# Rectification (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, **rectification** or **complete-truncation** is the process of truncating a polytope by marking the midpoints of all its edges, and cutting off its vertices at those points.^{[1]} The resulting polytope will be bounded by vertex figure facets and the rectified facets of the original polytope.

A rectification operator is sometimes denoted by the letter *r* with a Schläfli symbol, for example, *r*{4,3} is the rectified cube, also called a cuboctahedron, and also represented as . And a rectified cuboctahedron rr{4,3} is a rhombicuboctahedron, and also represented as .

Conway polyhedron notation uses *a* for **ambo** as this operator. In graph theory this operation creates a medial graph.

## Contents

- 1 Example of rectification as a final truncation to an edge
- 2 Higher degree rectifications
- 3 Example of birectification as a final truncation to a face
- 4 In polygons
- 5 In polyhedra and plane tilings
- 6 In 4-polytopes and 3d honeycomb tessellations
- 7 Degrees of rectification
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links

## Example of rectification as a final truncation to an edge[edit]

Rectification is the final point of a truncation process, for example, on a cube this sequence shows four steps of a continuum of truncations between the regular and rectified form:

## Higher degree rectifications[edit]

Higher degree rectification can be performed on higher-dimensional regular polytopes, the highest degree of rectification creates the dual polytope. A rectification truncates edges to points. A birectification truncates faces to points. A trirectification truncates cells to points, and so on.

## Example of birectification as a final truncation to a face[edit]

This sequence shows a *birectified cube* as the final sequence from a cube to the dual where the original faces are truncated down to a single point:

## In polygons[edit]

The dual of a polygon is the same as its rectified form. New vertices are placed at the center of the edges of the original polygon.

## In polyhedra and plane tilings[edit]

Each platonic solid and its dual have the same rectified polyhedron. (This is not true of polytopes in higher dimensions.)

The rectified polyhedron turns out to be expressible as the intersection of the original platonic solid with an appropriated scaled concentric version of its dual, for this reason, its name is a combination of the names of the original and the dual:

- The rectified tetrahedron, whose dual is the tetrahedron, is the
*tetratetrahedron*, better known as the octahedron. - The rectified octahedron, whose dual is the cube, is the cuboctahedron.
- The rectified icosahedron, whose dual is the dodecahedron, is the icosidodecahedron.
- A rectified square tiling is a square tiling.
- A rectified triangular tiling or hexagonal tiling is a trihexagonal tiling.

Examples

Family | Parent | Rectification | Dual |
---|---|---|---|

[p,q] |
|||

[3,3] | Tetrahedron |
Octahedron |
Tetrahedron |

[4,3] | Cube |
Cuboctahedron |
Octahedron |

[5,3] | Dodecahedron |
Icosidodecahedron |
Icosahedron |

[6,3] | Hexagonal tiling |
Trihexagonal tiling |
Triangular tiling |

[7,3] | Order-3 heptagonal tiling |
Triheptagonal tiling |
Order-7 triangular tiling |

[4,4] | Square tiling |
Square tiling |
Square tiling |

[5,4] | Order-4 pentagonal tiling |
tetrapentagonal tiling |
Order-5 square tiling |

### In nonregular polyhedra[edit]

If a polyhedron is not regular, the edge midpoints surrounding a vertex may not be coplanar. However, a form of rectification is still possible in this case: every polyhedron has a polyhedral graph as its 1-skeleton, and from that graph one may form the medial graph by placing a vertex at each edge midpoint of the original graph, and connecting two of these new vertices by an edge whenever they belong to consecutive edges along a common face. The resulting medial graph remains polyhedral, so by Steinitz's theorem it can be represented as a polyhedron.

The Conway polyhedron notation equivalent to rectification is **ambo**, represented by **a**. Applying twice **aa**, (rectifying a rectification) is Conway's **expand** operation, **e**, which is the same as Johnson's cantellation operation, t_{0,2} generated from regular polyhedral and tilings.

## In 4-polytopes and 3d honeycomb tessellations[edit]

Each Convex regular 4-polytope has a rectified form as a uniform 4-polytope.

A regular 4-polytope {p,q,r} has cells {p,q}, its rectification will have two cell types, a rectified {p,q} polyhedron left from the original cells and {q,r} polyhedron as new cells formed by each truncated vertex.

A rectified {p,q,r} is not the same as a rectified {r,q,p}, however. A further truncation, called bitruncation, is symmetric between a 4-polytope and its dual. See Uniform 4-polytope#Geometric derivations.

