Saint Basil's Cathedral
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed, commonly known as Saint Basils Cathedral, is a church in the Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The building, now a museum, is known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat or Pokrovsky Cathedral. It was built from 1555–61 on orders from Ivan the Terrible, a world-famous landmark, it was the citys tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600. The building is shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, Dmitry Shvidkovsky, in his book Russian Architecture and the West, states that it is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the millennium of Byzantine tradition from the fifth to fifteenth century. A strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness and dazzling interleaving of the details of its design. The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century and it was completely and forcefully secularized in 1929 and remains a federal property of the Russian Federation.
The church has part of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990. It is not actually within the Kremlin, but often served as a metonym for Russia in western media throughout the Cold War. The site of the church had been, historically, a marketplace between the St. Frols Gate of the Moscow Kremlin and the outlying posad. The centre of the marketplace was marked by the Trinity Church, built of the white stone as the Kremlin of Dmitry Donskoy. According to the report in Nikons Chronicle, in the autumn of 1554 Ivan ordered construction of the wooden Church of Intercession on the same site, one year later, Ivan ordered construction of a new stone cathedral on the site of Trinity Church that would commemorate his campaigns. Dedication of a church to a victory was a major innovation for Muscovy. The placement of the church outside of the Kremlin walls was a statement in favour of posad commoners. And the builder was Barma with company, the identity of the architect is unknown.
Tradition held that the church was built by two architects and Postnik, the official Russian cultural heritage register lists Barma and Postnik Yakovlev, researchers proposed that both names refer to the same person, Postnik Yakovlev or, Ivan Yakovlevich Barma. Legend held that Ivan blinded the architect so that he could not re-create the masterpiece elsewhere, there is evidence that construction involved stonemasons from Pskov and German lands. According to the legend, Ivan had ordered Postnik Yakovlevs eyes removed, eugène Viollet-le-Duc rejected European roots for the cathedral, according to him, its corbel arches were Byzantine, and ultimately Asian
Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a persons head or entire body. By extension, the term is applied to related acts of sprinkling, dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfumed oil, butter. Scented oils are used as perfumes and sharing them is an act of hospitality, in present usage, anointing is typically used for ceremonial blessings such as the coronation of European monarchs. This continues an earlier Hebrew practice most famously observed in the anointings of Aaron as high priest, the concept is important to the figures of the Messiah and the Christ who appear prominently in Jewish and Christian theology and eschatology. Anointing—particularly the anointing of the sick—may be known as unction, the present verb derives from the now obsolete adjective anoint, equivalent to anointed. The adjective is first attested in 1303, derived from Old French enoint, the past participle of enoindre, from Latin inungere and it is thus cognate with unction. The oil used in a ceremonial anointment may be called chrism, several related words such as chrismation and chrismarium derive from the same root.
Anointing served and serves three purposes, it is regarded as a means of health and comfort, as a token of honor. Used in conjunction with bathing, anointment with oil closes pores and it was regarded as counteracting the influence of the sun, reducing sweating. Aromatic oils naturally masked body and other odors, and other forms of fat could be combined with perfumes. Applications of oils and fats are used as traditional medicines. The Bible records olive oil being applied to the sick and poured into wounds and it is still used in traditional Indian medicine to remove illness, bad luck, and demonic possession. For sanitary and religious reasons, the bodies of the dead are sometimes anointed, in medieval and early modern Christianity, the practice was particularly associated with protection against vampires and ghouls who might otherwise take possession of the corpse. Anointing guests with oil as a mark of hospitality and token of honor is recorded in Egypt, Greece and it was a common custom among the ancient Hebrews and continued among the Arabs into the 20th century.
For about 3,000 years, Persian Zoroastrians honor their guests with rose extract while holding a mirror in front of their guests face, the guests hold their palms out, collect the rose water, and spread the perfumed liquid upon their faces and sometimes heads. The words of rooj kori aka might be said as well, east African Arabs traditionally anointed themselves with lions fat to gain courage and provoke fear in other animals. Australian Aborigines would rub themselves with a human victims caul fat to gain his powers, in religions like Christianity where animal sacrifice is no longer practiced, it is common to consecrate the oil in a special ceremony. The most famous example of this is on the throne of Tutankhamun, anointment of the corpse with sweet-smelling oils was an important part of mummification
A baldachin, or baldaquin, is a canopy of state typically placed over an altar or throne. A cloth of honour is a simpler cloth hanging vertically behind the throne, Baldachin was originally a luxurious type of cloth from Baghdad, from which name the word is derived, in English as baudekin and other spellings. Matthew Paris records that Henry III of England wore a robe de preciosissimo baldekino at a ceremony at Westminster Abbey in 1247, the word for the cloth became the word for the ceremonial canopies made from the cloth. In the Middle Ages, a canopy of state, cloth of honour, or cloth of state was hung above the seat of a personage of sufficient standing. The seat under such a canopy of state would normally be raised on a dais, the cloth above a seat generally continued vertically down to the ground behind the seat. Emperors and kings, reigning dukes and bishops were accorded this honour, in a 15th-century manuscript illumination the sovereign Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller in Rhodes sits in state to receive a presentation copy of the authors book.
