Wilson Collison was a prolific author and playwright. Wilson Collison was the son of John B. Collison, a clerk in the City Engineer's Office, Mary E. Gardner. Wilson Collison abandoned plans to become a scientist. Showing signs of early talent he was nine, his writing was self-developed, as he completed only one year of high school. He worked as a printer, a stenographer, an advertising writer, as a clerk in the wholesale and retail drug business. At 18 Collison became an actor with a repertory company, he was a vaudeville performer. Collison's fame as a playwright came in 1919. Collison was an $18-a-week clerk in a Columbus, Ohio drugstore when he turned out this first success, in collaboration with Otto Harbach, about the pursuit of an incriminating undergarment which a shy bridegroom in a single bold moment had presented to a young woman whom he had temporarily fancied. Collison co-wrote two successful farces with Avery Hopwood: The Girl in the Limousine, about a man, robbed and left in a woman's bedroom, Getting Gertie's Garter, about a lawyer who doesn't understand the difference between a bracelet and a garter.
Collison's play Red Dust, which closed after eight performances in New York, became the 1932 Clark Gable film by the same name and the 1953 Clark Gable film Mogambo. The hit movie had been a flop on stage: "Red Dust, a turgid play," was "a repetitious melodrama... Another of those plays of the tropics, or anyway the near tropics, where passions are primitive and men wear their shirts open in the front," wrote the New York Times, his 1932 novel "The Red-Haired Alibi" was turned into a feature-length film of the same name by Tower Productions. Directed by Christy Cabanne, it was the first feature-length film to include Shirley Temple in the credits; the Maisie series of motion pictures, with the first in 1939, was from Collison's novel Dark Dame. MGM cast Ann Sothern as a brash, American working woman. Sothern had the role in a half-hour weekly radio series. One of his works was adapted as 1933 film Sing, Sinner Sing 1919 Up in Mabel's Room 1919 The Girl in the Limousine 1920 The Girl with the Carmine Lips 1921 Getting Gertie's Garter 1921 A Bachelor's Night 1922 Desert Sands 1928 Red Dust 1929 Murder in the Brownstone House 1930 Diary of Death 1931 Blonde Baby 1931 Expensive Women 1932 Farewell to Women called Dishonable Darling 1932 Red-haired Alibi 1932 Shy Cinderella 1933 Millstones 1933 One night with Nancy 1933 Sexational Eve 1934 Congo Landing 1935 Save a Lady 1935 The Second Mrs. Lynton 1936 Glittering Isle The Girl in the Limousine Up in Mabel's Room Getting Gertie's Garter Divorce Made Easy Expensive Women Three Wise Girls The Crusader The Red-Haired Alibi Red Dust Night of the Garter Sing Sinner Sing Smart Girl Woman Wanted There's Always a Woman There's That Woman Again The Mad Miss Manton Maisie Congo Maisie Gold Rush Maisie Maisie Was a Lady Ringside Maisie Maisie Gets Her Man Swing Shift Maisie Maisie Goes to Reno Up Goes Maisie Undercover Maisie Moon Over Burma Up in Mabel's Room Getting Gertie's Garter Mogambo Collison died at home of a heart attack.
He had no funeral, at his request, his remains were cremated
Mary Astor was an American actress. She is best remembered for her role as Brigid O'Shaughnessy in The Maltese Falcon. Astor began her long motion picture career as a teenager in the silent movies of the early 1920s; when talkies arrived, her voice was considered too masculine and she was off the screen for a year. After she appeared in a play with friend Florence Eldridge, the film offers came in, she was able to resume her career in talking pictures. In 1936, her career was nearly destroyed by scandal. Astor had an affair with playwright George S. Kaufman and was branded an adulterous wife by her ex-husband, in a custody fight over her daughter. Overcoming these stumbling blocks in her private life, Astor had greater success on screen winning an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in The Great Lie. Astor was a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player through most of the 1940s and continued to work in film, television and on stage until her retirement in 1964, she authored five novels.
