efforts to revive the economy.
In spite of troubles, Lebanon has the highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning white, occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L, the name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. The borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 and its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk, with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, and gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943
Al Basateen, is a village in Aley District in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon. Al Basateen is located in the Chahaar Region overlooking Beirut, elevation is about 600 meters above sea level. It offers beautiful views of the Mediterranean and Beirut, access is easy from Beirut through Khaldeh and Aramoun. Five families constitute the population of about 2000 or so, Rafeh, Merhi and Al Alia. Its Head of its municipality is Yaser Ghosn, and the members are, Faisal Rafeh, Ghassan Rafeh, Malika Ghosn, Akram Ghosn, Wissam Rafeh, Haitham Merhi, Katia Rafeh, Rami Rafeh
Ainab, is a town on the western slopes of Mount Lebanon overlooking Beirut. It is in the Aley District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate 25 kilometres from Beirut, the municipal council was established in 1910 and is one of the earliest councils in the Aley district. Ainab was the site of conflicts before and during the Lebanese civil war. In the 1958 Lebanon crisis control of the town was fought over by the Druze forces of Kamal Jumblatt, during the Israeli invasion, the Israeli army intervened in and near Ainab in fighting between the Druze Progressive Socialist Party and the Christian Kataeb Party. In March 1989, a schoolyard in the town was hit by an Israeli air-to-surface missile during strikes against a base of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Shemlan. Press reports state that 3 people were killed 22 schoolchildren wounded, that year Israeli jets again attacked in apparent retaliation for rocket attacks on Northern Israel