Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe
Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalise same-sex marriage as well as same-sex civil unions. Currently 29 of the 50 countries and 8 of the 9 dependent territories in Europe[nb 1] recognise some type of same-sex unions, among them most members of the European Union (23/28).
As of March 2018, fifteen European countries legally recognise and perform same-sex marriage: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands,[nb 2] Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[nb 3] In Austria, marriages will be legal from 1 January 2019. An additional eleven European countries legally recognise some form of civil union, namely Andorra, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, and Switzerland. San Marino allows immigration and cohabitation of a citizen's partner, and Poland recognises cohabitation for very limited purposes. Armenia and Estonia recognise same-sex marriages performed in any foreign jurisdiction where they are permitted, and Slovakia recognises same-sex marriages performed within the EU and including an EU citizen.
Of the countries that recognise and perform same-sex marriages some still allow couples to enter civil unions, e.g. Benelux countries, France and the United Kingdom,[nb 4] whereas Germany, Ireland and the Nordic countries have terminated their pre-marriage civil union legislation so that existing unions remain but new ones are not possible.
Several European countries do not recognise any form of same-sex unions. Marriage is defined as a union solely between a man and a woman in the constitutions of Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Of these, however, Armenia recognises same-sex marriages performed abroad, and Croatia and Hungary recognise same-sex partnerships.
- 1 Current situation
- 2 Future legislation
- 2.1 Marriage
- 2.2 Non-marital partnership
- 2.3 Ban on same-sex marriage
- 3 Public opinion
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
European Court of Human Rights
Over the years, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has handled cases that challenged the lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples in certain member states. The Court has held that the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) requires member states to provide legal recognition, but does not require marriage to be opened to same-sex couples.
In Schalk and Kopf v Austria (24 June 2010), the European Court of Human Rights decided that the European Convention on Human Rights does not oblige member states to legislate for or legally recognise same-sex marriages. However, the Court, for the first time, accepted same-sex relationships as a form of "family life".
In Vallianatos and Others v Greece (7 November 2013), the Court held that exclusion of same-sex couples from registering a civil union, a legal form of partnership available to opposite-sex couples, violates the Convention. Greece had enacted a law in 2008 that established civil unions for opposite-sex couples only. A 2015 law extended partnership rights to same-sex couples.
Oliari and Others v Italy (21 July 2015) went further and established a positive obligation upon member states to provide legal recognition for same-sex couples. Italy thus breached the Convention; it eventually implemented civil unions in 2016. The decision set a precedent for potential future cases regarding the 23 member states, certain British, Danish and Dutch territories, and the states with limited recognition (excluding Kosovo), that currently do not recognise same-sex couples' right to family life.
Chapin and Charpentier v France (9 June 2016) largely confirmed Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, holding that denying a same-sex couple access to marriage does not violate the Convention. At the time of the judgment, France did allow same-sex marriage, however, the case originated from 2004, when only pacte civil de solidarité (PACS) was available to same-sex couples in France.
Some debate occurred within the European Union about how to require member states to recognise same-sex marriages conducted in other member states, as well as any European citizens' civil unions or registered partnerships, so as to ensure the right of freedom of movement for citizens' family members.
In 2010, Romanian LGBT activist Adrian Coman and his American partner, Robert Claibourn Hamilton, married in Belgium, and subsequently attempted to relocate to Romania. Romanian authorities refused to recognise their marriage and the case progressed to the European Court of Justice. On 11 January 2018, the ECJ’s advocate general, Melchior Wathelet, issued an official legal opinion stating that an EU member country cannot refuse residency rights to the same-sex spouse of an EU citizen on the grounds that it does not recognise same-sex marriage.
