Mars surface color
The surface of the planet Mars appears reddish from a distance because of rusty dust suspended in the atmosphere. From closeup, it looks more of a butterscotch, other common surface colors include golden, brown and greenish, depending on minerals; the apparent colour of the Martian surface enabled humans to distinguish it from other planets early in human history and motivated them to weave fables of war in association with Mars. One of its earliest recorded names, Har decher meant "Red One" in Egyptian, its color may have contributed to a malignant association in Indian astrology, as it was given the names Angaraka and Lohitanga, both reflecting the distinctively red color of Mars as seen by the naked eye. Modern robotic explorers have shown that not only the surfaces, but the skies above may appear red under sunlit conditions on Mars. Modern observations indicate; the Martian surface looks reddish because of a ubiquitous dust layer, on the order of millimeters thick. Where the thickest deposits of this reddish dust occur, such as the Tharsis area, the dust layer is not more than thick.
Therefore, the reddish dust is an thin veneer on the Martian surface and does not represent the bulk of the Martian subsurface in any way. Martian dust is reddish due to the spectral properties of nanophase ferric oxides that tend to dominate in the visible spectrum; the specific npOx minerals have not been constrained, but nanocrystalline red hematite may be the volumetrically dominant one, at least at the less than 100 µm sampling depth of infrared remote sensors such as the Mars Express OMEGA instrument. The rest of the iron in the dust as much as 50% of the mass, may be in titanium enriched magnetite. Magnetite is black in colour with a black streak, does not contribute to the reddish hue of dust; the mass fraction of chlorine and sulfur in the dust is greater than that, found in the soil types at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The sulfur in the dust shows a positive correlation with npOx; this suggests that limited chemical alteration by thin brine films may be producing some of the npOx.
In addition, remote sensing observations of atmospheric dust, indicates that the bulk volume of dust grains consists of plagioclase feldspar and zeolite, along with minor pyroxene and olivine components. Such fine material can be generated via mechanical erosion from feldspar-rich basalts, such as rocks in the southern highlands on Mars. Collectively, these observations indicate that any chemical alteration of dust by aqueous activity has been minor. There are several processes that can yield npOx as an oxidation product without the involvement of free oxygen. One or more of those processes may have dominated on Mars, since atmospheric modeling over geologic time scales indicates that free O2 may have always been a trace component with a partial pressure not exceeding 0.1 micropascal. One oxygen--independent process involves a direct chemical reaction of ferrous iron or metallic iron with water to produce ferric iron, which leads to hydroxides such as goethite under experimental conditions.
While this reaction with water is thermodynamically disfavored, it may be sustained by the rapid loss of the molecular hydrogen byproduct. The reaction can be further facilitated by dissolved carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, which lower the pH of brine films increasing the concentration of the more oxidative hydrogen ions. However, higher temperatures are needed to decompose Fe3+ hydroxides such as goethite into hematite; the formation of palagonitic tephra on the upper slopes of the Mauna Kea volcano may mirror such processes, as consistent with the intriguing spectral and magnetic similarities between palagonitic tephra and Martian dust. In spite of the need for such kinetic conditions, prolonged arid and low pH conditions on Mars may lead to the eventual transformation of goethite into hematite given the thermodynamic stability of the latter. Fe and Fe2+ may be oxidized by the activity of hydrogen peroxide. Though the H2O2 abundance in the Martian atmosphere is low, it is temporally persistent and a much stronger oxidant than H2O.
H2O2-driven oxidation to Fe3+, has been observed experimentally. In addition, the pervasiveness of the α-Fe2O3 spectral signature, but not of hydrated Fe3+ minerals reinforces the possibility that npOx may form without the thermodynamically disfavored intermediaries such as geothite. There is evidence that hematite might form from magnetite in the course of erosion processes. Experiments at the Mars Simulation Laboratory of Aarhus University in Denmark show that when a mixture of magnetide powder, quartz sand, quartz dust particles is tumbled in a flask, some of the magnetite converts to hematite, coloring the sample red; the proposed explanation for this effect is that when quartz is fructured by the grinding, certain chemical bonds get broken at the newly exposed surfaces. True-colour in situ images from the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration R
Bruno Faidutti is a historian and sociologist, living in France, best known as an author of board games. Bruno Faidutti studied law and sociology earning a doctorate in History by writing about the scientific debate in the Renaissance on the reality of the unicorn, his favorite authors are Thomas Pynchon, James Joyce, Marcel Proust, Salman Rushdie, Umberto Eco, his favorite movie, Andrei Tarkovsky's Andrei Roublev. He came into the world of hobby gaming through Cosmic Encounter and roleplaying games, was one of the first French Dungeons & Dragons players. Bruno Faidutti has created and published over 40 board and card games, sometimes in collaboration with other designers, his best known games include Knightmare Citadels, as well as Mystery of the Abbey. He is involved in the boardgaming community with his "Ideal Games Library" website and personal "Game of the Year" prize. Many of his games are the results of collaboration with other designers. In the United States, his Eurogame Corruption was released by Atlas Games in 1999.
