click links in text for more info


A rectocele or posterior vaginal wall prolapse results when the rectum herniates into or forms a bulge in the vagina. Two common causes of this defect are: childbirth, hysterectomy. Rectocele tends to occur with other forms of pelvic organ prolapse such as enterocele and cystocele. Although the term applies most to this condition in females, males can develop it. Rectoceles in men are uncommon, associated with prostatectomy. Mild cases may produce a sense of pressure or protrusion within the vagina, the occasional feeling that the rectum has not been emptied after a bowel movement. Moderate cases may involve difficulty passing stool, discomfort or pain during evacuation or intercourse, a general sensation that something is "falling down" or "falling out" within the pelvis. Severe cases may cause vaginal bleeding, intermittent fecal incontinence, or the prolapse of the bulge through the mouth of the vagina, or rectal prolapse through the anus. Digital evacuation, or, manual pushing, on the posterior wall of the vagina helps to aid in bowel movement in a majority of cases of rectocele.

Rectocele can be a cause of symptoms of obstructed defecation. Rectoceles result from the weakening of the pelvic floor called pelvic organ prolapse. Weakened pelvic structures occur as a result of an episiotomy during previous births decades later. Other causes of pelvic floor prolapse can be advanced age, multiple vaginal deliveries, birthing trauma. Birthing trauma includes vacuum delivery, forceps delivery, perineal tear. In addition, a history of chronic constipation and excessive straining with bowel movements are thought to play a role in rectocele. Multiple gynecological or rectal surgeries can lead to weakening of the pelvic floor. Births that involve babies over nine pounds in weight, or rapid births can contribute to the development of rectocele. A hysterectomy or other pelvic surgery can be a cause, as can chronic constipation and straining to pass bowel movements, it is more common in older women than in younger ones. Treatment depends on the severity of the problem, may include non-surgical methods such as changes in diet, pelvic floor exercises such as Kegel exercises, use of stool softeners, hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women and insertion of a pessary into the vagina.

A high fiber diet, consisting of 25–30 grams of fiber daily, as well as increased water intake, help to avoid constipation and straining with bowel movements, can relieve symptoms of rectocele. Surgery can be done to correct rectocele when symptoms continue despite the use of non-surgical management, are significant enough to interfere with activities of daily living. Surgery to correct the rectocele may involve the reattachment of the muscles that supported the pelvic floor. Another procedure is posterior colporrhaphy. Surgery may involve insertion of a supporting mesh. There are surgical techniques directed at repairing or strengthening the rectovaginal septum, rather than simple excision or plication of vaginal skin which provides no support. Both gynecologists and colorectal surgeons can address this problem. Potential complications of surgical correction of a rectocele include bleeding, dyspareunia, as well as recurrence or worsening of the rectocele symptoms; the use of synthetic or biologic grafts has been questioned.

Rectocele details, video

Albania (periodical)

Albania was an Albanian periodical published by Faik Konica, one of the most important figures of Albanian culture in the early decades of the twentieth century. Albania was published from 1896-7 to 1910 and is regarded as the most important Albanian periodical in the beginning of the 20th century and one of the most important Albanian periodicals to have existed until the end of World War II. After moving to Brussels, Faik Konitza at the age of 22 founded the periodical Albania in 1896-7, it was first published in Albanian, while translations into French were circulated. Soon after its publication it became the most important organ of the Albanian press, its first issue was published on 25 March 1897, in Brussels. From 1902 to 1910 it was published in London, United Kingdom where Faik Konitza had moved from Belgium. Albania was one of the best-known Albanian periodicals in Europe and helped make Albanian culture and cause known to the general European public, while it set the standards for literary prose in the Tosk Albanian dialect of the Albanian language.

The periodical was distributed in all European countries and in the provinces of the Ottoman empire located in northern Africa and Anatolia. Among the most known distributors of Albania was Shahin Kolonja, future publisher of Drita, the first magazine written in the Albanian language; the contents of Albania covered a wide range topics like history, archaeology, language and art, leading to the periodical being regarded as a mini-encyclopedia of Albanian culture of the era. Many notable Albanian writers like Gjergj Fishta, Andon Zako Çajupi, Kostandin Kristoforidhi and Thimi Mitko first published parts of their works in Albania. List of magazines in Albania Albaniâ periodical Hylli i Dritës

Baghmara (community development block)