Her autobiography was a bestseller, as was her book, A Life on Film, about her career. Director Lindsay Anderson wrote of Astor in 1990 that "when two or three who love the cinema are gathered together, the name of Mary Astor always comes up, everybody agrees that she was an actress of special attraction, whose qualities of depth and reality always seemed to illuminate the parts she played". Astor was born in Quincy, the only child of Otto Ludwig Langhanke and Helen Marie de Vasconcellos. Both of her parents were teachers, her German father emigrated to the United States from Berlin in 1891 and became a naturalized U. S. citizen. They married on August 1904 in Lyons, Kansas. Astor's father taught German at Quincy High School until the U. S. entered World War I. On, he took up light farming. Astor's mother, who had always wanted to be an actress, taught elocution. Astor was home-schooled in academics and was taught to play the piano by her father, who insisted she practice daily, her piano talents came in handy when she played piano in her films The Great Lie and Meet Me in St. Louis.
In 1919, Astor sent a photograph of herself to a beauty contest in Motion Picture Magazine, becoming a semifinalist. When Astor was 15, the family moved to Chicago, with her father teaching German in public schools. Astor appeared in various amateur stage productions; the following year, she sent another photograph to Motion Picture Magazine, this time becoming a finalist and runner-up in the national contest. Her father moved the family to New York City, in order for his daughter to act in motion pictures, he managed her affairs from September 1920 to June 1930. A Manhattan photographer, Charles Albin, saw her photograph and asked the young girl with haunting eyes and long auburn hair, whose nickname was "Rusty", to pose for him; the Albin photographs were seen by Harry Durant of Famous Players-Lasky and Astor was signed to a six-month contract with Paramount Pictures. Her name was changed to Mary Astor during a conference among Paramount Pictures chief Jesse Lasky, film producer Walter Wanger, gossip columnist Louella Parsons.
Astor's first screen test was directed by Lillian Gish, so impressed with her recitation of Shakespeare that she shot a thousand feet of her. She made her debut at age 14 in the 1921 film Sentimental Tommy, but her small part in a dream sequence wound up on the cutting room floor. Paramount let her contract lapse, she appeared in some movie shorts with sequences based on famous paintings. She received critical recognition for the 1921 two-reeler The Beggar Maid, her first feature-length movie was John Smith, followed that same year by The Man. In 1923, she and her parents moved to Hollywood. After appearing in several larger roles at various studios, she was again signed by Paramount, this time to a one-year contract at $500 a week. After she appeared in several more movies, John Barrymore saw her photograph in a magazine and wanted her cast in his upcoming movie. On loan-out to Warner Bros. she starred with him in Beau Brummel. The older actor wooed the young actress, but their relationship was constrained by Astor's parents' unwillingness to let the couple spend time alone together.
It was only after Barrymore convinced the Langhankes that his acting lessons required privacy that the couple managed to be alone at all. Their secret engagement ended because of the Langhankes' interference and Astor's inability to escape their heavy-handed authority, because Barrymore became involved with Astor's fellow WAMPAS Baby Star Dolores Costello, whom he married. In 1925, Astor's parents bought a Moorish style mansion with 1 acre of land known as "Moorcrest" in the hills above Hollywood; the Langhankes not only lived lavishly off of Astor's earnings, but kept her a virtual prisoner inside Moorcrest. Moorcrest is known not only for its ornate style, but its place as the most lavish residence associated with the Krotona Colony, a utopian society founded by the Theosophical Society in 1912. Built by Marie Russak Hotchener, a Theosophist who had no formal architectural training, the house combines Moorish and Mission Revival styles and contains such Arts and Crafts features as art-glass windows, Batchelder tiles.
