Walter Maynard Ferguson CM was a Canadian jazz trumpeter and bandleader. He came to prominence in Stan Kenton's orchestra before forming his own big band in 1957, he was noted for his bands, which served as stepping stones for up-and-coming talent, his versatility on several instruments, his ability to play in a high register. Ferguson was born in Quebec. Encouraged by his mother and father, he started playing violin at the age of four. At nine years old, he heard a cornet for the first time in his local church and asked his parents to buy one for him; when he was thirteen, he soloed with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Orchestra. He was heard on the CBC, notably featured on a "Serenade for Trumpet in Jazz" written for him by Morris Davis, he won a scholarship to the Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal where he studied from 1943 to 1948 with Bernard Baker. Ferguson dropped out of the High School of Montreal when he was fifteen to pursue a music career, performing in dance bands led by Stan Wood, Roland David, Johnny Holmes.
Although trumpet was his primary instrument, he performed on other brass and reed instruments. He took over the dance band formed by his saxophonist brother Percy, playing dates in the Montreal area and serving as an opening act for touring bands from Canada and the U. S. During this period, he came to the attention of American bandleaders and began receiving offers to go to the U. S. In 1948, Ferguson moved to the United States, intending to join Stan Kenton's band, but it no longer existed, so Ferguson played with the bands of Boyd Raeburn, Jimmy Dorsey, Charlie Barnet; the Barnet band included Doc Severinsen, Ray Wetzel, Johnny Howell, Rolf Ericson. Ferguson was featured on Barnet's recording of "All The Things" by Jerome Kern; the recording was withdrawn from sale. In January 1950, Kenton formed a 40-piece jazz orchestra with strings. After the folding of the Barnet band, Ferguson was available for the first rehearsal on January 1. One of the Orchestra's recordings was named "Maynard Ferguson," one of a series of pieces named after featured soloists.
When Kenton returned to a more practical 19-piece jazz band, Ferguson continued with him at third chair with numerous solo features. Notable recordings from this period that feature Ferguson include "Invention for Guitar and Trumpet", "What's New?", "The Hot Canary". In 1953, Ferguson left Kenton and spent the next three years a session musician for Paramount Pictures, he appeared including The Ten Commandments. He played on several other non-Paramount film soundtracks those with jazz scores. Ferguson can be discerned on several soundtracks from the time, including the Martin and Lewis films "Living It Up" and "You're Never Too Young." He still recorded jazz. This was sometimes circumvented by appearing under aliases such as "Tiger Brown" or "Foxy Corby". Although he enjoyed the steady income, he was unhappy with the lack of live performance opportunities and left Paramount in 1956. Ferguson played with the Pérez Prado Orchestra on the LP Havana 3 A. M. recorded in February and March 1956. In 1956, he joined the Birdland Dream Band, a 14-piece big band formed by Morris Levy as an "all-star" lineup to play at Levy's Birdland jazz club in New York City.
Although the name "Birdland Dream Band" was short-lived and is represented by only two albums over the course of a year, this band became the core of Ferguson's performing band for the next nine years. The band included Mike Abene, Jaki Byard, Bill Chase, Ronnie Cuber, Frankie Dunlop, Don Ellis, Joe Farrell, Dusko Goykovich, Tony Inzalaco, Rufus Jones, Willie Maiden, Ron McClure, Rob McConnell, Don Menza, Lanny Morgan, Wayne Shorter, Joe Zawinul; those who were both arrangers and performers included Herb Geller, Slide Hampton, Bill Holman, Don Sebesky. In 1959 Ferguson was a guest with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Leonard Bernstein performing Symphony No. 2 in C "Titans" by William Russo. As big bands declined in popularity and economic viability in the 1960s, Ferguson's band performed less frequently, he began to feel musically stifled and sensed a resistance to change among his American jazz audiences. According to an interview in Down Beat, he was quoted as saying that if the band did not play "Maria" or "Ole," the fans went home disappointed.