Baghmara is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Dhanbad Sadar subdivision of Dhanbad district, Jharkhand state, India. Dhanbad district forms a part of the Chota Nagpur Plateau, but it is more of an upland than a plateau; the district has two broad physical divisions – the southern part is a coal mining area with mining and industrial towns, the northern part has villages scattered around hills. The landscape of the southern part is undulating and monotonous, with some scars of subsidence caused by underground mining. One of the many spurs of Parashnath Hills, located in neighbouring Giridih district, passes through the Topchanchi and Tundi areas of the district; the spur attains a height of 457.29 m but there is no peak as such. The Dhangi Hills run from Pradhan Khunta to Gobindpur. While the main river Damodar flows along the southern boundary, its tributary, the Barakar, flows along the northern boundary. DVC has built two dams across the rivers; the Panchet Dam is across the Damodar and the Maithon Dam is across the Barakar.

Jharkhand is one of the states affected by Maoist activities. As of 2012, Dhanbad was one of the highly/moderately affected districts in the state; as of 2016, Dhanbad was not identified as a focus area by the state police to check Maoist activities. However, there were some isolated Maoist activities in the Dhanbad area. Baghmara is located at 23°47′47″N 86°12′5″E. Baghmara CD Block is bounded by Topchanchi and Tundi CD Blocks, on the north and Dhanbad CD Blocks on the east, Chas CD Block, in Bokaro district, in the south and Chandrapura and Nawadih CD Blocks, in Bokaro district, on the west. Baghmara CD Block has a forest area of 4,979.67 hectares, covering 18.45% of the area of the CD Block. Baghmara CD Block has an area of 267.55 km2. It has 227 villages. Baghmara, Katras and Tetulmari Police Stations serve this block. Headquarters of this CD Block is at Baghmara, it is located 32 km from the district headquarters. As per the 2011 Census of India Baghmara CD Block had a total population of 334,309, of which 222,657 were rural and 111,652 were urban.

There were 158,830 females. Population below 6 years was 47,472. Scheduled Castes numbered 69,474 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 17,737. Baghmara CD Block has several census towns: Matigara, Nadkharki, Barora, Harina, Rajganj, Kharkhari, Malkera, Nagri Kalan, Baua Kalan, Phulwartanr and Mahuda. Large villages in Baghmara CD Block are: Latipahari, Raghunathpur and Singra; as of 2011 census the total number of literates in Baghmara CD Block was 214,888 out of which males numbered 128,719 and females numbered 86,169. The gender disparity was 22.20%. As of 2011 census, literacy in Dhanbad district was 74.52%. Literacy in Jharkhand was 66.41% in 2011. Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%. See – List of Jharkhand districts ranked by literacy rate Hindi is the official language in Jharkhand and Urdu has been declared as an additional official language. Jharkhand legislature had passed a bill according the status of a second official language to several languages in 2011 but the same was turned down by the Governor.

In the 2011 census, Hindi was the mother-tongue of 62.5% of the population in Dhanbad district, followed by Bengali and Urdu. The scheduled tribes constituted 8.4% of the total population of the district. Amongst the scheduled tribes those speaking Santali formed 77.2% of the ST population. Other tribes found in good numbers were: Munda and Kora. In Baghmara CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 7,276 and formed 7.67%, agricultural labourers numbered 6,594 and formed 6.95%, household industry workers numbered 1,953 and formed 2.06% and other workers numbered 78,994 and formed 83.31%. Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned; when a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act.

Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, plantation and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce and entertainment artistes. There are 178 inhabited villages in Baghmara CD Block. In 2011, 162 villages had power supply. 52 villages had tap water, 167 villages had well water, 165 villages had hand pumps, 10 villages had no drinking water facility. 26 villages had post offices, 20 villages had sub post offices, 36 villages had telephones, 73 villages had public call offices and 123 villages had mobile phone coverage. 168 villages had pucca village roads, 58 villages had bus service, 18 villages had railway stations, 39 villages had autos/ modified autos, 74 villages had tractors. 12 villages had b

Sauber C17

The Sauber C17 was the car with which the Sauber Formula One team competed in the 1998 Formula One season. It was driven by Jean Alesi, who joined from Benetton, Johnny Herbert, in his third season with the team after an impressive 1997 season. 1998 confirmed Sauber's position as a respectable midfield runner unable to make the final breakthrough needed to become a top team. The team's package was quick and reliable, but not quite enough to score points. Indeed and Herbert finished just outside the points, in seventh, no less than five times; the highlight of the year was Alesi's run to third at the 1998 Belgian Grand Prix to score the team's fourth podium since their F1 début in 1993. This capped an encouraging season for the Frenchman, duly kept on for another year. Herbert, despite a points finish in the first race of the season, lost his motivation after a sequence of bad luck and narrowly missing out on further points, he decided to move to Stewart for 1999, would be replaced by Pedro Diniz.