Moorcrest, which has since undergone a multimillion-dollar renovation, remains standing. Before the Langhankes bought it, it was rented by C
Ava Lavinia Gardner was an American actress and singer. She was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1941, appeared in small roles until she drew attention with her performance in The Killers, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her work in Mogambo, received BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for other films. Gardner appeared in several high-profile films from the 1940s to 1970s, including The Hucksters, Show Boat and the Flying Dutchman, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, The Barefoot Contessa, Bhowani Junction, On the Beach, 55 Days at Peking, Seven Days in May, The Night of the Iguana, The Bible: In the Beginning... The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean and The Cassandra Crossing. Gardner continued to act until 1986, four years before her death in London in 1990, at the age of 67, she is listed 25th among the American Film Institute's 25 Greatest Female Stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Gardner was born near the farming community of North Carolina, she was the youngest of seven children.
She had two older brothers and Melvin, four older sisters, Elsie Mae and Myra. Her parents, Mary Elizabeth "Molly" and Jonas Bailey Gardner, were poor tobacco farmers. While accounts of her background vary, Gardner's only documented ancestry was English, she was raised in the Baptist faith of her mother. While the children were still young, the Gardners lost their property, forcing Jonas Gardner to work at a sawmill and Molly to begin working as a cook and housekeeper at a dormitory for teachers at the nearby Brogden School; when Gardner was seven years old, the family decided to try their luck in a larger city, Newport News, where Molly Gardner found work managing a boarding house for the city's many shipworkers. While in Newport News, Gardner's father became ill, died from bronchitis in 1938, when Ava was 15 years old. After Jonas Gardner's death, the family moved to Rock Ridge near Wilson, North Carolina, where Molly Gardner ran another boarding house for teachers. Gardner attended high school in Rock Ridge, she graduated from there in 1939.
She attended secretarial classes at Atlantic Christian College in Wilson for about a year. Gardner was visiting her sister Beatrice in New York in 1941, when Beatrice's husband Larry Tarr, a professional photographer, offered to take her portrait, he was so pleased with the results that he displayed the finished product in the front window of his Tarr Photography Studio on Fifth Avenue. A Loews Theatres legal clerk, Barnard Duhan, spotted Gardner's photo in Tarr's studio. At the time, Duhan posed as an MGM talent scout to meet girls, using the fact that MGM was a subsidiary of Loews. Duhan was rebuffed by the receptionist. Duhan made the comment, "Somebody should send her info to MGM", the Tarrs did so immediately. Shortly after, who at the time was a student at Atlantic Christian College, traveled to New York to be interviewed at MGM's New York office by Al Altman, head of MGM's New York talent department. With cameras rolling, he directed the 18-year-old to walk towards the camera and walk away rearrange some flowers in a vase.
He did not attempt to record her voice because her Southern accent made understanding her difficult for him. Louis B. Mayer, head of the studio, sent a telegram to Altman: "She can't sing, she can't act, she can't talk, she's terrific!" She was offered a standard contract by MGM, left school for Hollywood in 1941, with her sister Beatrice accompanying her. MGM's first order of business was to provide her with a speech coach, as her Carolina drawl was nearly incomprehensible to them. After five years of bit parts at MGM, many of them uncredited, Gardner came to prominence in the Mark Hellinger-produced smash-hit film noir The Killers, playing the femme fatale Kitty Collins. Other films include The Hucksters, Show Boat, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Lone Star, The Barefoot Contessa, Bhowani Junction, The Sun Also Rises, On the Beach. In The Barefoot Contessa, she played the role of doomed beauty Maria Vargas, a fiercely independent woman who goes from Spanish dancer to international film star with the help of a Hollywood director played by Humphrey Bogart, with tragic consequences.