He began performing with a sextet before shutting down his big band in 1966. After leaving his long-time recording contract and the end of his main club gig, Ferguson moved his family to the Hitchcock Estate in Millbrook, New York in November 1963 to live with Timothy Leary, Ram Dass, their community from Harvard University, he and his wife Flo used psilocybin and other psychedelic drugs. They lived at Millbrook for playing clubs and recording several albums. Ferguson was mentioned in The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. In 1967, as the Millbrook experiment was ending, Ferguson moved his family to India and taught at the Krishnamurti-based Rishi Valley School near Madras, he was associated with the Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning's Boys Brass Band, which he founded and helped teach for several years. While in India, he was influenced by Sathya Sai Baba; as a Canadian in England, Ferguson avoided the union's ban on American musicians. In 1969, he moved to a hamlet on the outskirts of Windsor, near London.
He had two houses while he was in the final one a three-story house by the River Thames. That same year, Ferguson signed with CBS Records, he st
Nat King Cole
Nathaniel Adams Coles, known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs, his trio was the model for small jazz ensembles. Cole acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway, he was the first African American man to host an American television series. Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919, he had three brothers: Eddie and Freddy, a half-sister, Joyce Coles. Each of the Cole brothers pursued careers in music; when Nat King Cole was four years old, the family moved to Chicago, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister. Cole learned to play the organ from Perlina Coles, the church organist, his first performance was "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four, he began formal lessons at 12, learning jazz and classical music on piano "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."The Cole family moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, where he attended Wendell Phillips Academy High School, the school Sam Cooke attended a few years later.
He participated in Walter Dyett's music program at DuSable High School. He would sneak out of the house to visit clubs, sitting outside to hear Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, Jimmie Noone; when he was fifteen, Cole dropped out of high school to pursue a music career. After his brother Eddie, a bassist, came home from touring with Noble Sissle, they formed a sextet and recorded two singles for Decca in 1936 as Eddie Cole's Swingsters, they performed in a revival of the musical Shuffle Along. Nat Cole went on tour with the musical. In 1937, he married Nadine Robinson, a member of the cast. After the show ended in Los Angeles and Nadine settled there while he looked for work, he led a big band found work playing piano in nightclubs. When a club owner asked him to form a band, he hired bassist Wesley Prince and guitarist Oscar Moore, they called themselves the King Cole Swingsters after the nursery rhyme in which "Old King Cole was a merry old soul." They changed their name to the King Cole Trio before making radio transcriptions and recording for small labels.
Cole recorded "Sweet Lorraine" in 1940, it became his first hit. According to legend, his career as a vocalist started when a drunken bar patron demanded that he sing the song. Cole said that this fabricated story sounded good, so he didn't argue with it. In fact there was a customer one night who demanded that he sing, but because it was a song Cole didn't know, he sang "Sweet Lorraine" instead; as people heard Cole's vocal talent, they requested more vocal songs, he obliged. In 1941 the trio recorded "That Ain't Right" for Decca, followed the next year by "All for You" for Excelsior, they recorded "I'm Lost", a song written by Otis René, the owner of Excelsior. During the late 1930s the trio recorded radio transcriptions for Capitol, they performed on the radio programs Swing Soiree, Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club, Kraft Music Hall, The Orson Welles Almanac. Cole appeared in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts in 1944, he was credited on Mercury as "Shorty Nadine", a derivative of his wife's name, because he had an exclusive contract with Capitol since signing with the label the year before.
He recorded with Lester Young. In 1946 the trio broadcast a fifteen-minute radio program; this was the first radio program to be sponsored by a black musician. Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material in which he was accompanied by a string orchestra, his stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All for You", "The Christmas Song", " Route 66", " For Sentimental Reasons", "There! I've Said It Again", "Nature Boy", "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa", "Orange Colored Sky", "Too Young",On November 5, 1956, The Nat'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC; the variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American, The program started at a length of fifteen-minutes but was increased to a half-hour in July 1957. Rheingold Beer was a regional sponsor; the show was in trouble financially despite efforts by NBC, Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Ella Fitzgerald, Eartha Kitt, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, Mel Tormé. Cole decided to end the program; the last episode aired on December 17, 1957.
