Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion or Han folk religion or Shenism is the religious tradition of the Han Chinese, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods. Worship is devoted to a multiplicity of gods and immortals, who can be deities of phenomena, of human behaviour, or progenitors of lineages. Stories regarding some of these gods are collected into the body of Chinese mythology. By the 11th century, these practices had been blended with Buddhist ideas of karma and rebirth, Taoist teachings about hierarchies of gods, to form the popular religious system which has lasted in many ways until the present day. Chinese religions have a variety of sources, local forms, founder backgrounds, ritual and philosophical traditions. Despite this diversity, there is a common core that can be summarised as four theological and moral concepts: Tian, the transcendent source of moral meaning.
Yin and yang is the polarity that describes the order of the universe, held in balance by the interaction of principles of growth and principles of waning, with yang preferred over yin in common religion. Ling, "numen" or "sacred", is the inchoate order of creation. Both the present day government of China and the imperial dynasties of the Ming and Qing tolerated village popular religious cults if they bolstered social stability but suppressed or persecuted those that they feared would undermine it. After the fall of the empire in 1911, governments and elites opposed or attempted to eradicate folk religion in order to promote "modern" values, many condemned "feudal superstition"; these conceptions of folk religion began to change in Taiwan in the late 20th century and in mainland China in the 21st. Many scholars now view folk religion in a positive light. In recent times Chinese folk religions are experiencing a revival in Taiwan; some forms have received official understanding or recognition as a preservation of traditional Chinese culture, such as Mazuism and the Sanyi teaching in Fujian, Huangdi worship, other forms of local worship, for example the Longwang, Pangu or Caishen worship.
Chinese "popular religion" or "folk religion" or "folk belief" have long been used to indicate the local and communal religious life and complexities of Han local indigenous cults of China in English-language academic literature, though the Chinese language has not had a concept or overarching name for this. In Chinese academic literature and common usage "folk religion" refers to specific organised folk religious sects. "Folk beliefs" is a technical term with little usage outside the academia, in which it entered into usage at first among Taiwanese scholars from Japanese language during Japan's occupation, between the 1990s and the early 21st century among mainland Chinese scholars. With the rise of the study of traditional cults and the creation of a government agency to give legal status to this religion and philosophers in China have proposed the adoption of a formal name in order to solve the terminological problems of confusion with folk religious sects and conceptualise a definite field for research and administration.
The terms that have been proposed include "Chinese native religion" or "Chinese indigenous religion", "Chinese ethnic religion", or simply "Chinese religion" viewed as comparable to the usage of the term "Hinduism" for Indian religion, "Shenxianism" inspired by the term "Shenism", used in the 1950s by the anthropologist Allan J. A. Elliott; the Qing dynasty scholars Yao Wendong and Chen Jialin used the term shenjiao not referring to Shinto as a definite religious system, but to local shin beliefs in Japan. Other definitions that have been used are "folk cults","spontaneous religion", "lived religion", "local religion", "diffused religion"."Shendao" is a term used in the Yijing referring to the divine order of nature. Around the time of the spread of Buddhism in the Han period, it was used to distinguish the indigenous religion from the imported religion. Ge Hong used it in his Baopuzi as a synonym for Taoism; the term was subsequently adopted in Japan in the 6th century as Shindo Shinto, with the same purpose of identification of the Japanese indigenous religion.
In the 14th century, the Hongwu Emperor used the term "Shendao" identifying the indigenous cults, which he strengthened and systematised."Chinese Universism", not in the sense of "universalism", a system of universal application, Tian in Chinese thought, is a coinage of Jan Jakob Maria de Groot that refers to the metaphysical perspective that lies behind the Chinese religious tradition. De Groot calls Chinese Universism "the ancient metaphysical view that serves as the basis of all classical Chine
Jiang Qing known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese Communist Revolutionary and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution. She was the fourth wife of Mao Zedong, the Chairman of the Communist Party and Paramount leader of China, she used the stage name Lan Ping during her acting career, was known by many other names. She married Mao in Yan'an in November 1938 and served as the inaugural "First Lady" of the People's Republic of China. Jiang Qing was best known for playing a major role in the Cultural Revolution and for forming the radical political alliance known as the "Gang of Four". Jiang Qing served as Mao's personal secretary in the 1940s and was head of the Film Section of the Communist Party's Propaganda Department in the 1950s, she served as an important emissary for Mao in the early stages of the Cultural Revolution. In 1966 she was appointed deputy director of the Central Cultural Revolution Group, she collaborated with Lin Biao to advance Mao's unique brand of Communist ideology as well as Mao's cult of personality.
