A record label, or record company, is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Sometimes, a record label is a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, distribution, marketing and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos, while conducting talent scouting and development of new artists, maintaining contracts with recording artists and their managers; the term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the mainstream music industry, recording artists have traditionally been reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, be both promoted and heard on music streaming services and television. Record labels provide publicists, who assist performers in gaining positive media coverage, arrange for their merchandise to be available via stores and other media outlets.
Record labels may be small, localized and "independent", or they may be part of a large international media group, or somewhere in between. The Association of Independent Music defines a'major' as "a multinational company which has more than 5% of the world market for the sale of records or music videos." As of 2012, there are only three labels that can be referred to as "major labels". In 2014 AIM estimated that the majors had a collective global market share of some 65–70%. Record labels are under the control of a corporate umbrella organization called a "music group". A music group is owned by an international conglomerate "holding company", which has non-music divisions as well. A music group controls and consists of music publishing companies, record manufacturers, record distributors, record labels. Record companies may constitute a "record group" which is, in turn, controlled by a music group; the constituent companies in a music group or record group are sometimes marketed as being "divisions" of the group.
From 1988 to 1999, there were six major record labels, known as the Big Six: Warner Music Group EMI Sony Music BMG Universal Music Group PolyGramPolyGram was merged into UMG in 1999, leaving the rest to be known as the Big Five. In 2004, Sony and BMG agreed to a joint venture to create the Sony BMG label. In 2007, the four remaining companies—known as the Big Four—controlled about 70% of the world music market, about 80% of the United States music market. In 2012, the major divisions of EMI were sold off separately by owner Citigroup: most of EMI's recorded music division was absorbed into UMG; this left the so-called Big Three labels: Universal Music Group Sony Music Entertainment Warner Music Group Record labels and music publishers that are not under the control of the big three are considered to be independent if they are large corporations with complex structures. The term indie label is sometimes used to refer to only those independent labels that adhere to independent criteria of corporate structure and size, some consider an indie label to be any label that releases non-mainstream music, regardless of its corporate structure.
Independent labels are considered more artist-friendly. Though they may have less financial clout, indie labels offer larger artist royalty with a 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 deal, not uncommon. In addition, independent labels are artist-owned, with a stated intent being to control the quality of the artist's output. Independent labels do not enjoy the resources available to the "big three" and as such will lag behind them in market shares; however independent artists manage a return by recording for a much smaller production cost of a typical big label release. Sometimes they are able to recoup their initial advance with much lower sales numbers. On occasion, established artists, once their record contract has finished, move to an independent label; this gives the combined advantage of name recognition and more control over one's music along with a larger portion of royalty profits. Artists such as Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, Public Enemy, BKBravo, among others, have done this. Companies started in this manner have been re-absorbed into the major labels.
Madonna's Maverick Records was to come under control of Warner Music when Madonna divested herself of controlling shares in the company. Some independent labels become successful enough that major record companies negotiate contracts to either distribute music for the label or in some cases, purchase the label completely. A label used as a trademark or brand and not a company is called an imprint, a term used for the same concept in publishing. An imprint is sometimes marketed as being a "project", "unit", or "division" of a record label company though there is no
Events from the year 1861 in Germany. King of Bavaria – Ludwig II King of Hanover – George V King of Prussia – William I King of Saxony – John King of Württemberg – William I of Württemberg Grand Duke of Baden – Frederick I 2 January – Frederick William IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by Wilhelm I. 15 April – Watchmaker Junghans is founded. 6 June – German Progress Party is founded as Germany's first modern political party by liberal members of the Prussian House of Representatives in opposition to Bismarck. 11 July – German Shooting and Archery Federation is founded in Gotha. 14 July – Osckar Becker attempts assassination of William I of Prussia in Baden-Baden. 7 August – Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein founded by Franz Liszt and Franz Brendel. 15 August – First description of Archaeopteryx, based on a feather found in Bavaria. 1 October – Newspaper Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung begins daily publication as Nord-deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Date unknown – Museum Godeffroy in Hamburg is founded.