Commenting on the lack of sponsorship, Cole said shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to record hits that sold millions throughout the world, such as "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with Nelson Riddle, Gordon Jenkins, Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love, his first 10-inch LP. In 1955, "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Love Is the Thing went to number one in April 1957 remained his only number one album. In 1959 he received a Grammy Award for Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist for "Midnight Flyer". In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Español, an album sung in Spanish, it was so popular in Latin America and the U. S. that it was followed by two more Spanish-language albums: A Mis Amigos and More Cole Español. After the change in musical tastes, Cole's ballads appealed little to young listeners, despite a successful attempt at rock and roll with "Send for Me", which peaked at number 6 on the pop chart.
Like Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennet
Jonathan David Samuel Jones was an American jazz drummer. A band leader and pioneer in jazz percussion, Jones anchored the Count Basie Orchestra rhythm section from 1934 to 1948, he was sometimes known as Papa Jo Jones to distinguish him from younger drummer Philly Joe Jones. Born in Chicago, Jones moved to Alabama, where he learned to play several instruments, including saxophone and drums, he worked as a drummer and tap-dancer at carnival shows until joining Walter Page's band, the Blue Devils in Oklahoma City in the late 1920s. He recorded with trumpeter Lloyd Hunter's Serenaders in 1931, joined pianist Count Basie's band in 1934. Jones, guitarist Freddie Green and bassist Walter Page were sometimes billed as an "All-American Rhythm section," an ideal team. Jones took a brief break for two years when he was in the military, but he remained with Basie until 1948, he participated in the Jazz at the Philharmonic concert series. He was one of the first drummers to promote the use of brushes on drums and shifting the role of timekeeping from the bass drum to the hi-hat cymbal.
Jones had a major influence on drummers such as Buddy Rich, Kenny Clarke, Roy Haynes, Max Roach, Louie Bellson. He starred in several films, most notably the musical short Jammin' the Blues. Jones performed in years at the West End jazz club at 116th and Broadway in New York City; these performances were very well attended by other drummers such as Max Roach and Roy Haynes. In addition to his artistry on the drums, Jones was known for his combative temperament. In contrast to drummer Gene Krupa's loud, insistent pounding of the bass drum on each beat, Jones omitted bass drum playing altogether. Jones continued a ride rhythm on hi-hat while it was continuously opening and closing instead of the common practice of striking it while it was closed. Jones's style influenced the modern jazz drummer's tendency to play timekeeping rhythms on a suspended cymbal, now known as the ride cymbal. In 1979, Jones was inducted into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame for his contribution to the Birmingham, Alabama musical heritage.
Jones was the 1985 recipient of an American Jazz Masters fellowship awarded by the National Endowment for the Arts. His autobiography, entitled Rifftide: The Life and Opinions of Papa Jo Jones and based on conversations between Jones and novelist Murray from 1977 to before Jones' death in 1985, was posthumously published in 2011 by the University of Minnesota Press. Known as Papa Jo Jones in his years, he is sometimes confused with another influential jazz drummer, Philly Joe Jones; the two died only a few days apart. Jones died of pneumonia in New York City at the age of 73. 1955: The Jo Jones Special 1957: The Coleman Hawkins, Roy Eldridge, Pete Brown, Jo Jones All Stars at Newport 1958: Jo Jones Trio-The Everest Years 1959: Jo Jones Plus Two 1960: Percussion and Bass 1960: Jo Jones Sextet 1969-1975: Smiles 1973: The Drums 1976: The Main Man 1985: Our Man, Papa Jo! With Gene Ammons All Star Sessions With Mae Barnes Mae Barnes, Jo Jones, Buck Clayton, Ray Bryant With Count Basie The Original American Decca Recordings Count Basie at Newport With Art Blakey Orgy in Rhythm Drum Suite With Bob Brookmeyer Whooeeee - The Zoot Sims-Bob Brookmeyer QuintetWith Ray Bryant Ray Bryant Trio With Milt Buckner Midnight Slows, Volume 4 Midnight Slows, Volume 5 With Joe Bushkin Joe Bushkin,Jo Jones,Buck Clayton With Buck ClaytonThe Huckle-Buck and Robbins' Nest How Hi the Fi Jumpin' at the Woodside All the Cats Join In With Blossom Dearie Blossom Dearie, Jo Jones, Ray Brown With Roy Eldridge Dale's Wail With Duke Ellington & Johnny Hodges Side by Side With Ella Fitzgerald Ella at the Opera House With Freddie Green Mr. Rhythm With Coleman HawkinsTimeless Jazz The Hawk Flies High With Woody Herman Songs for Hip Lovers With Illinois Jacquet Swing's the Thing The King!