At the height of the Cultural Revolution, Jiang Qing held significant influence in the affairs of state in the realm of culture and the arts, was idolized in propaganda posters as the "Great Flagbearer of the Proletarian Revolution". In 1969, Jiang gained a seat on the Politburo. Before Mao's death, the Gang of Four controlled many of China's political institutions, including the media and propaganda. However, Jiang Qing, deriving most of her political legitimacy from Mao found herself at odds with other top leaders. Mao's death in 1976 dealt a significant blow to Jiang Qing's political fortunes, she was arrested in October 1976 by Hua Guofeng and his allies, was subsequently condemned by party authorities. Since Jiang Qing has been branded as having been part of the "Lin Biao and Jiang Qing Counter-Revolutionary Cliques", to which most of the blame for the damage and devastation caused by the Cultural Revolution was assigned. Though she was sentenced to death, her sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1983.
After being released for medical treatment, Jiang Qing committed suicide in May 1991. Jiang Qing was born in Zhucheng, Shandong province on 19 March 1914, her birth name was Lǐ Shūméng. Her father was Li Dewen, a carpenter, her mother, whose name is unknown, was Li's subsidiary wife, or concubine, her father had his own cabinet making workshop. After Jiang's parents had a violent argument, her mother found work as a domestic servant and separated from her husband; when Jiang enrolled in elementary school, she took the name Lǐ Yúnhè, meaning "Crane in the Clouds", by which she was known for much of her early life. Due to her socioeconomic status and the fact that she was an illegitimate child, she was looked down upon by her schoolmates and she and her mother moved in with her maternal grandparents when she started middle school. In 1926, when she was 12 years old, her father died, her mother relocated them to Tianjin where Jiang worked as a child laborer in a cigarette factory for several months.
Two years Jiang and her mother settled in Jinan. The following summer, she entered an experimental drama school, her talent brought her to the attention of administrators who selected her to join a drama club in Beijing where she advanced her acting skills. She married Pei Minglun, the wealthy son of a businessman; the marriage was an unhappy one and they soon divorced. From July 1931 to April 1933, Jiang attended Qingdao University in Qingdao, she met Yu Qiwei, a physics student three years her senior, an underground member of the Communist Party Propaganda Department. By 1932, they were living together, she joined the "Communist Cultural Front," a circle of artists and actors, performed in Put Down Your Whip, a renowned popular play about a woman who escapes from Japanese-occupied north-eastern China and performs in the streets to survive. In February 1933, Jiang took the oath of the Chinese Communist Party with Yu at her side, she was appointed member of the Chinese Communist Party youth wing.
Yu was arrested in April the same year and Jiang was subsequently shunned by his family. She returned to the drama school in Jinan. Through friendships she had established, she received an introduction to attend Shanghai University for the summer where she taught some general literacy classes. In October, she rejoined the Communist Youth League and, at the same time, began participating in an amateur drama troupe. In September 1934, Jiang Qing was arrested and jailed for her political activities in Shanghai, but was released three months in December of the same year, she traveled to Beijing where she reunited with Yu Qiwei who had just been released following his prison sentence, the two began living together again. Jiang Qing returned to Shanghai in March 1935, became a professional actress, adopting the stage name "Lán Píng", she appeared in numerous films and plays, including Goddess of Freedom, Scenes of City Life, Blood on Wolf Mountain and Wang Laowu. In Ibsen's play A Doll's House, Jiang Qing played the role of Nora.