On 5 June 2018 the ECJ ruled in Coman's favour, stating the term "spouse" was gender-neutral, and member states are therefore obliged to recognise EU residency rights for partners of EU citizens. However, the court confirmed that it will still be up to member states whether to authorise same-sex marriage.
|Status||Country||Since||Country population |
(Last Census count)
* In eleven countries that have passed marriage,
other types of partnerships are available, too.
|United Kingdom[nb 3]||2014||62,700,000[nb 5]|
(45.2% of the European population)
|Recognition of foreign marriage
* Constitutional ban on domestic same-sex marriage
(0.5% of the European population)
|Other type of partnership
* In one of the countries that have passed other types of partnerships,
yet another type of partnership is available, too.
|Cyprus[nb 6]||2015||1,117,000[nb 7]|
(12.6% of the European population)
(4.5% of the European population)
(56.9% of the European population)
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||—||3,871,643|
(37.94% of the European population)
|Constitutional ban on marriage
* Foreign marriages are recognised.
** Other types of partnerships are available.
(18.66% of the European population)
(49.3% of the European population)
Partially-recognised and unrecognised states
(Last estimate count)
|Constitutional ban on marriage
|Status||Country||Jurisdiction||Legal since||Jurisdiction population|
(Last Census count)
|Denmark||Faroe Islands||2017 ||49,198|
|United Kingdom||Akrotiri and Dhekelia||2014||15,700|
|Isle of Man||2016||84,497|
(0.04% of the European population)
|Other type of partnership
|United Kingdom||Northern Ireland||2005||1,864,000|
(0.22% of the European population)
(0.001% of the European population)
Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority
Czech Republic: On 13 June 2018, 46 deputies from ANO 2011, the Pirate Party, the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Communist Party, TOP 09 and Mayors and Independents submitted a bill to legalise same-sex marriage. The Civic Democratic Party, Freedom and Direct Democracy and KDU–ČSL are opposed. On 22 June 2018 the bill was backed by the Czech government.
Switzerland: On 5 December 2013 the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland submitted a parliamentary initiative to the National Council, proposing a constitutional amendment allowing couples to enter into a marriage or civil union irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. On 20 February 2015 the lower house's Justice Committee recommended approval of the proposal. On 1 September 2015, it was also approved by the upper house's Justice Committee, paving the way for a referendum on the constitutional amendment. On 16 June 2017, the Federal Assembly voted by 118-71 in favour of a proposal by the Green Liberal party to launch a parliamentary study on same-sex marriage. On 6 July 2018, the Legal Affairs Committee voted to proceed with the initiative by legislation, rather than constitutional amendment and referendum. The committee expects to present a bill by February 2019, with the law possibly taking effect 1 January 2021.
Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority
Northern Ireland: In February 2018, Karen Bradley, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, stated that same-sex marriage could be legislated for in Northern Ireland by the UK Parliament, and that the Conservative government would likely allow a conscience vote for its MPs if such legislation was introduced. A bill was introduced in the House of Lords by a Conservative peer on 27 March 2018. A private member's bill with cross-party support was introduced in the House of Commons the following day. The bill's second reading in the Commons commenced on 11 May 2018 and is next scheduled for debate on 26 October 2018.
Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority
Lithuania: On 30 May 2017, Parliament approved a proposal to amend the Civil Code to recognise cohabitation agreements that would grant two or more cohabitants certain property rights without the intention to create family relations. With 46 in favor, 6 opposing and 17 abstentions, the draft proposal was approved for further consideration in the Lithuanian Parliament. The bill explicitly denies partners recognition of family relations.
Monaco: On 27 October 2016, the National Council unanimously approved a proposal to allow civil unions (pacte de vie commun). On 27 April 2017, the government responded positively to the proposal. The government introduced its civil union bill on 16 April 2018, and it must be approved by the National Council before becoming law. The government's proposed bill explicitly does not recognise those in a civil union as forming a family and does not allow couples in civil unions to adopt or create step-parental ties to each other's children.