2 January – Wilhelm Bölsche, writer 30 January – Charles Martin Loeffler, violist 4 February – Franz Winter, archaeologist 17 February – Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Duchess of Albany, marries into the British royal family 6 March – Friedrich Eckenfelder, painter 21 March – Charles Swickard, silent film director 14 May – Harro Magnussen, sculptor 28 May – Siegfried Czapski and optician 19 June – Ludwig Traube, palaeographer 22 June – Maximilian von Spee, admiral 16 July – Franz von Blon, composer 11 September – Erich von Falkenhayn, general 18 September – Walter Schott, sculptor 23 September – Robert Bosch, industrialist and inventor 24 September – Walter Simons and politician 28 September – Wilhelm Diegelmann, actor 29 September – Carl Duisberg and industrialist 15 October – Eduard Schmid, politician 20 October – Maximilian Harden, journalist 10 December Karl Groos, philosopher Elisabeth von Heyking and travel diarist 26 December Friedrich Engel, mathematician Ludolf von Krehl, internist 29 December – Kurt Hensel, mathematician 2 January – Frederick William IV of Prussia, King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861 21 January – Ernst Friedrich August Rietschel, sculptor 19 January – Albert Niemann, chemist 9 February – Karl Otto Ludwig von Arnim, travel writer and playwright 18 February – Theodor Mügge, writer 25 October – Friedrich Carl von Savigny, academic lawyer and historian 26 November – Wilhelm Hensel, painter 1 December – Heinrich August Hahn, theologian 18 December – Ernst Anschütz, organist and composer Media related to 1861 in Germany at Wikimedia Commons
"The Ugly Duckling" is a literary fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen. The story tells of a little bird born in a barnyard who suffers abuse from the others around him until, much to his delight, he matures into a beautiful swan, the most beautiful bird of all; the story is beloved around the world as a tale about personal transformation for the better. “The Ugly Duckling” was first published 11 November 1843, with three other tales by Andersen in Copenhagen, Denmark to great critical acclaim. The tale has been adapted to various media including opera and animated film; the tale is Andersen's invention and owes no debt to fairy tales or folklore. When the story begins, a mother duck's eggs hatch. One of the little birds is perceived by the other birds and animals on the farm as an ugly little creature and suffers much verbal and physical abuse from them, he wanders sadly from the barnyard and lives with wild ducks and geese until hunters slaughter the flocks. He finds a home with an old woman, but her cat and hen tease and taunt him mercilessly and once again he sets off alone.
The duckling sees a flock of migrating wild swans. He is delighted and excited. Winter arrives. A farmer finds and carries the freezing little duckling home, but the foundling is frightened by the farmer’s noisy children and flees the house, he spends a miserable winter alone in the outdoors hiding in a cave on the lake that freezes over. When spring arrives, a flock of swans descends on the lake; the ugly duckling, now having grown and matured, is unable to endure a life of solitude and hardship any more and decides to throw himself at the flock of swans deciding that it is better to be killed by such beautiful birds than to live a life of ugliness and misery. He is shocked when the swans welcome and accept him, only to realize by looking at his reflection in the water that he had been, not a duckling, but a swan all this time; the flock takes to the air, the now beautiful swan spreads his gorgeous large wings and takes flight with the rest of his new family. Andersen first conceived the story in 1842 while enjoying the beauty of nature during his stay at the country estate of Bregentved, lavished a year's worth of attention upon it.
He considered "The Young Swans" as the tale's title but, not wanting to spoil the element of surprise in the protagonist’s transformation, discarded it for "The Ugly Duckling". He confessed that the story was "a reflection of my own life", when the critic Georg Brandes questioned Andersen about whether he would write his autobiography, the poet claimed that it had been written — "The Ugly Duckling".“The Ugly Duckling” was first published in Copenhagen, Denmark 11 November 1843 in New Fairy Tales. First Book. First Collection. 1844.. For the first time the phrase "told for children" was not part of the title—an omission Andersen scholar Jackie Wullschlager believes exhibited a new confidence on Andersen's part: "These were the most mature and constructed tales he had written, though some of them at once became, have remained, favorites of children, Andersen here melds together the childlike and the profound with exceptional artistry." The first edition of 850 was sold out by December 18, Reitzel planned another 850.
The tale was fourth and last in the volume that included, "The Angel", "The Nightingale", "The Sweethearts. The volume sold out immediately and Andersen wrote on December 18, 1843: “The book is selling like hot cakes. All the papers are praising it, everyone is reading it! No books of mine are appreciated in the way these fairy tales are!” Andersen promoted the tale by reading it aloud at social gatherings. The tale was republished 18 December 1849 in Fairy Tales, and again 15 December 1862 in Fairy Stories. First Volume. 1862. The tale has since been translated into various languages and published around the world and has become the most famous story by Andersen. In reviewing Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life by biographer Jens Andersen, British journalist Anne Chisholm writes “Andersen himself was a tall, ugly boy with a big nose and big feet, when he grew up with a beautiful singing voice and a passion for the theater he was cruelly teased and mocked by other children"; the ugly duckling is the child of a swan.
Speculation suggests that Andersen was the illegitimate son of Prince Christian Frederik, found this out some time before he wrote the book, that being a swan in the story was a metaphor not just for inner beauty and talent but for secret royal lineage. Bruno Bettelheim observes in The Uses of Enchantment that the Ugly Duckling is not confronted with the tasks, tests, or trials of the typical fairy tale hero. “No need to accomplish anything is expressed in “The Ugly Duckling”. Things are fated and unfold accordingly, whether or not the hero takes some action.” In conjunction with Bettelheim’s assessment, Maria Tatar notes in ’’The Annotated Hans Christian Andersen’’ that Andersen suggests that the Ugly Duckling's superiority resides in the fact that he is of a breed different from the barnyard rabble, that dignity and worth and aesthetic superiority are determined by nature rather than accomplishment. According to Carole Rosen, the story was inspired in part by Andersen's friend Jenny Lind.
"The Ugly Duckling" became one of Anderse