With her career established, she became involved with actor/director Tang Na, with whom she appeared in Scenes of City Life and Goddess of Freedom. They were married in Hangzhou in March 1936; the scandal became public knowledge and he made two suic
Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856)
The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854–1856, sometimes known as the Red Turban Revolt and by some as just the Taiping Rebellion in Guangdong, was a series of uprisings by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society in the Guangdong province of South China. The initial core of the rebels were Tiandihui secret societies that were involved in both revolutionary activity and organised crime, such as piracy and opium smuggling. Many lodges were formed for self-defence in feuds between locals and migrants from neighbouring provinces, they were organised into scattered local lodges each under a lodge-master, in October 1854 elected Li Wenmao and Chen Kai as joint alliance-masters. In Summer 1851 members of the Taiping Rebellion entered Guangdong. At the same time 50,000 outlaws, proclaiming a restoration of the Ming dynasty, captured Qingyuan; this roused the Tiandihui to revolt in the city of Conghua, forty miles Northeast of the provincial capital. In September, forces commanded by Taiping-affiliated Ling Shiba captured Luoding and made it their headquarters.
Ling Shiba was a member of the God Worshipping Society,:660 which declared the Jintian Uprising and so began the Taiping Rebellion. Viceroy Xu Guangjin sent braves to the border to deal with the situation, but these defected to the rebels. Provincial governor Ye Mingchen formulated a strategy of bribing lodge leaders to defect, successful in bringing Ling to heel, the Emperor promoted him to Viceroy. In order to fund the further defence of the province against the Taiping rebellion, heavy taxes begun to be levied on the population, which were as a result becoming alienated, while flooding of the Pearl River added to their economic woes; the Taiping victory in the capture of Nanjing galvanised the Tiandihui to redouble their revolutionary efforts. A group, allied with the Small Swords Society in neighbouring Fujian province, succeeded in seizing the city of Huizhou, rebel leader He Liu proceeded to capture the city of Dongguan, followed by Chen Kai's capture of the major city of Foshan on 4 July 1854.
The Red Turbans did not succeed in taking the city of Guangzhou, but fought through much of the country round it for more than a year.:473 Failure to coordinate had exhausted the supplies of the rebel alliance, they faltered during the attack on the provincial capital Guangzhou where the gentry had succeeded in raising a force of militia to defend the city and the British Royal Navy intervened on the government side. Disputes with the Red Turban and the Foshan locals forced the Red Turbans slaughter 200,000 of them in Foshan. By 1856, after failing to capture Guangzhou, Red Turban forces hoping to regroup with the Taiping forces in Nanjing retreated north and occupied parts of Guangxi province, proclaiming the Dacheng Kingdom and managed to hold out for nine years, others fighting their way through government-held territory in Hunan province and to Jiangxi province where they coalesced with the Taiping forces of Shi Dakai. Many were crushed by the Xiang Army en route.:The British involvement in the counter-insurgency by selling British weaponry to government forces and allowing the Chinese shipping carrying them to avoid rebel attack by using the British flag, would lead to the Second Opium War when a pirate ship with a British flag was captured by Chinese government forces
Transition from Ming to Qing
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a decades-long period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria, the Ming dynasty of China in the south. Leading up to the Qing conquest, in 1618, Aisin Gioro leader Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances, which enumerated grievances against the Ming and began to rebel against their domination. Many of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, a major Manchu clan, Ming favoritism of Yehe. Nurhaci's demand that the Ming pay tribute to him to redress the seven grievances was a declaration of war, as the Ming were not willing to pay money to a former tributary. Shortly afterwards, Nurhaci began to rebel against the Ming in Liaoning in southern Manchuria. At the same time, the Ming dynasty was fighting for its survival against fiscal turmoil and peasant rebellions. On April 24, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who proclaimed the Shun dynasty.
The last Ming emperor, the Chongzhen Emperor, hanged himself from a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. When Li Zicheng moved against him, the Ming general Wu Sangui shifted his alliance to the Manchus. Li Zicheng was defeated at the Battle of Shanhai Pass by the joint forces of Wu Sangui and Manchu prince Dorgon. On June 6, the Manchus and Wu entered the capital and proclaimed the young Shunzhi Emperor as Emperor of China; the conquest was far from complete, it required forty more years before all of China was securely united under Qing rule. The Kangxi Emperor ascended the throne in 1661, in 1662 his regents launched the Great Clearance to defeat the resistance of Ming loyalists in South China, he fought off several rebellions, such as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui in southern China, starting in 1673, countered by launching a series of campaigns that expanded his empire. In 1662, Zheng Chenggong drove out the Dutch colonists and founded the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan, a Ming loyalist state with a goal of reconquering China.