San Marino: In March 2016, two opposition parties, LabDem and the United Left, along with the main government party, the Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, announced their own proposals to expand the rights of all unmarried cohabiting couples through a new partnership law. The junior coalition partner, the Party of Socialists and Democrats, has also announced an intention to submit a fourth bill. The United Left won the 20 November 2016 elections and pledged to introduce civil unions. The governing party reiterated its pledge to legalise same-sex civil unions at its party conference on the 17 and 18 November 2017. A civil union bill was introduced 9 March 2018.
Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority
Montenegro: Montenegro’s Human and Minority Rights Ministry has drafted a law on registered partnership, under which same-sex couples will be acknowledged as legal unions but will not have the same rights as opposite-sex married couples.
Romania: A civil partnership bill is currently before the Chamber of Deputies. Although it was rejected by the Senate on 24 October 2016, debate has continued in several committees of the Chamber of Deputies into 2017.
Slovakia: On 11 December 2017, following a meeting with Iniciatíva Inakosť representatives, President Andrej Kiska called for a discussion about the rights of same-sex couples. The SaS party reiterated its intention to introduce the registered partnership bill the same day. SaS introduced its registered partnership bill to Parliament in July 2018. Under the proposed bill, partnerships would be open to both same-sex and opposite-sex couples and would grant couples several rights and benefits enjoyed by married couples, namely in the area of inheritance and healthcare, among others. Parliament is expected to begin discussing the bill in September.
Ban on same-sex marriage
Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority
Romania: The government has announced plans to hold a referendum to explicitly ban same-sex marriage in the constitution in the fall of 2017, following a successful citizens' initiative by an anti-same-sex marriage group called the Coalition for the Family. The Chamber of Deputies approved the initiative in a vote on 9 May 2017.
Public support for same-sex marriage from EU member states as measured from a 2015 poll is the greatest in the Netherlands (91%), Sweden (90%), Denmark (87%), Spain (84%), Ireland (80%), Belgium (77%), Luxembourg (75%), the United Kingdom (71%) and France (71%). In recent years, support has risen most significantly in Malta, from 18% in 2006 to 65% in 2015 and in Ireland from 41% in 2006 to 80% in 2015.
After the approval of same-sex marriage in Portugal in January 2010, 52% of the Portuguese population stated that they were in favor of the legislation. In 2008, 58% of the Norwegian voters supported the Marriage Act, which was introduced in the same year, and 31 percent were against it. In January 2013 54.1% of Italians respondents supported same-sex marriage In a late January 2013 survey 77.2% of Italians respondents supported the recognition of same-sex unions.
In Greece support more than doubled between 2006 and 2015, albeit still considerably low. In 2006 15% responded that they agreed with same-sex marriages being allowed throughout Europe, whereas in 2015 33% agreed with the statement.
In Ireland, a 2008 survey revealed 84% of people supported civil unions for same-sex couples (and 58% for same-sex marriage), while a 2010 survey showed 67% supported same-sex marriage by 2012 this figure had risen to 73% in support. On 22 May 2015, 62.1% of the electorate voted to enshrine same-sex marriage in the Irish constitution as equal to heterosexual marriage.
A March 2013 survey by Taloustutkimus found that 58% of Finns supported same-sex marriage.
In Croatia, a poll conducted in November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.
In Poland a 2013 public poll revealed that 70% of Poles reject the idea of registered partnerships. Another survey in February 2013 revealed that 55% were against and 38% of Poles support the idea of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.
In the European Union, support tends to be the lowest in Bulgaria, Latvia, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Lithuania. The average percentage of support for same-sex marriage in the European Union as of 2006 when it had 25 members was 44%, which had descended from a previous percentage of 53%. The change was caused by more socially conservative nations joining the EU. In 2015, with 28 members, average support was at 61%.