With Budd JohnsonBlues a la Mode With Thad Jones The Jones Boys with Jimmy Jones, Eddie Jones and Quincy JonesWith Charles Mingus Newport Rebels With Oscar Peterson The Oscar Peterson Trio with Sonny Stitt, Roy Eldridge and Jo Jones at Newport With Paul Quinichette For Basie Basie Reunion Like Basie! With Sonny Stitt Sonny Stitt Plays Arrangements from the Pen of Quincy Jones With Buddy TateSwinging Like Tate Midnight Slows, Volume 4 Midnight Slows, Volume 5 With Ben Webster Ben Webster and Associates With Dicky WellsBones for the King With Teddy Wilson The Creative Teddy Wilson - released as For Quiet Lovers I Got Rhythm The Impeccable Mr. Wilson These Tunes Remind Me of You With Lester Young The Jazz Giants'56 Pres and Teddy Jammin' the Blues The Unsuspected Jazz Icons: Coleman Hawkins-Live in 62 & 64 L´Aventure du Jazz Born to Swing The Last of the Blue Devils Jones, Jo. Rifftide: The Life and Opinions of Papa Jo Jones. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0816673018. Drummerworld biography with images and videos Jo Jones at All About Jazz Jo Jones at AllMusic Jo Jones discography at Dis
The Wrecking Crew (music)
The Wrecking Crew was a loose collective of session musicians based in Los Angeles whose services were employed for thousands of studio recordings in the 1960s and early 1970s, including several hundred Top 40 hits. The musicians were not publicly recognized in their era, but were viewed with reverence by industry insiders, they are now considered one of the most successful and prolific session recording units in music history. Most of the players associated with the Wrecking Crew had formal backgrounds in jazz or classical music; the group had no official name in its active years, it remains a subject of contention whether or not they were referred to as "the Wrecking Crew" at the time. Drummer Hal Blaine popularized the name in his 1990 memoir, attributing it to older musicians who felt that the group's embrace of rock and roll was going to "wreck" the music industry; some of Blaine's colleagues corroborated his account, while guitarist/bassist Carol Kaye contended that they were called "The Clique".
Another unofficial name was "The First Call Gang", sometimes used in the 1950s for an early version of the group headed by bassist Ray Pohlman which featured some of the same musicians. The unit coalesced in the early 1960s as the de facto house band for Phil Spector and helped realize his Wall of Sound production style, they subsequently became the most requested session musicians in Los Angeles, playing behind many popular recording artists such as Jan & Dean, Sonny & Cher, the Mamas & the Papas, the 5th Dimension, Frank Sinatra, Nancy Sinatra. The musicians were sometimes used as "ghost players" on recordings credited to rock groups, such as the Byrds' debut rendition of Bob Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man", the first two albums by the Monkees, the Beach Boys' 1966 album Pet Sounds; the Wrecking Crew's contributions to so many hit recordings went unnoticed until the publication of Blaine's memoir and the attention that followed. Keyboardist Leon Russell and guitarist Glen Campbell were members who became popular solo acts, while Blaine is reputed to have played on more than 140 top-ten hits, including 40 number-one hits.