However, Tungning was defeated in 1683 at the Battle of Penghu by Han admiral Shi Lang, a former admiral under Koxinga. The fall of the Ming dynasty was caused by a combination of factors. Kenneth Swope argues that one key factor was deteriorating relations between Ming Royalty and the Ming Empire's military leadership. Other factors include repeated military expeditions to the North, inflationary pressures caused by spending too much from the imperial treasury, natural disasters and epidemics of disease. Contributing further to the chaos was a peasant rebellion in Beijing in 1644 and a series of weak emperors. Ming power would hold out in what is now southern China for years, though would be overtaken by the Manchus; the Manchus are sometimes misdescribed as a nomadic people, when in fact they were not nomads, but a sedentary agricultural people who lived in fixed villages, farmed crops, practiced hunting and mounted archery. Their main military formation was infantry wielding bows and arrows and pikes while cavalry was kept in the rear.
The Jianzhou Jurchen chief, Nurhaci, is retrospectively identified as the founder of the Qing dynasty. In 1616 he declared himself Khan, his unifying efforts gave the Jurchen the strength to assert themselves backed by an army consisting of majority Han defectors as well as Ming produced firearms. In 1618 he proclaimed Seven Grievances against the Ming and the Ming General Li Yongfang surrendered the city of Fushun in what is now Liaoning province in China's northeast, after Nurhaci gave him an Aisin Gioro princess in marriage and a noble title; the Princess was one of Nurhaci's granddaughters. In a series of successful military campaigns in Liaodong and Liaoxi, the Jurchens seized a number of Ming cities including Shenyang, which they made into the capital of their newly founded "Later Jin" dynasty, named after a Jurchen polity that had ruled over north China several centuries earlier. Under the inspirational leader Yuan Chonghuan, the Ming used western artillery to defeat the Jin forces at the Battle of Ningyuan in 1626.
Nurhaci was injured and died soon afterwards, but the Ming failed to seize the chance to counter-attack. The Jurchens' nemesis Yuan Chonghuan was soon purged in a political struggle, while under the leadership of the new khan Hong Taiji the Jurchens kept seizing Ming cities, defeated Joseon, a crucial vassal of the Ming, in 1627 and 1636, raided deep into China in 1642 and 1643; the Chahar Mongols were fought against by Dorgon in 1628 and 1635. After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon. In 1650 Dorgon married the Korean Princess Uisun; the Princess' name in Korean was Uisun and she was Prince Yi Kaeyoon's daughter. Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan. During the second invasion, many Korean women were kidnapped and raped at the hand of the Qing forces, as a result were unwelcomed by their families if they were released by the Qing after being ransomed. In their years, the Ming faced a number of famines and floods as well as economic chaos, rebellions.
Li Zicheng rebelled in the 1630s in Shaanxi in the north, while a mutiny led by Zhang Xianzhong broke out in Sichuan in the 1640s. Many people were killed in this self-proclaimed emperor's reign of terror. Just as Dorgon and his advisor
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve Chinese Communism by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought as the dominant ideology within the Party; the Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the failures of his Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected both the economy and society of the country to a significant degree; the movement was launched in May 1966, after Mao alleged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. To eliminate his rivals within the Communist Party of China, Mao insisted that revisionists be removed through violent class struggle. China's youth responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country.
The movement spread into the military, urban workers, the Communist Party leadership itself. It resulted in widespread factional struggles in all walks of life. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials, most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions. In the violent struggles that ensued across the country, millions of people were persecuted and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, hard labor, sustained harassment, seizure of property and sometimes execution. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed and cultural and religious sites were ransacked. Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to have ended in 1969, but its active phase lasted until the death of military leader and proposed Mao successor Lin Biao in 1971.
After Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four in 1976, reformers led by Deng Xiaoping began to dismantle the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the Party declared that the Cultural Revolution was "responsible for the most severe setback and the heaviest losses suffered by the Party, the country, the people since the founding of the People's Republic". In 1958, after China's first Five-Year Plan, Mao called for "grassroots socialism" in order to accelerate his plans for turning China into a modern industrialized state. In this spirit, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, established People's Communes in the countryside, began the mass mobilization of the people into collectives. Many communities were assigned production of a single commodity—steel. Mao vowed to increase agricultural production to twice 1957 levels; the Great Leap was an economic failure. Uneducated farmers attempted to produce steel on a massive scale relying on backyard furnaces to achieve the production targets set by local cadres.