|Armenia||Pew Research Center||2015||3%||96%||1%|||
|Austria||Pew Research Center||2017||72%||25%||-|||
|Belarus||Pew Research Center||2015||16%||81%||3%|||
|Belgium||Pew Research Center||2017||82%||10%||-|||
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Pew Research Center||2015–2016||13%||84%||4%|||
|Bulgaria||Pew Research Center||2015||18%||79%||3%|||
|Croatia||Pew Research Center||2016||31%||64%||5%|||
|Denmark||Pew Research Center||2017||86%||9%||-|||
|Estonia||Estonian Human Rights Center||2017||39%||52%||9%|||
|Finland||Pew Research Center||2017||64%||26%||-|||
|France||Pew Research Center||2017||73%||23%||-|||
|Georgia||Pew Research Center||2016||3%||95%||2%|||
|Germany||Pew Research Center||2017||75%||23%||-|||
|Hungary||Pew Research Center||2015–2016||27%||64%||9%|||
|Ireland||Pew Research Center||2017||66%||27%||-|||
|Italy||Pew Research Center||2017||59%||38%||-|||
|Latvia||Pew Research Center||2016||16%||77%||7%|||
|Lithuania||Pew Research Center||2015–2016||12%||85%||5%|||
|Malta||Business Leaders Malta||2016||61%||25%||14%|||
|Moldova||Pew Research Center||2015||5%||92%||3%|||
|Netherlands||Pew Research Center||2017||86%||10%||-|||
|Norway||Pew Research Center||2017||72%||19%|||
|Portugal||Pew Research Center||2017||59%||28%|||
|Romania||Pew Research Center||2015||26%||74%||1%|||
|Russia||Pew Research Center||2016||5%||90%||5%|||
|Serbia||Pew Research Center||2015||12%||83%||4%|||
|Spain||Pew Research Center||2017||77%||13%||-|||
|Sweden||Pew Research Center||2017||88%||7%||-|||
|Switzerland||Pew Research Center||2017||75%||24%||-|||
|Ukraine||Pew Research Center||2016||9%||85%||6%|||
- LGBT rights in Europe
- LGBT rights in the European Union
- LGBT adoption in Europe
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa
- Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania
- Including Armenia, but excluding Greenland.
- Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
- Excluding Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, Northern Ireland, Sark, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
- Excluding Guernsey and Overseas Territories (except Gibraltar).
- Combined population of England, Wales and Scotland.
- Excluding the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
- Including the disputed region of Northern Cyprus.
- "Same-sex marriages registered abroad are valid in Armenia".
- CASE OF VALLIANATOS AND OTHERS v. GREECE, European Court of Human Rights
- CASE OF OLIARI AND OTHERS v. ITALY, European Court of Human Rights
- "REPORT on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on measures facilitating the exercise of rights conferred on workers in the context of freedom of movement for workers - A7-0386/2013". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "ECJ plans to rule on same-sex marriage in Romania".
- "PRESS RELEASE No 02/18" (PDF). Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- Gillet, Kit (5 June 2018). "Same-sex marriages are backed in E.U. immigration ruling". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "Same-sex spouses have EU residence rights, top court rules". BBC News. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- (in German) https://www.vfgh.gv.at/medien/Ehe_fuer_gleichgeschlechtliche_Paare.de.php
- (in Dutch) Wet tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht en tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek
- (in Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning, lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger og retsplejeloven og om ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab
- (in Finnish) Laki avioliittolain muuttamisesta
- (in Swedish) Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen
- (in French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
- "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts" (PDF) (in German). Bundesgesetzblatt. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- (in Icelandic) Lög um breytingar á hjúskaparlögum og fleiri lögum og um brottfall laga um staðfesta samvist (ein hjúskaparlög)
- "Marriage Bill 2015 (Number 78 of 2015)". House of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- (in French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
- "Act no. XXIII of 2017 – Marriage Act and other Laws (Amendment) Act, 2017". Ministry for Justice, Culture and Local Government of Malta. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- (in Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
- (in Dutch)ECLI:NL:HR:2007:AZ6095
- (in Norwegian) Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par)
- (in Portuguese) Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio
- (in Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
- (in Swedish)Lag (2009:253) om ändring i äktenskapsbalken
- Marriage (Same-sex couples) Act 2013
- Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014
- "PanARMENIAN.Net - Mobile". panarmenian.net. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
- "Kooseluseadus" (in Estonian). Riigikogu. 9 October 2014.