Other musicians who formed the unit's ranks were drummer Earl Palmer, saxophonist Steve Douglas, guitarist Tommy Tedesco, keyboardist Larry Knechtel, who became a member of Bread. Blaine and Palmer were among the inaugural "sidemen" inductees to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, the entire Wrecking Crew was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum in 2007. In 2008, they were the subject of the documentary The Wrecking Crew. In the era when the Wrecking Crew was in demand, session players were active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as New York City, Memphis and Muscle Shoals, as well as Los Angeles, the Wrecking Crew's base of operations; each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as The Nashville A-Team that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed Stax/Volt recordings, the Funk Brothers in Detroit, who played on many Motown recordings.
At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, instrumental backing tracks were recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States—consequently studios were booked around the clock, session time was sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, deliver hits on short order; the Wrecking Crew were the "go to" session musicians in Los Angeles during this era. Its members were musically versatile but had formal backgrounds in jazz or classical music, were exceptional at sight reading.
The talent of this group of "first call" players was used in every style of recording, including television theme songs, film scores, advertising jingles and many genres of American popular music from the Monkees to Bing Crosby. Several of the Los Angeles recording studios in which the Wrecking Crew appeared were Gold Star Studios, United Western Recorders built by Bill Putnam, Capitol Records' studios located at their tower on Vine Street, Columbia Records' Los Angeles complex, the RCA recording facility, located on Sunset Boulevard near Wallichs Music City, a music store that supplied instruments for L. A. session players. Like all session musicians who worked in Los Angeles, the Wrecking Crew's members belonged to the American Federation of Musicians, Local 47, which represented their interests in areas such as pay scale and enforcement of regulations; the name "Wrecking Crew" was popularized by drummer and member Hal Blaine in his 1990 memoir, Hal Blaine and the Wrecking Crew. Though the unit did not have an official moniker during their years of activity, Blaine has stated that the term was sometimes used disparagingly in the early 1960s by members of the industry's old guard of "coat and tie" session players, who felt that, with their penchant for wearing "t-shirts and jeans" to sessions and their embrace of rock and roll, they were going to "wreck" the music industry.
According to biographer Kent Hartman, "Some of the studio musicians I interviewed swear they heard it applied to themselves as early as 1963. One says it was never used at all". Blaine's memoirs, the
John Cornelius Hodges was an American alto saxophonist, best known for solo work with Duke Ellington's big band. He played lead alto in the saxophone section for many years. Hodges was featured on soprano saxophone, but refused to play soprano after 1946, he is considered one of the definitive alto saxophone players of the big band era. Hodges started playing with Sidney Bechet, Luckey Roberts and Chick Webb; when Ellington wanted to expand his band in 1928, Ellington's clarinet player Barney Bigard recommended Hodges. His playing became one of the identifying voices of the Ellington orchestra. From 1951 to 1955, Hodges left the Duke to lead his own band, but returned shortly before Ellington's triumphant return to prominence – the orchestra's performance at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival. Hodges was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to John H. Hodges and Katie Swan Hodges, both from Virginia. Soon afterwards, the family moved to Hammond Street in Boston, where he grew up with baritone saxophonist Harry Carney, saxophonists Charlie Holmes and Howard E. Johnson.
His first instruments were drums and piano. While his mother was a skilled piano player, Hodges was self-taught. Once he became good enough, he played the piano at dances in private homes for eight dollars an evening, he had taken up the soprano saxophone by his teens. It was around this time that Hodges developed the nickname "Rabbit", which some people believe arose from his ability to win 100-yard dashes and outrun truant officers. In fact, Carney called him Rabbit because of his rabbit-like nibbling on lettuce and tomato sandwiches; when Hodges was 14, he saw Sidney Bechet play in Jimmy Cooper's Black and White Revue in a Boston burlesque hall. Hodges' sister got to know Bechet, which gave him the inspiration to introduce himself and play "My Honey's Lovin Arms" for Bechet. Bechet was encouraged him to keep on playing. Hodges built a name for himself in the Boston area before moving to New York in 1924. Hodges joined Duke Ellington's orchestra in November 1928, he was one of the prominent Ellington Band members who featured in Benny Goodman's 1938 Carnegie Hall concert.