The steel produced was low quality and useless. The Great Leap reduced harvest sizes and led to a decline in the production of most goods except substandard pig iron and steel. Furthermore, local authorities exaggerated production numbers and intensifying the problem for several years. In the meantime, chaos in the collectives, bad weather, exports of food necessary to secure hard currency resulted in the Great Chinese Famine. Food was in desperate shortage, production fell dramatically; the famine caused the deaths of millions of people in poorer inland regions. The Great Leap's failure reduced Mao's prestige within the Party. Forced to take major responsibility, in 1959, Mao resigned as the President of the People's Republic of China, China's de jure head of state, was succeeded by Liu Shaoqi. In July, senior Party leaders convened at the scenic Mount Lu to discuss policy. At the conference, Marshal Peng Dehuai, the Minister of Defence, criticized Great Leap policies in a private letter to Mao, writing that it was plagued by mismanagement and cautioning against elevating political dogma over the laws of economics.
Despite the moderate tone of Peng's letter, Mao took it as a personal attack against his leadership. Following the Conference, Mao had Peng removed from his posts, accused him of being a "right-opportunist". Peng was replaced by Lin Biao, another revolutionary army general who became a more staunch Mao supporter in his career. While the Lushan Conference served as a death knell for Peng, Mao's most vocal critic, it led to a shift of power to moderates led by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, who took effective control of the economy following 1959. By the early 1960s, many of the Great Leap's economic policies were reversed by initiatives spearheaded by Liu and Zhou Enlai; this moderate group of pragmatists were unenthusiastic about Mao's utopian visions. Owing to his loss of esteem within the party, Mao developed a eccentric lifestyle. By 1962, while Zhou and Deng managed affairs of state and the economy, Mao had withdrawn from economic decision-making, focused much of his time on further contemplating his contributions to Marxist–Leninist social theory, including the idea of "continuous revolution".
This theory's ultimate aim was to set the stage for Mao to restore his brand of Communism and his personal prestige within the Party. In the early 1950s, the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union were the two largest Communist states in the world. Although they had been mutually supportive, disagreements arose after the death of Joseph Stalin and the rise of Nikita Khrushchev to power in the Soviet
Dungan Revolt (1862–77)
The Dungan Revolt or Tongzhi Hui Revolt or Hui Minorities War was a ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty. The term sometimes includes the Panthay Revolt in Yunnan. However, this article relates to the uprising by members of the Muslim Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China's Shaanxi and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877; the conflict led to a recorded 20.77 million population reduction in Shaanxi and Gansu occurred due to migration and war related death. A further 74.5% population reduction occurred in Gansu, 44.7% in Shaanxi. In Shaanxi, 83.7% of the total loss occurred in the period of war as a consequence of mass migration and war-related death. Many civilian deaths were caused by famine due to war conditions; the uprising occurred on the western bank of the Yellow River in Shaanxi and Ningxia, but excluded Xinjiang Province. A chaotic affair, it involved diverse warring bands and military leaders with no common cause or a single specific goal.
A common misconception is that the revolt was directed against the Qing dynasty, but no evidence shows that the rebels intended to attack the capital, Beijing, or to overthrow the entire Qing government, but to exact revenge on their personal enemies for injustices. When the revolt failed, mass emigration of the Dungan people from Ili to Imperial Russia ensued.re In this article "Dungan people" refers to Hui people, who are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group in China. They are sometimes called "Chinese Muslims" and should not to be confused with the "Turkestanis" or "Turkic" people mentioned, who are Uyghurs, Kyrgyzes and Uzbeks amongst others; the ethnic group now known as Uyghur people was not known by that name before the 20th century. The Uzbeks of Yaqub Beg were called "Andijanis" or "Kokandis", while the Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin were known as "Turki". Uyghur immigrants from the Tarim Basin to Ili were called "Taranchi"; the modern name "Uyghur" was assigned to this ethnic group by the Soviet Union in 1921 at a conference in Tashkent, with the name "Uyghur" taken from the old Uyghur Khaganate.
As a result, sources from the period of the Dungan revolt make no mentions of Uyghurs. Although "Hui" was the Chinese name for Muslim people of Han ethnic background, Europeans referred to them as "Dungan" or "Tungan" during the Dungan revolt; the Dungan Revolt by the Hui occurred because of racial antagonism and class warfare, not purely religious strife as is sometimes mistakenly assumed. When the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists in Gansu led by Muslim leaders Milayin and Ding Guodong led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor; the Muslim Ming loyalists were supported by his son Prince Turumtay. The Muslim Ming loyalists were joined by Han Chinese in the revolt. After fierce fighting, negotiations, a peace agreement was agreed on in 1649, Milayan and Ding nominally pledged alleigance to the Qing and were given ranks as members of the Qing military.
When other Ming loyalists in southern China made a resurgence and the Qing were forced to withdraw their forces from Gansu to fight them and Ding once again took up arms and rebelled against the Qing. The Muslim Ming loyalists were crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin, Ding Guodong, Turumtay killed in battle; the Confucian Hui Muslim scholar Ma Zhu served with the southern Ming loyalists against the Qing. During the Qianlong era, scholar Wei Shu commented on Jiang Tong's essay Xironglun, stating that if the Muslims did not migrate, they would end up like the Five Hu, who overthrew the Western Jin and caused an ethnic, rather than religious, conflict to break out between the Five Hu and the Han Chinese. During the Qianlong Emperor's reign, there were clashes between the Qing authorities and the Jahriyya Sufi sect, but not with the majority non-Sufi Sunnis or the Khafiyya Sufis. Chinese Muslims had traveled to West Asia for many years prior to the Hui Minorities' War. In the 18th century several prominent Muslim clerics from Gansu studied in Mecca and Yemen under Naqshbandi Sufi teachers.
Two different forms of Sufism were brought back to northwest China by two charismatic Hui sheikhs: Khufiyya, associated with Ma Laichi, the more radical Jahriyya, founded by Ma Mingxin. These coexisted with the more traditional, non-Sufi Sunni practices, centered around local mosques and known as gedimu; the Khufiyya school and non-Sufi gedimu tradition—both tolerated by Qing authorities—were referred to as "Old Teaching", while Jahriyya, viewed by authorities as suspect, became known as the "New Teaching". Disagreements between adherents of Khufiyya and Jahriya, as well as perceived mismanagement and the anti-Sufi attitudes of Qing officials, resulted in uprisings by Hui and Salar followers of the New Teaching in 1781 and 1783, but these were promptly suppressed. Hostilities between different groups of Sufis contributed to the violent atmosphere before the Dungan revolt between 1862 and 1877. In the Jahriyya revolt sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to a Jahriyya Sufi Musli
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity, associated with it, it was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness, known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence; the original cause of the uprising was the particular jurisdictional status of European legations in Peking, which were not subject to Chinese authorities: robber gangs were formed in the out-buildings of the German legation, spreading outrage in the Chinese locals. As a result, opposition to Western colonialism and Christian missionary activity took place.
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, French, Italian and Russian forces to lift the siege, the hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing; the supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners.
Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers; the Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.
The Righteous and Harmonious Fists arose in the inland sections of the northern coastal province of Shandong, long known for social unrest, religious sects, martial societies. American Christian missionaries were the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons training they practiced, their primary practice was a type of spiritual possession which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, chanting incantations to deities. The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers; the tradition of possession and invulnerability went back several hundred years but took on special meaning against the powerful new weapons of the West. The Boxers, armed with rifles and swords, claimed supernatural invulnerability towards blows of cannon, rifle shots, knife attacks. Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers of Heaven would descend to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression.
These beliefs are characteristic of millenarian movements of nativist resistance the characteristic magical belief, shared by the Ghost Dancers of North America and the Kartelite Cults of Africa, that the believer could be rendered invulnerable to bullets. In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu, prefect of Caozhou and would become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits; the Big Swords, emboldened by this official support attacked their local Catholic village rivals, who turned to the Church for protection. The Big Swords responded by burning them. "The line between Christians and bandits", remarks one recent historian, "became indistinct." As a result of diplomatic pressure in the capital, Yuxian executed several Big Sword leaders, but did not punish anyone else. More martial secret societies started emerging after this; the early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose. Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao prepared the way for the Boxers.
Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxers, the Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng (Red Lantern Zh