His Citadels was released in 2000 by Fantasy Flight Games, who released his game Red November in 2008. Knightmare Chess, 1991 Citadels, 2000 Castle, 2000 Dragon's Gold, 2001 China Moon, 2003 Mystery of the Abbey, 2003 Queen's Necklace, 2003 Key Largo, 2005 Diamant, 2005 Ad Astra, 2009 Mascarade, 2013 Warehouse 51, 2015 Raptor, 2015, Waka Tanka, 2016 HMS Dolores, 2016, Bruno Faidutti's website Bruno Faidutti at BoardGameGeek An article about Bruno Faidutti's design style
Red Planet Mars
Red Planet Mars is a 1952 American science fiction film released by United Artists starring Peter Graves and Andrea King. It is based on a 1932 play Red Planet written by John L. Balderston and John Hoare and was directed by art director Harry Horner in his directorial debut. An American astronomer obtains images of Mars suggesting large-scale environmental changes are occurring at a pace that can only be accomplished by intelligent beings with advanced technology. At the same time a colleague claims to have been contacting Mars by radio, using technology stolen from the Nazis after World War II, he communicates first through an exchange of mathematical concepts, like the value of pi, through answers to specific questions about Martian life. The transmissions claim that Mars is a utopia, which has led to great technological advancement and the elimination of scarcity, but that there is no fear of nuclear war; this revelation leads to political and economic chaos in the Western hemisphere, is said to have "done more to smash the democratic world in the last four weeks than the Russians have been able to do in eleven years."
The U. S. government imposes a news blackout and orders the transmissions to stop due to fears that the Soviet Union could pick up and decode their messages. This ends when the next message reveals that the Earth is condemned to the constant fear of nuclear war as a punishment for straying from the teachings of the Bible. Revolution sweeps the globe, including the Soviet Union, overthrown and replaced by a theocracy, met with celebration in America, but doubts about the authenticity of the messages remain. An ex-Nazi who developed the original communication device prototype wants to announce that he has been duping the Americans with false messages from a secret Soviet-funded radio transmitter high in the Andes mountains of South America, he says that he transmitted the original messages from Mars, but that the United States government made up the religious messages, which he allowed because he wanted to see the destruction of the Soviet Union. The mystery thickens as it appears the messages may have continued after the secret transmitter was destroyed in an avalanche, but the American transmitter is blown up before the message can be received.
Peter Graves as Chris Cronyn Andrea King as Linda Cronyn Herbert Berghof as Franz Calder Walter Sande as Admiral Bill Carey Marvin Miller as Arjenian Willis Bouchey as President Morris Ankrum as Secretary of Defense Sparks Robert House Peters, Jr. as Dr. Boulting, Mitchell's assistant Orley Lindgren as Stewart Cronyn Philip Bayard Veiller as Roger Cronyn When the film was released, the staff at Variety liked the film, writing, "Despite its title, Red Planet Mars takes place on terra firma, sans space ships, cosmic rays or space cadets, it is a fantastic concoction delving into the realms of science, religion, world affairs and Communism... Despite the hokum dished out, the actors concerned turn in creditable performances."The New York Times, while giving the film a mixed review, wrote well of some of the performances, "Peter Graves and Andrea King are serious and competent, if callow in appearance, as the indomitable scientists. Marvin Miller is standard as a top Soviet agent, as are Walter Sande, Richard Powers and Morris Ankrum, as Government military men, Willis Bouchey, as the President."Allmovie critic Bruce Eder praised the film, writing, "Red Planet Mars is an eerily fascinating artifact of the era of the Red Scare, the first postwar science fiction boom, combining those elements into an eerie story, all the more surreal because it is played with such earnestness."The film critic Dennis Schwartz panned the film in 2001, writing, "One of the most obnoxious sci-fi films ever.
It offers Hollywood's silly response to the 1950s'Red Scare' sweeping the country and promoted by the McCarthy senate hearings looking for commies under every bed cover. To realize how dumb this Cold War film is, try this question of the plot's summary on for size: Can it be that the Martians are signaling Earth and that their leader is uttering the word of God? This is one of those bad propaganda films that has no entertainment value, as it shows how paranoic this country can be and how it can use religion at the drop of a radio signal to promote materialism and Christianity as a superior way of life than communism; this one might be most twisted Red Menace films of all time. It ends with a hydrogen explosion in the lab killing two good American scientists and one lousy ex-Nazi scientist now working for the Russian Communists; the last message heard from Mars is an abbreviated one:'Ye have done well my good...' there is just silence. The film leaves one with the impression that Mars is ruled by God."