Goodman described Hodges as "by far the greatest man on alto sax that I heard." Charlie Parker called him "the Lily Pons of his instrument." Ellington's practice of writing tunes for members of his orchestra resulted in the Hodges specialties, "Confab with Rab", "Jeep's Blues", "Sultry Sunset", "Hodge Podge". Other songs recorded by the Ellington Orchestra which prominently feature Hodges' smooth alto saxophone sound are "Magenta Haze", "Prelude to a Kiss", "Haupe" – notable are the "seductive" and hip-swaying "Flirtibird", featuring the "irresistibly salacious tremor" by Hodges, "The Star-Crossed Lovers" from Ellington's Such Sweet Thunder suite, "I Got It Bad", "Blood Count" and "Passion Flower", he had a pure tone and economy of melody on both the blues and ballads that won him admiration from musicians of all eras and styles, from Ben Webster and John Coltrane, who both played with him when he had his own orchestra in the 1950s, to Lawrence Welk, who featured him in an album of standards.
His individualistic playing style, which featured the use of a wide vibrato and much sliding between slurred notes, was imitated. As evidenced by the Ellington compositions named after him, he earned the nicknames Jeep and Rabbit – according to Johnny Griffin because "he looked like a rabbit, no expression on his face while he's playing all this beautiful music." In the 1940s, Hodges played a Conn 6M and on a Buescher 400 alto saxophone. By the end of his career in the late 1960s, Hodges was playing a Vito LeBlanc Rationale alto, an instrument with unusual key-mechanisms and tone-hole placement, which gave superior intonation. Fewer than 2,000 were made. Hodges' Vito saxophone was silver-plated and extensively engraved on the bell, bow and key-cups of the instrument. Hodges' last performances were at the Imperial Room in Toronto, less than a week before his May 11, 1970 death from a heart attack, suffered during a visit to the office of a dental surgeon, his last recordings are featured on the New Orleans Suite, only half-finished when he died.
He had a wife, Edith Cue, two children: John Hodges Jr. and Lorna Majata. The loss of Hodges' sound prompted Ellington, upon learning of the musician's death from a heart attack, to lament to JET magazine: "The band will never sound the same without Johnny." In Ellington's eulogy of Hodges, he said: "Never the world's most animated showman or greatest stage personality, but a tone so beautiful it sometimes brought tears to the eyes—this was Johnny Hodges. This is Johnny Hodges." 1946: Passion Flower with Willie Cook, Roy Eldridge, Quentin Jackson, Russell Procope, Ben Webster, Sam Woodyard 1951: Caravan with Taft Jordan, Harold Baker, Juan Tizol, Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Oscar Pettiford, Sonny Greer 1951-52: Castle Rock 1952: In a Tender Mood 1952-54: The Blues 1951-54: More of Johnny Hodges 1951-54: Memories of Ellington released as In a Mellow Tone 1954: Used to Be Duke 1952–55: Dance Bash released as Perdido 1955: Creamy 1956: Ellingtonia'56 1956: Duke's in Bed 1957: The Big Sound 1958: Blues A-Plenty 1958: Not So Dukish 1959: Johnny Hodges and His Strings Play the Prettiest Gershwin 1959: Back to Back: Duke Ellington and Johnny Hodges Play the Blues with Duke E
George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris, the songs Swanee and Fascinating Rhythm, the jazz standard I Got Rhythm, the opera Porgy and Bess which spawned the hit Summertime. Gershwin studied piano under Charles Hambitzer and composition with Rubin Goldmark, Henry Cowell, Joseph Brody, he began his career as a song plugger but soon started composing Broadway theater works with his brother Ira Gershwin and Buddy DeSylva. He moved to Paris intending to study with Nadia Boulanger, he returned to New York City and wrote Porgy and Bess with Ira and DuBose Heyward. It was a commercial failure but came to be considered one of the most important American operas of the twentieth century and an American cultural classic. Gershwin moved to Hollywood and composed numerous film scores until his death in 1937 from a malignant brain tumor.