Examples

Family | Parent | Rectification | Birectification (Dual rectification) |
Trirectification (Dual) |
---|---|---|---|---|

[ p,q,r] |
{ p,q,r} |
r{ p,q,r} |
2r{ p,q,r} |
3r{ p,q,r} |

[3,3,3] | 5-cell |
rectified 5-cell |
rectified 5-cell |
5-cell |

[4,3,3] | tesseract |
rectified tesseract |
Rectified 16-cell (24-cell) |
16-cell |

[3,4,3] | 24-cell |
rectified 24-cell |
rectified 24-cell |
24-cell |

[5,3,3] | 120-cell |
rectified 120-cell |
rectified 600-cell |
600-cell |

[4,3,4] | Cubic honeycomb |
Rectified cubic honeycomb |
Rectified cubic honeycomb |
Cubic honeycomb |

[5,3,4] | Order-4 dodecahedral |
Rectified order-4 dodecahedral |
Rectified order-5 cubic |
Order-5 cubic |

## Degrees of rectification[edit]

A first rectification truncates edges down to points. If a polytope is regular, this form is represented by an extended Schläfli symbol notation **t**_{1}{p,q,...} or **r**{p,q,...}.

A second rectification, or **birectification**, truncates faces down to points. If regular it has notation **t**_{2}{p,q,...} or 2**r**{p,q,...}. For polyhedra, a birectification creates a dual polyhedron.

Higher degree rectifications can be constructed for higher dimensional polytopes; in general an n-rectification truncates *n-faces* to points.

If an n-polytope is (n-1)-rectified, its facets are reduced to points and the polytope becomes its dual.

### Notations and facets[edit]

There are different equivalent notations for each degree of rectification, these tables show the names by dimension and the two type of facets for each.

#### Regular polygons[edit]

Facets are edges, represented as {2}.

name {p} |
Coxeter diagram | t-notation Schläfli symbol |
Vertical Schläfli symbol | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Name | Facet-1 | Facet-2 | |||

Parent | t_{0}{p} |
{p} | {2} | ||

Rectified | t_{1}{p} |
{p} | {2} |

#### Regular polyhedra and tilings[edit]

Facets are regular polygons.

name {p,q} |
Coxeter diagram | t-notation Schläfli symbol |
Vertical Schläfli symbol | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Name | Facet-1 | Facet-2 | |||

Parent | = | t_{0}{p,q} |
{p,q} | {p} | |

Rectified | = | t_{1}{p,q} |
r{p,q} = | {p} | {q} |

Birectified | = | t_{2}{p,q} |
{q,p} | {q} |

#### Regular Uniform 4-polytopes and honeycombs[edit]

Facets are regular or rectified polyhedra.

name {p,q,r} |
Coxeter diagram | t-notation Schläfli symbol |
Extended Schläfli symbol | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Name | Facet-1 | Facet-2 | |||

Parent | t_{0}{p,q,r} |
{p,q,r} | {p,q} | ||

Rectified | t_{1}{p,q,r} |
= r{p,q,r} | = r{p,q} | {q,r} | |

Birectified (Dual rectified) |
t_{2}{p,q,r} |
= r{r,q,p} | {q,r} | = r{q,r} | |

Trirectified (Dual) |
t_{3}{p,q,r} |
{r,q,p} | {r,q} |

#### Regular 5-polytopes and 4-space honeycombs[edit]

Facets are regular or rectified 4-polytopes.

name {p,q,r,s} |
Coxeter diagram | t-notation Schläfli symbol |
Extended Schläfli symbol | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Name | Facet-1 | Facet-2 | |||

Parent | t_{0}{p,q,r,s} |
{p,q,r,s} | {p,q,r} | ||

Rectified | t_{1}{p,q,r,s} |
= r{p,q,r,s} | = r{p,q,r} | {q,r,s} | |

Birectified (Birectified dual) |
t_{2}{p,q,r,s} |
= 2r{p,q,r,s} | = r{r,q,p} | = r{q,r,s} | |

Trirectified (Rectified dual) |
t_{3}{p,q,r,s} |
= r{s,r,q,p} | {r,q,p} | = r{s,r,q} | |

Quadrirectified (Dual) |
t_{4}{p,q,r,s} |
{s,r,q,p} | {s,r,q} |

## See also[edit]

- Dual polytope
- Quasiregular polyhedron
- List of regular polytopes
- Truncation (geometry)
- Conway polyhedron notation

## References[edit]

- Coxeter, H.S.M.
*Regular Polytopes*, (3rd edition, 1973), Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8 (pp. 145–154 Chapter 8: Truncation) - Norman Johnson
*Uniform Polytopes*, Manuscript (1991)- N.W. Johnson:
*The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs*, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1966

- N.W. Johnson:
- John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strauss,
*The Symmetries of Things*2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 26)

## External links[edit]

- Olshevsky, George. "Rectification".
*Glossary for Hyperspace*. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007.

Seed | Truncation | Rectification | Bitruncation | Dual | Expansion | Omnitruncation | Alternations | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

t_{0}{p,q}{p,q} |
t_{01}{p,q}t{p,q} |
t_{1}{p,q}r{p,q} |
t_{12}{p,q}2t{p,q} |
t_{2}{p,q}2r{p,q} |
t_{02}{p,q}rr{p,q} |
t_{012}{p,q}tr{p,q} |
ht_{0}{p,q}h{q,p} |
ht_{12}{p,q}s{q,p} |
ht_{012}{p,q}sr{p,q} |