- (in Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
- (in Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
- (in Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
- Τέθηκε σε ισχύ η πολιτική συμβίωση στην Κύπρο
- ΝΟΜΟΣ ΥΠ’ ΑΡΙΘ. 3456 Σύμφωνο συμβίωσης, άσκηση δικαιωμάτων, ποινικές και άλλες διατάξεις.[permanent dead link]
- (in Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (2016-05-11). "Italy Approves Same-Sex Civil Unions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
- (in German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
- (in Slovene) Ukaz o razglasitvi Zakona o partnerski zvezi (ZPZ)
- (in German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
- "San Marino axes medieval law to let gay couples live together". Gay Star News. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Formalisation of legal family formats in Poland (pages 5-6) (PDF)
- "Referendum in Armenia brings constitutional reforms". ILGA Europe. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry with each other.
- Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL-M. "Belarus - Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- "National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria - Constitution". National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
Matrimony shall be a free union between a man and a woman.
- "2013 Referendum". Izbori.hr. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "Croats reject gay marriage in referendum". Reuters. EurActiv.com. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "New Hungarian constitution comes into effect with same-sex marriage ban," PinkNews, 3 January 2012, accessed 18 June 2015.
- "Text of the Hungarian Constitution (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Laura Sheeter, "Latvia defies EU over gay rights", BBC News website, 16 June 2006.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- "CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA".
- "Title II. Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties - Presidency of the Republic of Moldova". Retrieved 18 June 2015.
Article 48. [...] The family shall be founded on a freely consented marriage between a husband and wife
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Constitution of Montenegro". Refworld. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm. 2 April 1997. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
Article 18. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia". Srbija.gov.rs. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
Contracting, duration or dissolution of marriage shall be based on the equality of man and woman.
- "ÚSTAVA SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY". Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
Article 43. Marriage is a unique union between a man and a woman
- "Slovakia bans gay marriage in constitution". Sky News Australia. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Constitutions - Legislationline". Legislationline. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- The Constitution of the Republic of Artsakh
- "Overseas Marriage (Armed Forces) Order 2014" (PDF). Legislation.gov.uk. 28 April 2014.
- Civil Marriage Amendment Act 2016 [No. 22 of 2016
- Civil Marriage Amendment Act 2016 - Notice of Commencement
- "Same-Sex Marriage (Guernsey) Law, 2016 (P.2016/30)". Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "Orders Approved at Privy Council 2016-12-14" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "Marriage and Civil Partnership (Amendment) Act 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Civil Partnership Act 2004". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- (in Czech)https://ct24.ceskatelevize.cz/domaci/2517118-vlada-podporila-manzelstvi-pro-homosexualy-registrovane-partnerstvi-tim-zaniklo
- (in German) 13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative – Ehe für alle
- "Ständerat sagt Ja zur Homo-Ehe". Blick.ch. 1 September 2015.
- "L'idée d'un mariage gay progresse à Berne". lematin.ch/. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- "Same-sex marriage could be introduced to Northern Ireland via Westminster - Bradley". Independent.ie. 20 February 2018.
- "Northern Ireland same-sex marriage bill passes first stage - Independent.ie". Independent.ie. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
- "Northern Ireland gay marriage bill has 'little prospect' of progress, says DUP Chief Whip". PinkNews. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
- "Bid to introduce same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland blocked". Belfast Telegraph. 11 May 2018.
- "Marriage (Same Sex Couples) (Northern Ireland) (No.2) Bill 2017-19 — UK Parliament". services.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
- "Seimas Approves the Proposal on "Cohabitation Agreements" as Alternative to Partnership Law - LGL". LGL. 2017-05-31. Retrieved 2017-09-19.