Red Planet Mars on IMDb Red Planet Mars at AllMovie Red Planet Mars at the TCM Movie Database Red Planet Mars at the official Andrea King web site Red Planet Mars on YouTube - the complete film
DNA (Little Mix album)
DNA is the debut studio album by British girl group Little Mix. It was released on 19 November 2012 in the United Kingdom via Syco Music; the group began work recording the album in December 2011 and concluded in September 2012. Throughout the recording process, Little Mix worked with several producers, including TMS, Future Cut, Steve Mac, Jarrad Rogers, Richard "Biff" Stannard, Ash Howes, Jon Levine, Fred Ball and Pegasus; the album was co-written by Little Mix and they stated that they were involved in the development of the album as much as possible. Sonically, the album is a mixture of pop and R&B records, with influences from dance-pop, pop rock and hip hop found on specific songs as well; the album's lyrical content explores empowerment and heartbreak. Songs on the album were co-written by members of other girl groups, including Nicola Roberts of Girls Aloud, Shaznay Lewis of All Saints and T-Boz of TLC. DNA received mixed reviews from music critics; the album's lead single, "Wings", was released on 26 August 2012, reaching number one in UK and Ireland as well as charting in Australia, New Zealand, Czech Republic, Belgium and the US.
The second single, "DNA", was released on 11 November 2012, peaking at number three in the UK. Two post-album singles were released: "Change Your Life" on 3 February 2013, a remix of "How Ya Doin'?" Featuring American rapper Missy Elliott was released on 17 April 2013. The album charted in the top 5 in eight countries, including number three in the UK, at number four on the US Billboard 200. To promote the album, Little Mix embarked on their first headlining concert tour, the DNA Tour between January and February 2013. Shortly after Little Mix won the eighth series of The X Factor, both Gary Barlow and Richard "Biff" Stannard were rumoured to be writing songs for the group's debut studio album. On 25 January 2012, the group made an appearance at the National Television Awards, performed the En Vogue song "Don't Let Go", they accompanied The X Factor judges Barlow and Tulisa Contostavlos on stage to receive the Best Talent Show award won by the programme. During an interview backstage, the group confirmed that they themselves had been writing material for their debut album, however had not yet received any input from Gary Barlow.
It was announced, shortly after, that the release of the single had been delayed, would now not be released until August. On 30 May 2012, the group announced through a live stream via Twitcam that their new single would be called "Wings", a short snippet would premiere on Channel 4 that week after being played at their filming session for Alan Carr: Chatty Man; the group performed the single for the first time at the T4 on the Beach concert on 1 July 2012. "Wings" received its official premiere on BBC Radio 1 on 2 July 2012. The single debuted at #1 on the UK Singles Chart on 2 September 2012. On 17 September, the album's artwork was unveiled via the group's official Facebook page, which confirmed that the album's second single, "DNA", would premiere on radio on 1 October and would be released on 12 November, a week prior to the release of the album; the album's track listing was revealed on 28 September 2012. An exclusive version of the album sold at HMV came with a free CD single of "DNA". Little Mix began their first overseas promotional campaign for the album on 28 October 2012 in Sydney.
The group appeared on The X Factor, giving a live performance of their single "Wings", released in Australia. The following morning, the group appeared on Sunrise, their Australian promotional tour lasted a week and destinations included Sydney and Melbourne. In February 2013, the group conducted a social network campaign called "Mixers Magnets", in which fans worldwide took part in games set by the girls; the campaign was won by Italy and the USA. The girls made their subsequent performances in Italy for the Album's April release. Little Mix performed "Wings" for the first time at the T4 on the Beach concert on 1 July, they performed on Friday Download on 13 July, on the second episode of the second series of Red or Black?, which aired on 25 August. On 18 July, the group performed a live acoustic session of "Wings" on In:Demand, they performed at G-A-Y Heaven on 18 August, celebrating their first birthday as a group. Little Mix released an acoustic version of "Wings" in late August. On 3 September, after they reached number one with "Wings", they performed on the relaunch show of Daybreak.