The team finished sixth in the Constructors' Championship with ten points. This was their best WCC position so far, but there was still some way to go to take on the likes of Ferrari and McLaren, it was with this car. All steering wheels have been rectangular since then. AUTOCOURSE 1998-99, Alan, Hazleton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-874557-43-8


Montauban-de-Picardie is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Its inhabitants are called "Montalbanais"; the commune is situated on some 20 miles northeast of Amiens. The village lies on the First World War battlefield of the Somme. Montauban was turned into a fortified strongpoint. On 1 July 1916, the first day on the Somme, the village was seized by the British 30th Division in one of the few successful British advances of the day. In the village itself there is a monument to the Liverpool and Manchester'Pals', who, as part of the 30th Division, were the first to reach the village. Communes of the Somme department INSEE Montauban-de-Picardie on the Quid website

Freehold Secondary

The Freehold Secondary is a active rail line in New Jersey, the active portion of, owned and operated by Conrail Shared Assets Operations. The portion, in use runs from Jamesburg, NJ, to the current end of service at Freehold, NJ. Technically, the line continues to a junction with the Southern Secondary in Farmingdale, NJ, but this portion has been out of service since the early 2000s; the Freehold and Jamesburg Agricultural Railroad was incorporated in 1851 to connect Freehold with the Camden and Amboy Railroad in Jamesburg. The first section between the aforementioned towns was opened to traffic in 1853. In 1868, the line was extended to a connection with the Northeast Corridor. On the other end of the line, a firm known as the Squankum and Freehold Marl Company built track from Freehold to Farmingdale in 1868, leased it to the Freehold and Jamesburg in the same year; the final link in the railroad, between Farmingdale and Sea Girt was built by the Farmingdale and Squan Village Railroad Company, incorporated on April 3, 1867, mandated to finish construction of their line by July 1, 1877.

Its line was leased to the Freehold and Jamesburg in 1874. In 1874, the line between Jamesburg and Monmouth Junction was sold to the Camden and Amboy Railroad. On May 24, 1879, the three companies were merged to form a new company called the Freehold and Jamesburg Agricultural Railroad Country. In the Board of Directors Election held on June 24, 1879, Strickland Kneass was elected president. Since June 1, 1879, the company's trackage has been operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Operation continued and prospered under the Pennsylvania Railroad, both freight and passenger trains used the line up until the Pennsylvania Cut its Trenton-Jamesburg-Sea Girt train on May 29, 1962; the line famously hosted dying President Garfield, his private train as it traveled from Washington, DC, to where he died in Elberon, NJ. In 1939, the line hosted the King and Queen of England's private train, en route to Red Bank, NJ. After dieselization, the line's passenger trains were a favorite with railfans because of their use of Doodlebugs, a gas electric car.

Freight service continued after the end of passenger service, but in 1964, the section between Sea Girt and Farmingdale was torn up, parts of which became the Edgar Felix Bikeway. In 1976, Conrail took over the operations of seven northeastern railroads, including the Penn Central, who operated the line after the 1968 merger of the Pennsylvania and the New York Central Railroad. Unlike other routes that it operated, Conrail did not abandon the remaining portions of the Freehold Secondary, but a 1978 division map marks the section between Freehold and Jamesburg as a "light density line." In the 1999 breakup of Conrail between Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX Transportation, the line went to Conrail Shared Assets, a joint switching and terminal railroad created in order to serve the New York and Detroit markets from both carriers. CSAO kept the entire line open, but since the early 2000s, there has not been a train east of the Prestone plant in Freehold. Conrail Local Freight WPSA-31 runs on Mondays, Wednesdays and at times, Fridays to Freehold to serve the remaining customers on the line: These include Prestone, receives Plastic Pellets and Chemical.

Builders' General, Lumber. Bayshore Vinyl, Plastic Pellets Reed & Perrine, Fertilizer Chemicals Monmouth Ocean Middlesex Line