His compositions have been adapted for use in films and television, several became jazz standards recorded and covered in many variations. Gershwin was of Russian Lithuanian Jewish ancestry, his grandfather, Jakov Gershowitz, had served for 25 years as a mechanic for the Imperial Russian Army to earn the right of free travel and residence as a Jew. His teenage son, Moishe Gershowitz, worked as a leather cutter for women's shoes. Moishe Gershowitz met and fell in love with Roza Bruskina, the teenage daughter of a furrier in Vilnius, she and her family moved to New York due to increasing anti-Jewish sentiment in Russia, changing her first name to Rose. Moishe, faced with compulsory military service if he remained in Russia, moved to America as soon as he could afford to. Once in New York, he changed his first name to Morris. Gershowitz lived with a maternal uncle in Brooklyn, he married Rose on July 21, 1895, Gershowitz soon Americanized his name to Gershwine. Their first child, Ira Gershwin, was born on December 6, 1896, after which the family moved into a second-floor apartment on Brooklyn's Snediker Avenue.
On September 26, 1898, George was born as second son to Morris and Rose Bruskin Gershwine in their second-floor apartment on Brooklyn's Snediker Avenue. His birth certificate identifies him as Jacob Gershwine, with the surname pronounced'Gersh-vin' in the Russian and Yiddish immigrant community, he had just one given name, contrary to the American practice of giving children both a first and middle name. He was named after a one time Russian army mechanic, he soon became known as George, changed the spelling of his surname to'Gershwin' about the time he became a professional musician. After Ira and George, another boy Arthur Gershwin, a girl Frances Gershwin were born into the family; the family lived in many different residences, as their father changed dwellings with each new enterprise in which he became involved. They grew up around the Yiddish Theater District. George and Ira frequented the local Yiddish theaters, with George appearing onstage as an extra. George lived a usual childhood existence for children of New York tenements: running around with his boyhood friends, roller skating and misbehaving in the streets.
Until 1908, he cared nothing for music, when as a ten-year-old he was intrigued upon hearing his friend Maxie Rosenzweig's violin recital. The sound, the way his friend played, captured him. At around the same time, George's parents had bought a piano for lessons for his older brother Ira, but to his parents' surprise, Ira's relief, it was George who spent more time playing it. Although his younger sister Frances was the first in the family to make a living through her musical talents, she married young and devoted herself to being a mother and housewife, thus surrendering any serious time to musical endeavors. Having given up her performing career, she settled upon painting as a creative outlet, a hobby George pursued. Arthur Gershwin followed in the paths of George and Ira becoming a composer of songs and short piano works. With a degree of frustration, George tried various piano teachers for some two years before being introduced to Charles Hambitzer by Jack Miller, the pianist in the Beethoven Symphony Orchestra.
Until his death in 1918, Hambitzer remained Gershwin's musical mentor and taught him conventional piano technique, introduced him to music of the European classical tradition, encouraged him to attend orchestral concerts. Following such concerts, young Gershwin would try to play, on the piano at home, the music he had heard from recall, without sheet music; as a matter of course, Gershwin studied with the classical composer Rubin Goldmark and avant-garde composer-theorist Henry Cowell, thus formalizing his classical music training. In 1913, Gershwin left school at the age of 15 and found his first job as a "song plugger", his employer was Jerome H. Remick and Company, a Detroit-based publishing firm with a branch office on New York City's Tin Pan Alley, he earned $15 a week, his first published song was "When You Want'Em, You Can't Get'Em, When You've Got'Em, You Don't Want'Em" in 1916 when Gershwin was only 17 years old. It earned him 50 cents. In 1916, Gershwin started working for Aeolian Company and Standard Music Rolls in New York and arranging.
