Red Lake Falls, Minnesota
Red Lake Falls is a city in Red Lake County, United States. The population was 1,427 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Red Lake County. The city lies in the middle of Red Lake Falls Township from which it was separated when incorporated as a village in 1881, its status was raised to that of a city in 1898. Red Lake Falls was the site of a North West Company fur post as early as 1796 or 1797, making it one of the oldest sites of European occupation in the State of Minnesota. A French Canadian fur trader, Jean Baptiste Cadotte, partner of the noted British-Canadian fur trader, Alexander Henry the elder, established the post as part of a strategy to ward off Hudson's Bay Company intrusion into the Red River Valley; the famous Canadian explorer David Thompson took shelter from a storm in Cadotte's cabin here in March 1798. The post was abandoned early in the 1800s, as British fur traders withdrew from United States territory; the surrounding territory was homesteaded by French-American settlers led by Pierre Bottineau, who were relocating via ox cart from their temporary stopping points in Ramsey and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in 1876.
These pioneers were augmented in 1878 by a number of French Canadian settlers from Upper Canada. The area developed as a grain farming region. In 1878, Earnest Buse and his partner, Otto Kankel, established a flour mill at the confluence of the two rivers; the town of Red Lake Falls soon after was platted by Mr. Buse, who moved on to other environs; the Kankel family continued as a prominent presence in the town through the 1950s. The town prospered for a time, as both the Northern Pacific Railway and the Great Northern Railway ran their lines through the town in the 1880s and early 1890s, when Red Lake County split off from Polk County, in 1896, Red Lake Falls became the county seat of the newly formed county, a reason for existence that persists to the present day; the population peaked shortly afterward, in 1900, has been in decline since. The last significant historic event in Red Lake Falls occurred on August 27, 1927, when the famous aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife landed at the nearby airport during a barnstorming trip through the Upper Midwest and were taken on automobile rides to Huot and Crookston.
Red Lake Falls is located on a tributary of the Red River of the North, the Red Lake River, at its confluence with the Clearwater River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.03 square miles, all of it land. Minnesota Highway 32 serves as a main route in the city. Minnesota Highway 92 is nearby; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,427 people, 615 households, 366 families residing in the city. The population density was 703.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 670 housing units at an average density of 330.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.1% White, 0.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 615 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.5% were non-families.
33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 41.2 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,590 people, 608 households, 380 families residing in the city; the population density was 749.7 people per square mile. There were 652 housing units at an average density of 307.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.53% White, 4.53% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.44% of the population. There were 608 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.5% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,536, the median income for a family was $41,413. Males had a median income of $29,792 versus $20,185 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,177. About 8.3% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. Adrian Baril, NFL player Roxy Beaudro, ice hockey player Red Lake County Historical Society, Inc. A History of Red Lake County, pp. 108–138. City website History of Red Lake County Official Red Lake County website
Polk County, Minnesota
Polk County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. The population was 37,600 at the 2010 United States Census, its county seat is Crookston, the largest community is East Grand Forks. Polk County is included in ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. In one of its early acts as a state entity, the Minnesota legislature created the county on July 20, 1858, but did not organize it at that time; the county was named for the 11th president of the United States, James Knox Polk, who signed the Congressional Act that organized the Minnesota Territory. The county was organized in 1872 and 1873, with the newly settled community of Crookston as the county seat. Polk County lies on Minnesota's border with North Dakota; the Red Lake River flows west through the upper central part of the county, discharging into the Red at Grand Forks. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture; the county slopes to the west and north, with its highest point near its southeast corner, at 1,519' ASL.
The county has a total area of 1,998 square miles, of which 1,971 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Polk County State-Aid Highway 21: Major connector between Polk County and Thief River Falls. Connects with Pennington County State-Aid Highway 3. Polk County State-Aid Highway 9: Major connector between Crookston and the south end of Grand Forks. Connects with Grand Forks County Road 7. Functions as a south side connector between US 75 and US 2 in Crookston. Polk County State-Aid Highways 11 & 46: US 2 Truck Bypass of Crookston; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 31,369 people, 12,070 households, 8,050 families in the county. The population density was 15.9/sqmi. There were 14,008 housing units at an average density of 7.11/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 94.18% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 1.30% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.57% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. 4.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
41.7 % were of Norwegian, 5.8 % French ancestry. There were 12,070 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.90% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families. 28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. The county population contained 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,105, the median income for a family was $44,310. Males had a median income of $31,472 versus $21,535 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,279. About 7.30% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.30% of those under age 18 and 10.90% of those age 65 or over.
Polk County has been a swing district for several decades. In 56% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Minnesota R. I. Holcombe and William H Bingham, Compendium of History and Biography of Polk County, Minnesota. Minneapolis: W. H. Bingham & Co. 1916. Huber D. McLellan, The History of the Early Settlement and Development of Polk County, Minnesota. PhD dissertation. Northwestern University, 1928. Polk County Historical Society, Bicentennial History of Polk County, Minnesota: Pioneers of the Valley. N.c.: Polk County Historical Society, 1976. Polk County Historical Society, The Polk County Historian. Claude Eugene Wentsel, Polk County, Minnesota, in the World War. Ada, MN: C. E. Wentsel, 1922. Winger Golden Jubilee Historical Committee, Golden Jubilee, Minnesota, 1904-1954. Winger, MN: Winger Enterprise, n.d.. Maxine Workman, Minnesota Cemeteries, Polk County. West Fargo, ND: Red River Genealogy Society, 1988.