- "Pacs monégasque : bientôt un projet de loi ? - Monaco Hebdo". Monaco Hebdo (in French). 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
- "« Je suis une indépendante » - Monaco Hebdo". Monaco Hebdo (in French). 2017-07-19. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
- "n° 974 - Projet de loi relative au contrat de vie commune" (in French). Retrieved 2018-04-23.
- (in Italian) San Marino. Unioni civili, presto sul tavolo tre bozze di legge
- "Migranti e unioni civili, il Titano è pronto". Retrieved 2018-03-27.
- "URMARIREA PROCESULUI LEGISLATIV". www.cdep.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 2017-06-02.
- "Nowoczesna z projektem ustawy o związkach partnerskich". www.poznan.onet.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- "Projekt ustawy – przepisy wprowadzające ustawę o związkach partnerskich". www.nowoczesna.org (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- "Projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich". www.nowoczesna.org (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- President Kiska calls for discussion on the rights of same-sex couples
- (in Slovak) Tímlíderkou SaS pre osobné slobody sa stala Natália Blahová
- "Nový návrh zákona od SaS: Kompromis pre heterosexuálne aj homosexuálne páry!?". Nový čas. 23 July 2018.
- Marica, Irina (2017-09-04). "Romanian SocDem leader: Referendum for family redefinition to be organized this fall". Romania Insider. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
- "Special Eurobarometer 437: Discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). European Commission. October 2015.
- "EU Public Opinion: SSM" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- "New England's largest GLBT newspaper". Bay Windows. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- AVJonathan Tisdall . "Support for gay marriage". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- (in Italian)  Datamonitor, 7 January 2013
- (in Italian) Il Rapporto Italia 2013 | L'Italia del presentismo Eurispes, 31 January 2013
- "Increased support for gay marriage – Survey". BreakingNews.ie. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- "Yes to gay marriage and premarital sex: a nation strips off its conservative values". Irish Times. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Poll finds Irish support for gay marriage at 73%". PinkNews. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Poll: Over half of Finns favour same-sex marriage law". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Anketa za HRT: 59 posto građana ZA promjenu Ustava" (in Croatian). Slobodnadalmacija.hr. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- (in Polish) Polacy: Związki partnerskie? Niepotrzebne! [SONDAŻ TOK FM]
- (in Polish) Sondaż: Polacy przeciwko związkom partnerskim. [SONDAŻ TNS OBOP]
- Also comprises: Do not know; No answer; Other.
- "Religious belief and national belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "Religious belief and national belonging in Central and Eastern Europe - Appendix A: Methodology". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "Being Christian in Western Europe" (PDF). Pew Research Center. p. 152. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- "Special Eurobarometer 437: discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). TNS. European Commission. October 2015. p. 373. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – květen 2018" (PDF) (in Czech). CVVM. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Avaliku arvamuse uuring LGBT teemadel" (PDF) (in Estonian). Estonian Human Rights Center.
- "Τι πιστεύουν οι Έλληνες" (PDF). DiaNeosis. March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- "Regnbågsfamiljers ställning i Norden Politik, rättigheter och villkor. NIKK Publikationer 2009:1 NIKK, Oslo 2009 ISBN: 978-82-7864-025-4". Doc Player. July 2004.
- Grech, Helena (20 April 2016). "iSurvey: 61% ready to change gay civil union into marriage". The Malta Independent. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "CBOS: Ponad połowa Polaków traktuje homoseksualizm jako odstępstwo od normy". 21 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Slováci sú naďalej jasne proti registrovaným partnerstvám
- "Kaj je pokazala anketa pred referendumom?". rtvslo.si. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- Of these, only 8% supported banning same-sex marriage. 13% were personally opposed but did not believe the issue should be revisited.
- Most Britons would have no concerns about a royal same-sex marriage, Ipsos, 20 April 2018