He produced dozens, if not hundreds, of rolls under his own and assumed names
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration into a large mouthpiece, it first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for'trumpet'. In America, a person who plays the tuba is known as a tubist. In the United Kingdom, a person who plays the tuba in an orchestra is known as a tuba player. Prussian Patent No. 19 was granted to Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz on September 12, 1835 for a "bass tuba" in F1. The original Wieprecht and Moritz instrument used five valves of the Berlinerpumpen type that were the forerunners of the modern piston valve; the first tenor tuba was invented in 1838 by son of Johann Gottfried Moritz. The addition of valves made it possible to play low in the harmonic series of the instrument and still have a complete selection of notes.
Prior to the invention of valves, brass instruments were limited to notes in the harmonic series, were thus played high with respect to their fundamental pitch. Harmonics starting three octaves above the fundamental pitch are about a whole step apart, making a useful variety of notes possible; the ophicleide used a bowl-shaped brass instrument mouthpiece but employed keys and tone holes similar to those of a modern saxophone. Another forerunner to the tuba was the serpent, a bass instrument, shaped in a wavy form to make the tone holes accessible to the player. Tone holes changed the pitch by providing an intentional leak in the bugle of the instrument. While this changed the pitch, it had a pronounced effect on the timbre. By using valves to adjust the length of the bugle the tuba produced a smoother tone that led to its popularity. Adolphe Sax, like Wieprecht, was interested in marketing systems of instruments from soprano to bass, developed a series of brass instruments known as saxhorns; the instruments developed by Sax were pitched in E♭ and B♭, while the Wieprecht "basstuba" and the subsequent Cerveny contrabass tuba were pitched in F and C.
Sax's instruments gained dominance in France, in Britain and America, as a result of the popularity and movements of instrument makers such as Gustave Auguste Besson and Henry Distin. An orchestra has a single tuba, though an additional tuba may be requested, it serves as the bass of the orchestral brass section and it can reinforce the bass voices of the strings and woodwinds. It provides the bass of brass choirs, it is the principal bass instrument in concert bands, brass bands and military bands, those ensembles have two to four tubas. It is a solo instrument. Tubas are used in marching bands and bugle corps and in many jazz bands. In British style brass bands, two E ♭ and two B ♭ tubas are referred to as basses. Well known and influential parts for the tuba include: Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition - Bydło, Night On Bald Mountain Richard Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra, Eine Alpensinfonie, Till Eulenspiegel Shostakovich: All Symphonies, except for the Fourteenth symphony Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, Petroushka Edgard Varèse: Déserts Richard Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Ride of the Valkyries, Faust Overture Sergei Prokofiev: Fifth Symphony George Gershwin: An American in Paris Silvestre Revueltas: Sensemayá, La noche de los mayas, Homenaje a Federico García Lorca Gustav Holst: The Planets Gustav Mahler: First Symphony, Second Symphony, Fifth Symphony, Sixth Symphony, Eighth Symphony Ottorino Respighi: Fountains of Rome, Pines of Rome Hector Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, Hungarian March Paul Hindemith: Symphonic MetamorphosisConcertos have been written for the tuba by many notable composers, including Ralph Vaughan Williams, Edward Gregson, John Williams, Alexander Arutiunian, Eric Ewazen, James Barnes, Joseph Hallman, Martin Ellerby, Philip Sparke, Kalevi Aho, Josef Tal, Bruce Broughton and David Carlson.
Tubas are found in various pitches, most in F, E♭, C, or B♭. The main tube of a B♭ tuba is 18 feet long, while that of a C tuba is 16 feet, of an E♭ tuba 13 feet, of an F tuba 12 feet; the instrument has a conical bore, meaning the bore diameter increases as a function of the tubing length from the mouthpiece to the bell. The conical bore. A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is called a concert tuba or a tuba. Tubas with the bell pointing forward instead of upward are called recording tubas because of their popularity in the early days of recorded music, as their sound could more be directed at the recording microphone; when wrapped to surround the body for cavalry bands on horseback or marching, it is traditionally known as a hélicon. The modern sousaphone, named after American bandmaster John Philip Sousa, resembles a hélicon with the bell pointed up and curved to point forward; some ancestors of the tuba, such as the military bombardon, had unusual valve and bore arrangements compared to modern tubas.
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