Rector (ecclesiastical)

A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations. In contrast, a vicar is a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader. In ancient times bishops, as rulers of cities and provinces in the Papal States, were called rectors, as were administrators of the patrimony of the Church; the Latin term rector was used by Pope Gregory I in Regula Pastoralis as equivalent to the Latin term pastor. In the Roman Catholic Church, a rector is a person who holds the office of presiding over an ecclesiastical institution; the institution may be a particular building—like a church or shrine—or it may be an organization, such as a parish, a mission or quasi-parish, a seminary or house of studies, a university, a hospital or a community of clerics or religious. If a rector appointed as his employee someone to perform the duties of his office, i.e. to act for him "vicariously", that employee was termed his vicar.

Thus, the tithes of a parish are the legal property of the person who holds the office of rector, are not the property of his vicar, not an office-holder but a mere employee, remunerated by a stipend, i.e. a salary, payable by his employer the rector. Thus, a parish vicar is the vicarious agent of his rector, higher up the scale, the Pope is called the Vicar of Christ, acting vicariously for the ultimate superior in the ecclesiastical hierarchy; the 1983 Code of Canon Law, for the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, explicitly mentions as special cases three offices of rectors: rectors of seminaries rectors of churches that do not belong to a parish, a chapter of canons, or a religious order rectors of Catholic universities However, these are not the only officials who exercise their functions using the title of rector. Since the term rector refers to the function of the particular office, a number of officials are not referred to as rectors though they are rectors in actual practice; the diocesan bishop, for instance, is himself a rector, since he presides over both an ecclesiastical organization and an ecclesiastical building.

In many dioceses, the bishop delegates the day-to-day operation of the cathedral to a priest, incorrectly called a rector but whose specific title is plebanus or "people's pastor" if the cathedral operates as a parish church. Therefore, because a priest is designated head of a cathedral parish, he cannot be both rector and pastor, as a rector cannot canonically hold title over a parish; as a further example, the pastor of a parish is pastor over both the parish church. A president of a Catholic university is rector over the university and, if a priest the rector of any church that the university may operate, on the basis that it is not a canonical establishment of a parish. In some religious congregations of priests, rector is the title of the local superior of a house or community of the order. For instance, a community of several dozen Jesuit priests might include the pastor and priests assigned to a parish church next door, the faculty of a Jesuit high school across the street, the priests in an administrative office down the block.

However, the community as a local installation of Jesuit priests is headed by a rector. Rector general is the title given to the superior general of certain religious orders, e.g. the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God, Pallottines. There are some other uses of this title, such as for residence hall directors, such as Father George Rozum CSC, at the University of Notre Dame which were once run in a seminary-like fashion; this title is used at the University of Portland, another institution of the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Pope is called "rector of the world" during the discontinued papal coronation ceremony, once part of the papal inauguration. Permanent rector is an obsolete term used in the United States prior to the codification of the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Canon Law grants a type of tenure to pastors of parishes, giving them certain rights against arbitrary removal by the bishop of their diocese. In order to preserve their flexibility and authority in assigning priests to parishes, bishops in the United States until that time did not appoint priests as pastors, but as "permanent rectors" of their parishes: the "permanent" gave the priest a degree of confidence in the security in his assignment, but the "rector" rather than "pastor" preserved the bishop's absolute authority to reassign clergy.

Hence, many older parishes list among their early leaders priests with the postnominal letters "P. R.". This practice was discontinued and today priests are assigned as pastors of parishes, bishops in practice reassign them at will. In Anglican churches, a rector is a type of parish priest. Parish priests in the Church of England consisted of rectors and perpetual curates. Parish churches and their incumbent clergy were supported by tithes, a form of local tax levied on the personal as well as agricultural output of the parish. A rector received direct payment of both the greater and lesser tithes of his parish, whilst a vicar received only the lesser tithes. A perpetual curate held the Cure of souls in an area which had not yet been formally or constituted as a parish, received neither gr

1884 in Sweden

Events from the year 1884 in Sweden Monarch – Oscar II Prime Minister – Carl Johan Thyselius, Robert Themptander - The court case of the short story collection Getting Married by August Strindberg, one of the most known incidents of the ongoing so called Sedlighetsdebatten. - The women's organization Fredrika-Bremer-Förbundet is founded in Stockholm. It is followed by the woman's organisation Göteborgs Kvinnoförening in Gothenburg. - May - Karolina Widerström becomes the first woman to graduate in medicine in Sweden. - First issue of ATL Lantbrukets Affärstidning - The toy company Brio is founded. - First issue of Svenska Dagbladet - The nursing college Sophiahemmet University College is founded in Stockholm by the queen. - The appointment of the Workers' Insurance Committee Which led in turn to the 1889 Workers' Safety Act and the foundation of the Labor Inspectorate, as well as the 1891 National Health Insurance Act 9 March – Carl Holmberg, gymnast. 31 March – Axel Ljung, gymnast. 25 May – Gösta Lilliehöök, modern pentathlete.

22 November - Wilhelmina Gravallius, writer Carolina Granberg, ballerina Lovisa Charlotta Borgman, violinist Therese Kamph, educational reformer

SAPA (football club)

SAPA was founded in Helsinki in 1970. The club was established at the Savanna restaurant when a group of young men wanted more activities than sitting around the place, it was decided that a sports club's name could not be the restaurant's name and as a result the name was changed to the abbreviation SAPA. In addition to football the club provides for the sport of floorball. SAPA run two men's teams, their home ground being located at the Kumpulanlaakson kenttä.. The women's football team played one season in the 1970s in the Finnish first division. Junior football started in June 1986 and the club provides for a wide range of age groups. In total the club has more than 250 junior players. For the current season SAPA are competing in Section 2 of the Kolmonen administered by the Helsinki SPL and Uusimaa SPL; this is the fourth highest tier in the Finnish football system. SAPA/2 are participating in Section 2 of the Nelonen administered by the Helsinki SPL. Official Website Finnish Wikipedia Suomen Cup SAPA – Savannan Pallo Facebook