Gardner starred as Guinevere in Knights of the Round Table, opposite actor Robert Taylor as Sir Lancelot. Indicative of her sophistication, she portrayed a duchess, a baroness, other ladies of royal lineage in her films of the 1950s. Off-camera, she could be witty and pithy, as in her assessment of director John Ford, who directed Mogambo, she was billed between Charlton Heston and David Niven for 55 Days at Peking, set in China during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. The following year, she played her last major leading role in a critically acclaimed film, The Night of the Iguana, based upon a Tennessee Williams play, starring Richard Burton as an atheist clergyman and Deborah Kerr as a gentle artist traveling with her aged poet grandfather. John Huston directed the movie in Puerto Vallarta, insisting on making the film in black and white – a decision he regretted because of the vivid colors of the flora. Gardner above Kerr, she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance. She next appeared again with Burt Lancaster, her co-star from The Killers, this time along with Kirk Douglas and Fr
Hunt Stromberg was a film producer during Hollywood's Golden Age. In a prolific 30-year career beginning in 1921, Stromberg produced and directed some of Hollywood's most profitable and enduring films, including The Thin Man series, the Nelson Eddy/Jeanette MacDonald operettas, The Women, The Great Ziegfeld, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1936. Hunt Stromberg was born in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1894. Leaving a career as a newspaper reporter and sports writer for the St. Louis Times, he followed an advertising friend into the motion picture industry prior to World War I, becoming publicity director for the Goldwyn Pictures Corporation in New York. In 1918, the company sent Stromberg to California, he promptly resigned from Ince's staff to form Hunt Stromberg Productions. From his first independent film, The Foolish Age, Stromberg made his mark by turning out independent, low-budget films in increasing quantity and quality. In 1922 Stromberg signed Bull Montana, a popular matinee idol, to a long-term contract to star in short comedies, hired comedy director Mal St. Clair, who had worked with Mack Sennett and Buster Keaton.
When Sid Grauman saw a rough cut of the resulting A Ladies' Man, he booked the film to premiere at his Million Dollar Theater in Los Angeles on April 30, 1922. Stromberg continued his string of successes with Breaking into Society, which he wrote and directed. Stromberg joined newly formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925 and became one of its key executives, listed as one of the studio's "Big Four" with Louis B. Mayer, Irving Thalberg, Harry Rapf—later with Thalberg, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger, he was the first production supervisor to get a "produced by" credit on-screen, well deserved considering his achievements. He produced: all of Jean Harlow's films Joan Crawford's breakthrough films Greta Garbo's first American film, Torrent the Nelson Eddy/Jeanette MacDonald operetta cycle the William Powell/Myrna Loy "Thin Man" seriesas well as such prestige milestones as Academy Award-winning The Great Ziegfeld, Marie Antoinette, The Women, Pride and Prejudice. At the height of his career, MGM was producing 52 films a year, or an average of one film a week, staying in the black despite the Great Depression.
Stromberg was one of the top ranked money makers of Hollywood, with a salary to match: US $8,000 a week, guaranteed. In 1937, he was included in management's inner circle and received an additional 1.5% of Loews Theaters profits. The Treasury Department listed Stromberg as one of the ten highest paid executives in the United States, but there were substantial changes in those years. Thalberg died in 1936, while Selznick and Wanger left MGM in 1937, leaving Mayer in sole, hands-on control. There are conflicting interpretations of what caused the rift, but by the end of 1941 it was over: after 18 years Stromberg walked away from a contract worth millions, Mayer let him go on February 10, 1942. Hunt Stromberg was the first producer added to the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers in 1942 after the group had been formed by Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney, Samuel Goldwyn, Alexander Korda, Mary Pickford, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger, Orson Welles. Confounding industry expectations, Stromberg launched his own independent production company, based at RKO's Encino movie ranch, in 1943 with the smash hit Lady of Burlesque, starring Barbara Stanwyck, which grossed $1.85 million.
His subsequent films were not as successful and he retired in 1951, in the same year his wife, Katherine Kerwin, died. An avid horseman and a shrewd businessman, Stromberg was independently wealthy by this time as well as a founding investor in Santa Anita Park and Hollywood Park Racetracks. Stromberg died on August 23, 1968, he was survived by television producer in his own right. Breaking Into Society, director The Siren of Seville, assistant director Roaring Rails, screenwriter Soft Shoes, screenwriter Winning the Futurity, screenwriter The White Sister, director Hunt Stromberg on IMDb Hunt Stromberg at Find a Grave Clip of Stromberg logo c. 1943 on YouTube
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith