An avalanche is an event that occurs when a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow fractures and slides down a steep slope. Avalanches are triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack when the forces of the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradual widening. After initiation, avalanches accelerate and grow in mass and volume as they entrain more snow. If the avalanche moves fast enough, some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, a type of gravity current. Slides of rocks or debris, behaving in a similar way to snow, are referred to as avalanches; the remainder of this article refers to snow avalanches. The load on the snowpack may be only due to gravity, in which case failure may result either from weakening in the snowpack or increased load due to precipitation. Avalanches initiated by this process are known as spontaneous avalanches. Avalanches can be triggered by other loading conditions such as human or biologically related activities.
Seismic activity may trigger the failure in the snowpack and avalanches. Although composed of flowing snow and air, large avalanches have the capability to entrain ice, rocks and other surficial material. However, they are distinct from slushflows which have higher water content and more laminar flow, mudslides which have greater fluidity, rock slides which are ice free, serac collapses during an icefall. Avalanches are not rare or random events and are endemic to any mountain range that accumulates a standing snowpack. Avalanches are most common during winter or spring but glacier movements may cause ice and snow avalanches at any time of year. In mountainous terrain, avalanches are among the most serious objective natural hazards to life and property, with their destructive capability resulting from their potential to carry enormous masses of snow at high speeds. There is no universally accepted classification system for different forms of avalanches. Avalanches can be described by their size, their destructive potential, their initiation mechanism, their composition and their dynamics.
Most avalanches occur spontaneously during storms under increased load due to snowfall. The second largest cause of natural avalanches is metamorphic changes in the snowpack such as melting due to solar radiation. Other natural causes include rain, earthquakes and icefall. Artificial triggers of avalanches include skiers and controlled explosive work. Contrary to popular belief, avalanches are not triggered by loud sound. Avalanche initiation can start at a point with only a small amount of snow moving initially. However, if the snow has sintered into a stiff slab overlying a weak layer fractures can propagate rapidly, so that a large volume of snow, that may be thousands of cubic meters, can start moving simultaneously. A snowpack will fail; the load is straightforward. However, the strength of the snowpack is much more difficult to determine and is heterogeneous, it varies in detail with properties of the snow grains, density, temperature, water content. These properties may all metamorphose in time according to the local humidity, water vapour flux and heat flux.
The top of the snowpack is extensively influenced by incoming radiation and the local air flow. One of the aims of avalanche research is to develop and validate computer models that can describe the evolution of the seasonal snowpack over time. A complicating factor is the complex interaction of terrain and weather, which causes significant spatial and temporal variability of the depths, crystal forms, layering of the seasonal snowpack. Slab avalanches form in snow, deposited, or redeposited by wind, they have the characteristic appearance of a block of snow cut out from its surroundings by fractures. Elements of slab avalanches include the following: a crown fracture at the top of the start zone, flank fractures on the sides of the start zones, a fracture at the bottom called the stauchwall; the crown and flank fractures are vertical walls in the snow delineating the snow, entrained in the avalanche from the snow that remained on the slope. Slabs can vary in thickness from a few centimetres to three metres.
Slab avalanches account for around 90% of avalanche-related fatalities in backcountry users. The largest avalanches form turbulent suspension currents known as powder snow avalanches or mixed avalanches; these consist of a powder cloud. They can form from any type of snow or initiation mechanism, but occur with fresh dry powder, they can exceed speeds of 300 kilometres per hour, masses of 10000000 tonnes. In contrast to powder snow avalanches, wet snow avalanches are a low velocity suspension of snow and water, with the flow confined to the track surface; the low speed of travel is due to the friction between the sliding surface of the track and the water saturated flow. Despite the low speed of travel, wet snow avalanches are capable of generating powerful destructive forces, due to the large mass and density; the body of the flow of a wet snow avalanche can plough through soft snow, can scour boulders, earth and other vegetation.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 194,882. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it ranks as the 22nd-largest in Canada and is the largest city in British Columbia, located inland. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2016, the population of Kelowna consisted of 127,380 individuals occupying 53,903 private dwellings. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on May 4, 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry and sunny summers, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures; the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies moderates the winter climate, but Arctic air masses do penetrate the valley during winter for short periods. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a temperature inversion which can cause the valley to be socked in by cloud. This valley cloud has a low ceil
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla
An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up to 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s or 43.2 km/h. The two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. A chairlift consists of numerous components to provide safe efficient transport. At American ski areas, chairlifts are referred to with a ski industry vernacular.
A one-person lift is a "single", a two-person lift is a "double", a three-person lift a “triple”, four-person lifts are “quads”, a six-person lift is a "six pack". If the lift is a detachable chairlift, it is referred to as a “high-speed” lift, which results in a “high-speed quad” or “high-speed six pack”. Rope speed the speed in feet per minute or meters per second at which the rope moves interval the spacing between carriers, measured either by distance or time capacity the number of passengers the lift transports per hour efficiency the ratio of loaded carriers during peak operation expressed as a percentage of capacity; because fixed grip lifts move faster than detachables at load and unload, misloads are more frequent on fixed grips, can reduce the efficiency as low as 80%. Fixed grip each carrier is fastened to a fixed point on the rope detachable grip each carrier's grip opens and closes during regular operation allowing detachment from the rope and travel for load and unload. Detachable grips allow a greater rope speed to be used twice that of a fixed grip chair, while having slower loading and unloading sections.
See detachable chairlift. The capacity of a lift is constrained by the motive power, the rope speed, the carrier spacing, the vertical displacement, the number of carriers on the rope. Human passengers can load only so until loading efficiency decreases; the rope is the defining characteristic of an elevated passenger ropeway. The rope stretches and contracts as the tension exerted upon it increases and decreases, it bends and flexes as it passes over sheaves and around the bullwheels; the fibre core contains a lubricant which protects the rope from corrosion and allows for smooth flexing operation. The rope must be lubricated to ensure safe operation and long life. Various techniques are used for constructing the rope. Dozens of wires are wound into a strand. Several strands are wound around a textile core, their twist is oriented in the same or opposite direction as the individual wires. Rope is constructed in a linear fashion, must be spliced together before carriers are affixed. Splicing involves unwinding long sections of either end of the rope, winding each strand from opposing ends around the core.
Sections of rope must be removed. Every lift involves at least two terminals and may have intermediate supporting towers. A bullwheel in each terminal redirects the rope, while sheaves on the towers support the rope well above the ground; the number of towers is engineered based on the length and strength of the rope, worst case environmental conditions, the type of terrain traversed. The bullwheel with the prime mover is called the drive bullwheel. Chairlifts are electrically powered with Diesel or gasoline engine backup, sometimes a hand crank tertiary backup. Drive terminals can be located either at the bottom of an installation; the drive terminal is the location of a lift's primary braking system. The service brake is located on the drive shaft before the gearbox; the emergency brake acts directly on the bullwheel. While not technically a brake, an anti-rollback device acts on the bullwheel; this prevents the disastrous situation of runaway reverse operation. The rope must be tensioned to compensate for sag caused by wind load and passenger weight, variations in rope length due to temperature and to maintain friction between the rope and the drive bullwheel.
Tension is provided either by a counterweight system or by hydraulic or pneumatic rams, which adjust the position of the bullwheel carriage to maintain design tension. For most chairlifts, the tension is measured in tons. Either Diesel engines or electric motors can function as prime movers; the power can range from under 7.5 kW for the smallest of lifts, to more than 750 kW for a long, detachable eight-seat up a steep slope. DC electric motors and DC drives are the most common, though AC motors and AC drives are becoming economically competitive for certain smaller chairlift installations. DC drives are less expensive than AC variable-frequency drives and were used
Margaret Joan Trudeau is a Canadian author, photographer, former television talk show hostess, social advocate for people with bipolar disorder, which she is diagnosed with. She is the former wife of Pierre Trudeau, 15th Prime Minister of Canada, she is the mother of Justin Trudeau, the 23rd Prime Minister of Canada since 2015. In 2013, Trudeau was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Western Ontario in recognition of her work to combat mental illness. Trudeau was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, the daughter of Scottish-born James "Jimmy" Sinclair, a former Liberal member of the Parliament of Canada and Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, Doris Kathleen Sinclair, her grandmother, Rose Edith Bernard, with whom Trudeau had an especially-close relationship, lived in Roberts Creek, British Columbia in life, was from Virden, Manitoba. Her grandfather, Thomas Kirkpatrick Bernard, was born in Makassar, Sulawesi and immigrated in 1906 at age 15 with his family to Penticton, British Columbia working as a payroll clerk for Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Bernards were the descendants of colonists in Singapore and Malaysia, including Francis James Bernard, a London, England-born Anglo-Irishman whose great-grandfather, Arthur Bernard, was a member of the Irish House of Commons for Bandonbridge, brother of Francis Bernard, Solicitor-General for Ireland, ancestor of the Earls of Bandon. Francis James Bernard was the founder of the Singapore Police Force in 1819, The Singapore Chronicle, the first newspaper in Singapore, was established with Bernard as owner and editor in 1824 and he opened up Katong, now a densely populated-residential enclave, the first to cultivate a coconut estate there in 1823. Bernard married Margaret Trudeau's 3rd great-grandmother, Esther Farquhar in 1818, the eldest daughter of Scotsman William Farquhar, a colonial leader in the founding of modern Singapore, by Farquhar's first wife, Antoinette "Nonio" Clement, daughter of a French father and an ethnic Malaccan mother. Another great-grandmother, Cornelia Louisa Intveld, married in 1822 to Royal Navy officer and merchant, William Purvis, from Dalgety Bay, a first cousin of American abolitionist Robert Purvis, a noted-fine soprano and a beauty of her era.
Upon glimpsing her across the auditorium at the opera in London, British King William IV sent his equerry to invite her to his box. After she refused, the King sent the equerry back just to ask her name. Intveld was born in Padang, West Sumatra, where her father, who came from humble beginnings in Hellevoetsluis, South Holland, rose up through the Dutch East India Company to become the Dutch Resident of Padang, her maternal grandmother was an Ono Niha ranee married a prominent Dutch colonial official and merchant. Acclaimed British harpsichordist, Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, Hawaiian settler, Edward William Purvis, according to popular belief, was the namesake of the ukulele, are Margaret Trudeau's first cousins, three times-removed. Trudeau explored her mother's family's roots in Singapore during an episode of Who Do You Think You Are?. Trudeau's family moved to a large house in Rockcliffe Park, Ontario in 1952 after her father was appointed to the Cabinet, she attended Rockcliffe Park government school although they returned to North Vancouver after he lost his re-election bid in 1958.
She attended Hamilton Junior Secondary School and Delbrook Senior Secondary School in North Vancouver. Trudeau graduated in 1969 from Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia with a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology; as an 18-year-old vacationing in Tahiti with her family, she met Pierre Trudeau, Minister of Justice. Sinclair did not recognize him, she, in fact, thought little of their encounter, but Trudeau was captivated by the carefree "flower child", nearly-thirty years younger than he, began to pursue her. Pierre Trudeau was a bachelor before he became Prime Minister in 1968, they kept their romance private, so Canada was shocked after the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation led its morning radio broadcast about Prime Minister Trudeau honeymooning at Alta Lake, British Columbia at the foot of Whistler Blackcomb Ski Resort the day after a surprise wedding in North Vancouver, British Columbia on March 4, 1971. Although she previously-accompanied Pierre Trudeau in public a year before to ice skate and dance at an event at Rideau Hall, official residence of Canada's Governor General,'it' was a complete-secret except to immediate-family members and close friends she was in a romantic relationship in a six-month engagement to the Prime Minister.
Because / since / as Pierre Trudeau was a Catholic, she converted to Roman Catholicism for their marriage. She would, in life, study Buddhism although she now considers her self an Anglican. Asked about her role in a marriage to the prime minister, Trudeau said, "I want to be more than a rose in my husband's lapel." 1971, Margaret and Pierre took a second honeymoon in the Caribbean to Barbados and an unidentified nearby-island Tobago to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines with Pierre taking a side-trip to Trinidad while Margaret stayed in Tobago. After Pierre Trudeau's government's near defeat in 1972 where she her self was very-uninvolved in the campaign, she decided to become much more-active for the 1974 federal election. At a rally in Vancouver, she told a crowd of 2,000 her husband taught her "a lot about loving."
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can be classified more as a brush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, the effect of weather on the fire. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although occurring wildfires may have beneficial effects on native vegetation and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.
High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat, which has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for reproduction. Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have negative ecological effects. Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, weather. Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather. Strategies for wildfire prevention and suppression have varied over the years. One common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel.
Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests. Fuels may be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behavior when under extreme weather conditions. Wildfire itself is "the most effective treatment for reducing a fire's rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, heat per unit of area", according to Jan Van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Yellowstone Field Station. Building codes in fire-prone areas require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. Three major natural causes of wildfire ignitions exist: dry climate lightning volcanic eruptionThe most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arson, discarded cigarettes, power-lines arcs, sparks from equipment. Ignition of wildland fires via contact with hot rifle-bullet fragments is possible under the right conditions.
Wildfires can be started in communities experiencing shifting cultivation, where land is cleared and farmed until the soil loses fertility, slash and burn clearing. Forested areas cleared by logging encourage the dominance of flammable grasses, abandoned logging roads overgrown by vegetation may act as fire corridors. Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides and mechanical land-clearing and -burning operations during the Vietnam War; the most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor. In Africa, Central America, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry, land-conversion burning. In China and in the Mediterranean Basin, human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires.
In the United States and Australia, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning strikes and to human activities. Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales, they can flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, weather conditions. Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight and water for plant growth. Overall, fire types can be characterized by their fuels as follows: Ground fires are fed by subterranean roots and other buried organic matter; this fuel type is susceptible to ignition due to spotting. Ground fires burn by smoldering, can burn for days to months, such as peat fires in Kalimantan and Eastern Sumatra, which resulted from a riceland creation project that unintentionally drained and dried the peat.
Crawling or surface fires are fueled by low-lying vegetation on the forest floor such as leaf and timber litter, debris and low-lying shrubbery. This kind of fire burns at a lower temperature than crown fires and may spread