His seat is raised on a dais and backed with a richly embroidered dosser. Under his feet is a cushion, such as protected the feet of the King of France when he presided at a lit de justice, the King of France was covered by a mobile canopy during his Coronation, held up on poles by several Peers of France. The Virgin Mary in particular, is often shown sitting under a cloth of honour in medieval. The cloth was simply a luxurious textile, often imported and with rich patterns, as in brocades. French kings are shown with blue cloths patterned with the gold fleur-de-lys. The coats-of-arms embroidered or woven into the tapestry are of England, sometimes, as in the presentation miniature Jean Wauquelin presenting his Chroniques de Hainaut to Philip the Good by Rogier van der Weyden, the cloth continues over the seat, and to the floor. The canopy of estate may still be seen in most formal throne rooms, louis XIV developed the rituals of receptions in his state bedchamber, the petit lever to which only a handful of his court élite might expect to be invited.
The other monarchs of Europe soon imitated his practice, even his staunchest enemy, William III of England, had his grooms of the bedchamber and its tester is quickly recognizable as a baldachin, serving its time-honoured function, the bedding might easily be replaced by a gilded throne. The queens of France spent a deal of time in their chambre. By the time Marie Antoinette escaped the mob from this bedroom, such state beds, the canopy imitated cloth in bronze, as did many subsequent imitations. This famous and spectacular feature is called the Baldacchino, though strictly it is a ciborium. Berninis design for the Baldachin incorporated giant solomonic columns inspired by columns that ringed the altar of the Old St. Peters and these columns were originally donated by Constantine, and a false tradition asserts they are the columns from the Temple of Jerusalem
State Historical Museum
The State Historical Museum of Russia is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived on the territory of present-day Russia, the total number of objects in the museums collection comes to millions. The place where the now stands was formerly occupied by the Principal Medicine Store. Several rooms in that building housed royal collections of antiquities, other rooms were occupied by the Moscow University, founded by Mikhail Lomonosov in 1755. The museum was founded in 1872 by Ivan Zabelin, Aleksey Uvarov and several other Slavophiles interested in promoting Russian history, the board of trustees, composed of Sergey Solovyov, Vasily Klyuchevsky and other leading historians, presided over the construction of the museum building. After a prolonged competition the project was handed over to Vladimir Osipovich Shervud, the present structure was built based on Sherwoods neo-Russian design between 1875 and 1881.
The first 11 exhibit halls officially opened in 1883 during a visit from the Tsar, in 1894 Tsar Alexander III became the honorary president of the museum and the following year,1895, the museum was renamed the Tsar Alexander III Imperial Russian History Museum. Its interiors were decorated in the Russian Revival style by such artists as Viktor Vasnetsov, Henrik Semiradsky. During the Soviet period the murals were proclaimed gaudy and were plastered over, the museum went through a painstaking restoration of its original appearance between 1986 and 1997. The library boasts the manuscripts of the Chludov Psalter, Svyatoslavs Miscellanies, Mstislav Gospel, Yuriev Gospel, the museums coin collection alone includes 1.7 million coins, making it the largest in Russia. In 1996, the number of all articles in the collection reached 4,373,757. A branch of the museum is housed in the Romanov Chambers Zaryadye, in 1934 The Museum of Womens Emancipation at the Novodevichy Convent became part of the State Historical Museum.
Some of the churches and other buildings are still affiliated with the State Historical Museum. Official website Photo Google Maps satellite photo
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Ivanovskaya Square is the largest Kremlin square. Its name comes from the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, in the 16th and 17th centuries, many government bodies were situated in the Ivanovskaya Square. It was the site of the Prikazy, the equivalent of todays Ministries, yamskoi Prikaz, one of the offices, handled the delivery of private letters. Thus, it became the first postal address in Moscow, court services and chanceries of various departments were situated here. At the end of the 1920s and early 1930s, the square was enlarged after the demolition of the Lesser Nicholas Palace, the square is cobbled like most of the territory of the Kremlin
The Kremlin Senate is a building within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia. Initially constructed from 1776 to 1787, it housed the Moscow branch of the Governing Senate. Currently, it houses the Russian presidential administration and is a secured and restricted area closed to the public. At present, only the southern corner façade, opposite the Tsar Cannon can be viewed, the Kremlin Senate is located in the northern part of the Kremlin grounds, between the Kremlin Arsenal and Kremlin Presidium. It is shaped like a triangle with each side approximately 100 metres in length. The building has three floors and is painted in the yellow color as many other administrative buildings within the Moscow Kremlin. The triangular structure has a courtyard, and is divided by hallways into a central pentahedral portion. In the middle of the main façade is an arched passage fashioned like an arch leading to the inner yard. Inside is Rotunda Hall, once called The Pantheon of Russia and its green dome, carrying the state flag as seen from the Red Square, would become a Soviet propaganda icon.