On 30 October and 31 October, the quartet performed on Australian The X Factor and Sunrise respectively. The group performed "Wings" and "DNA" live on BBC Radio 1's Teen Awards 2012. On 24 October 2012, the group performed an a cappella version of "DNA" during a live UStream video. On 16 November 2012, for Children In Need, Little Mix performed the song'Change Your Life'. Little Mix made an appearance on BBC Breakfast to promote their album on 21 November; as part of the promotion, Little Mix performed an acoustic version of DNA on BBC Radio 1 Live Lounge, as well as on ITV show Loose Women on 23 November 2012. To further promote the album, Little Mix embarked on their first headlining tour, entitled the DNA Tour, during January and February 2013. On 30 May 20
Red Planet (novel)
Red Planet is a 1949 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about students at boarding school on the planet Mars, it represents the first appearance of Heinlein's idealized Martian elder race. The version published in 1949 featured a number of changes forced on Heinlein by Scribner's, since it was published as part of the Heinlein juveniles. After Heinlein's death, the book was reissued by Del Rey Books as the author intended. On Mars, Jim Marlowe and Frank Sutton travel to the Lowell Academy boarding school for the start of the academic year. Jim takes along his native, volleyball-sized pet, Willis the Bouncer, about as intelligent as a human child and has a photographic memory for sounds, which he can reproduce perfectly. At a rest stop, Willis encounters one of the adult sentient Martians; the three-legged alien takes the two boys and Willis to join a ritual called "growing together" with a group of its fellows. They share water, making Jim and Frank "water friends" with the Martian, named Gekko.
At school, Jim gets into trouble with the authoritarian headmaster, Mr. Howe, who confiscates Willis, claiming that it is against the new rules to have pets; when Jim and Frank sneak into Howe's office and rescue Willis, the bouncer repeats two overheard conversations between Howe and Beecher, the unscrupulous colonial administrator of Mars, detailing Beecher's plans for Willis and the colony. When Beecher learns Howe has a bouncer, he is ecstatic, since the London Zoo is willing to pay a hefty price for a specimen. Worse, Beecher is secretly planning to prevent the annual migration of the colonists in order to save money; the boys run away from school to warn the colony. The boys set out to skate the thousands of miles to their homes on the frozen Martian canals. During the trip, Frank gets sick. On the third night, they are forced to take shelter inside a giant Martian cabbage plant; the next day, they meet some native Martians, who accept Jim because of his relationship to Willis and water-friendship with Gekko.
The Martians send the two boys home by a swift subway. Once warned, Jim's father organizes the migration, hoping to catch Beecher off guard; the colonists take over the boarding school, they turn it into a temporary shelter. Howe locks himself in his office, while Beecher sets up automatic, photosensor-controlled weapons outside to stop the malcontents from leaving. After two colonists are killed trying to surrender, the power to the building is cut, the colonists decide they have no choice but to fight back; the colonists organize a raiding party, with the boys taking part, capture Beecher's office and proclaim the colony's independence from Earth. Several Martians enter the school area, one of them shows up in the door leading to Howe's office, hiding him from sight; when the Martian turns away, Howe is nowhere to be found. The Martians go to Beecher's building, when they leave, he has vanished; the Martians had been content to allow humans to share their planet, but Beecher's threat to Willis has made them reconsider.
They present the colonists with an ultimatum: leave the planet or else. Dr. MacRae negotiates with the Martians, is able to persuade them to let the colonists stay because of Jim's strong friendship with Willis. MacRae theorizes that Martians start life as bouncers, metamorphose into adults continue to exist after their deaths as the "old ones." In the end, Jim resigns himself to giving Willis up so he can undergo the transformation to adulthood. As with Podkayne of Mars, there are two versions of the ending; as written it is made clear that Willis will not emerge as an adult for forty years. This was edited and changed by Heinlein's publishers, as was a discussion early in the novel in which MacRae expresses strong support for adults and older children being free to carry handguns, opposition to any government which would restrict that. Surveying Heinlein's juvenile novels, Jack Williamson characterized Red Planet as Heinlein's first genuinely successful effort in the sequence, saying that "Heinlein found his true direction...
The Martian setting is logically constructed and rich in convincing detail the characters are engaging and the action develops naturally."P. Schuyler Miller, reviewing the original edition, praised the novel's "verisimilitude, the attention to detail which Heinlein's adult readers know well.... The explanations are never dragged in for their own sake, the plot grows out of the setting." The life cycle of Martians is the same in Stranger in a Strange Land. It is noted in this novel that the "old ones" inhabit two planes of existence: the physical and the other. Further, the water friends theme is recapitulated in Stranger in a Strange Land as "water brothers." Furthermore, the Martian ability to make an item or person disappear, a major plot point in Stranger, is demonstrated here. Jack Williamson writes that "The Martians in this story have a special interest, because they are the educators of Valentine Michael Smith they display the same appalling powers that Smith brings back to Earth." The general description of Martian society as characterized by reverence for freedom is similar.
For instance, the Martian Gekko "radiates displeasure" upon understanding what is meant by "london-zoo," and further discovering that Howe meant to sell Willis to a zoo—a reaction not dissimilar to that of Mike, who senses a "wrongness" in cages, whose first impulse when encountering the caged animals of a zoo is to attempt t