Polk County official website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Huot is an unincorporated community in Louisville Township, Red Lake County, United States. The name of the community evokes the French-Canadian and Métis history of the Red River Trails and the Pembina settlements of Assiniboia; the location of Huot was dubbed the Old Crossing. In the 1840s and 1850s, this was a ford or crossing of the Red Lake River used by Red River ox cart trains en route from Pembina and Fort Garry in the Red River Colony to St. Paul, Minnesota. After negotiating the difficult and sometimes dangerous crossing, these cart trains camped overnight nearby, the location became known as a regular stopping place on the "Woods Trail". In the 1850s, Joe Rolette, one of the colorful promoters of trade between British Assiniboia and St. Paul, established a trading house at the Old Crossing. Rolette proposed to establish a city named "Douglas" at the same location. Rolette's compatriots in the Minnesota state legislature designated Douglas the county seat of Polk County in 1858; this designation was withdrawn when the Ojibwe, contesting the Dakota Sioux for hunting rights in the vicinity over many decades, refused to grant permission for a ferry or a town in their territory.
Not coincidentally, the Old Crossing soon became the situs of the Treaties of Old Crossing, whereby the Ojibwe were induced to cede most of northwestern Minnesota to the United States. This cession was to be consummated at Old Crossing in September 1862, but events of the Dakota War of 1862 intervened. A large contingent of Ojibwe chiefs and their family members were encamped at Grand Forks several miles below Old Crossing, when hostilities of the Dakota War of 1862 spread to the Red River Valley; the Ojibwe remained calm while panic swept through the nearby white settlements and outlying farms and trading posts, but the United States treaty negotiators fled to safety at Fort Abercrombie. The Ojibwe treaty negotiations were postponed to the following year; the Treaty of Old Crossing and the Treaty of Old Crossing were consummated and signed at the site of the Old Crossing. After the land was opened to non-native settlement in the early 1870s, a Métis contemporary of Joe Rolette, Pierre Bottineau, promoted immigration to the Red Lake River area by French-Canadian settlers.
A substantial French-Canadian farming community developed nearby in what became Red Lake County. One of these settlers, Louis Huot, arrived from Quebec in 1876, he established a ferry at the Old Crossing, just below the Black River, in 1877. The resulting village site and surrounding Louisville Township both were named after Louis Huot; as the neighborhood was homesteaded by other farmers, the village grew to include a Catholic church, a school, general store, a creamery and a post office, as well as several houses. A bridge was built across the river, replacing the ferry, around 1900. Following a brief period of prosperity, the town of Huot began to decline after the Northern Pacific Railroad bypassed Huot and much of the business and trade activity of Louisville Township moved to the town of Dorothy, about 5 miles north; the church building was relocated to Dorothy in 1919, while the cemetery was left in its original location, where it still remains in use. The post office was discontinued in 1936.
The old creamery building burned in 1940, the town meetings were moved to the school house. In 1966 the bridge collapsed and that year, the school house was burned down by vandals. Huot Store continued in operation for a few more years, but in 2008, Huot is recognized or ascertainable as a village; the tiny community appears by name on some maps as the site of the Old Crossing Treaty Park. The Old Crossing Treaty Park in Huot was established on an 8.8-acre on the west bank of the Old Crossing site in 1933, a memorial to the 1863 Treaty of Old Crossing was erected there on June 25, 1933. At about the same time, an additional 100 acres on the north side of the river, which included portions of the old Pembina Trail, was acquired by citizens of Polk and Red Lake counties. Today the park includes primitive camping and picnicking facilities, seasonal historical exhibits, a boat landing and the monument to the Ojibwe treaties and Red River cart trails, it is managed by Red Lake County. * www.frenchcanadianafran.org The annual Old Crossing Chautauqua and French-Canadian/Metis Festival is a three-day event held at Huot and is sponsored by AFRAN.
The event happens the fourth weekend of August. The AFRAN mission is to create an understanding of the world's French heritage through the arts and humanities. See the website http://www.frenchcanadianafran.org/ * See * for a description of several sites associated with Huot on the Red Lake County history tour. Minnesota Historical Society, They Chose Minnesota, at pp. 41–45. Minnesota Historical Society, The Red River Trails: Oxcart Routes Between St. Paul and the Selkirk Settlement 1820-1870, at pp. 18–19, 58-59. Polk County Historical Society, Bicentennial History of Polk County, Minnesota, at pp. 458–59. Red Lake County Bicentennial Committee, A History of Red Lake County, Minnesota, at pp. 8–9, 91-95, 236-37. Treaty of Old Crossing