However, originally it carried a statue of St. George, the exterior styling of the building is an unusual mix of Doric and Ionic order columns. Inside the building, the large “Catherine Hall” is designed as a parade room and this is a circular hall, with a 24.7 meter diameter under extensive bas-relief ornamentation depicting Catherine as the Greek goddess Minerva. The Governing Senate was a created by Tsar Peter the Great in 1711. It had six departments, four of which were in St Petersburg, empress Catherine the Great had been a frequent guest in Moscow at the time when the city, neglected by past monarchs, did not have enough state offices. The site once housed the Trubetskoy family palace and at least three churches, in 1779 Blank was demoted, and Kazakov took the lead. He envisaged Governing Senate as a “Temple of Law”, and designed the structure in a Neoclassical style characterized by symmetry, the building was completed in 1787, with interior work continuing to 1790. According to Ivan Kondratiev, Catherine was so impressed by the building that she gave Kazakov her gloves, saying Ill pay your bills and she indeed repaid Kazakov with diamonds, promotion and a pension.
The building served as a model for other official buildings in other Russian cities in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Later, in line with reforms of Catherines successors, the building lost its national functions and became the seat of Moscow Regional Court
Tsarina's Golden Chamber
It is part of the tsars palace in the Moscow Kremlin. Золотая Царицына Палата is the name of the building houses the chamber. The Chamber was part of the complex built in the Kremlin in late 15th. The tsarinas quarters must have located in that part of the palace. It is situated on a floor and was built in the early 16th century. In the 1580s, it was rebuilt as a reception room of Tsarina Irina Godunova. The names of its builders are unknown, it may be assumed, the walls of the chamber are decorated with paintings on a golden background. The paintings on the show episodes from Christian history associated with Emperor Constantine of Byzantium and his mother. Shown on the wall are scenes from the Life of St. Dinaria. The paintings on the western wall feature scenes from the life of Empress St. Theodora, the Anteroom or Passage Chamber is adjacent to the west side of the Tsarinas Golden Chamber. In the early 17th century, it was named Zhiletskaya because the palaces resident guards, during the four centuries of its existence, the Tsarinas Golden Chamber underwent a number of structural alterations and its frescoes were repainted more than once.
In 1970–1978 extensive restoration work was carried out there, the restoration was important because this is the only specimen of Old Russian secular monumental painting in Moscow to have survived to the present day. The Tsarinas Golden Chamber was first mentioned in manuscripts in 1526 as Naugolnaya and it and the Faceted Chamber are the oldest civil buildings in the Moscow Kremlin
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia. Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow since Moscows major streets, the name Red Square neither originates from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad. The rich history of Red Square is reflected in paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon. The square was meant to serve as Moscows main marketplace and it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, and occasionally a coronation for Russias Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established. The relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495 and they called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall.
Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as, the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basils Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, from this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – raskats, the Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or simply Torg, Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, after that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means burnt. It was not until 1661–62, when it was first mentioned by its contemporary Krasnaya – Red name, Red Square was the landing stage and trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, after a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines.
The streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, after a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin, commonly known as Saint Basils Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV. This was the first building which gave the square its present-day characteristic silhouette, in 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone. By that time, a platform for the proclamation of the tsars edicts. Red Square was considered a sacred place, during the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square
The Kremlin Armoury or Armoury Chamber is one of the oldest museums of Moscow, established in 1851 and located in the Moscow Kremlin. The name Armoury Chamber is officially used by the museum of the Moscow Kremlin. The Kremlin Armoury originated as the arsenal in 1508. Until the transfer of the court to St Petersburg, the Armoury was in charge of producing and storing weapons, the finest Muscovite gunsmiths and painters used to work there. In 1640 and 1683, they opened the iconography and pictorial studios, in 1700, the Armoury was enriched with the treasures of the Golden and Silver chambers of the Russian tsars. In 1711, Peter the Great had the majority of masters transferred to his new capital,15 years later, the Armoury was merged with the Fiscal Yard, Stables Treasury and the Master Chamber. After that, the Armoury was renamed into the Arms and Master Chamber, Alexander I of Russia nominated the Armoury as the first public museum in Moscow in 1806, but the collections were not opened to the public until seven years later.
The current Armoury building was erected in 1844-1851 by the imperial architect Konstantin Ton, the director of the museum from 1852 to 1870 was the writer Alexander Veltman. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Armoury collection was enriched with treasures taken from the Patriarch sacristy, Kremlin cathedrals, some of these were sold abroad on behest of Joseph Stalin in the 1930s. In 1960, the Armoury became the museum of the Kremlin. Two years later, the Patriarch chambers and the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles were assigned to the Armoury in order to house the Applied Arts Museum, the Kremlin Armoury is currently home to the Russian Diamond Fund. It boasts unique collections of the Russian, Western European and Eastern applied arts spanning the period from the 5th to the 20th centuries, the ten Fabergé eggs in the Armoury collection are the most Imperial eggs, and the second-most overall Fabergé eggs, owned by a single owner