Red River Parish, Louisiana
Red River Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,091, making it the fourth-least populous parish in Louisiana, its seat is Coushatta. It was one of the newer parishes created in 1871 by the state legislature under Reconstruction; the plantation economy was based on cotton cultivation dependent on enslaved African labor before the American Civil War. In 1880, the parish had a population with more than twice as many blacks as whites, they were disenfranchised in 1898 under a new state constitution after the white Democrats regained power in the state in the late 1870s through paramilitary intimidation at the polls. Most of the former slaves worked as laborers, cultivating cotton; because of the mechanization of agriculture, many blacks left the parish during the mid-20th century Great Migration to seek better job opportunities elsewhere. By 2000, the parish population was 9,622, with a white majority, but Coushatta itself was still two thirds black.
As in many other rural areas, Red River Parish and the Red River Valley were areas of white vigilante and paramilitary violence after the Civil War, as insurgents tried to regain power after the South's defeat. The state legislature during Reconstruction created the parish in 1871, one of a number established to develop Republican Party strength. Marshall H. Twitchell was a Union veteran who moved to the parish from Vermont and married a local woman. With the help of her family, he became local leader, he was elected in 1870 as a Republican to the state legislature and filled four local offices with his brother and three brothers-in-law, the latter native to the parish. He won support from freedmen by promoting education; the unpublished dissertation, Carpetbagger Extraordinary: Marshall Harvey Twitchell, 1840-1905 by the historian Jimmy G. Shoalmire studies Twitchell's life within the context of the social unrest in Red River Parish at the time. During the 1870s, there were regular outbreaks of violence in Louisiana, despite the presence of two thousand federal troops stationed there.
The extended agricultural depression and poor economy of the late 19th century aggravated social tensions, as both freedmen and whites struggled to survive and to manage new labor arrangements. The disputed gubernatorial election of 1872 increased political tensions in the state as the outcome was unsettled for months. Both the Democratic Party and Republican candidates certified their own slates of local officers. Established in May 1874 from white militias, the White League was formed first in the Red River Valley in nearby Grant Parish; the organization grew well-organized in rural areas like Red River Parish. Soon White League chapters rose across the state. Operating the White League used violence against officeholders, running some out of town and killing others, suppressed election turnout among black and white Republicans. In August 1874 the White League forced six white Republicans from office in Coushatta and ordered them to leave the state. Members assassinated them. Four of the men murdered were the brother and three brothers-in-law of state Senator Marshall Twitchell.
The White League killed five to twenty freedmen who had accompanied the Twitchell relatives and were witnesses to the vigilante acts. Historians came to call the events the Coushatta Massacre; the murders contributed to Republican Governor William Pitt Kellogg's request to President Grant for more Federal troops to help control the state. Ordinary Southerners wrote to President Grant at the White House describing the terrible conditions of violence and fear they lived under during these times. With increased voter fraud, paramilitary violence against Republican blacks and whites, intimidation at the polls preventing people from voting, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1876; the population of the parish in 1880 was 8,573, of whom 6,007 were blacks. In 1898 the state achieved disfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites through a new constitution that created numerous barriers to voter registration. To seek better opportunities and escape the oppression of segregation, underfunded education, disfranchisement, thousands of African Americans left Red River and other rural parishes in the Great Migration north and west.
As may be seen in the census table below, most left from 1940–1970, when the parish had steep population decreases. Regional agricultural problems contributed to outmigration after increasing mechanization in the 1930s reduced the need for laborers. At this time many African Americans from Louisiana went to California, where the defense industry associated with World War II was growing and workers were needed. Additional outmigration from the parish occurred as late as the 1980s, when African Americans from Louisiana migrated within the South to jobs in developing metropolitan areas of New South states. Red River Parish has been a Democratic Party stronghold since the party reestablished dominance in 1876; as in other southern states, recent decades have brought a realignment in politics in Presidential elections, with the conservative white majority of the parish voting for Republican U. S. President George W. Bush in his 2004 reelection; the majority of the parish voters, has continued to support Democratic candidates at the state and local level.
Red River was one of only three parishes that did not vote for the Republican gubernatorial candidate, U. S. Representative Bobby Jindal in the October 20, 2007, jungle primary; the others were nearby St. Bernard, located southeast of New Orleans. Despi
McCurtain County, Oklahoma
McCurtain County is located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,151, its county seat is Idabel. It was formed at statehood from part of the earlier Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory; the name honors an influential Choctaw family. Green McCurtain was the last chief when the Choctaw Nation was dissolved before Oklahoma became a state in 1907; the area now included in McCurtain County was part of the Choctaw Nation before Oklahoma became a state. In the 1820s, it was a major part of Arkansas; the area was sparsely populated, with no towns. There were post offices established at small trading posts along the various trails. Towns began to form when the Arkansas and Choctaw Railway was built across the area in 1902. Between 1910 and 1921 the Choctaw Lumber Company laid tracks for the Texas and Eastern Railroad from Valliant, Oklahoma to DeQueen, Arkansas; these roads still served the area at the beginning of the 21st century. The county experienced difficulty functioning because of lack of funds.
When the Choctaws accepted their land allotments, their homesteads were not taxable for twenty-one years. No roads were built until a decade after statehood. There were no bridges, so ferries carried people and vehicles across the major streams; the only F5 tornado in April in Oklahoma occurred in this county on April 4, 1982. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,902 square miles, of which 1,850 square miles is land and 52 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Oklahoma by area. The terrain of McCurtain county varies from the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains in the northern part of the county to the rich Red River bottoms of the southern part. Sections of the Mountain Fork and Little River drainages lie in McCurtain county. Glover River originates in McCurtain County and flows 33.2 miles to its confluence with Little River southeast of Wright City. Broken Bow Lake was created in 1968 by damming the Mountain Fork River. Mountain Fork river is one of the two year round trout fisheries in the state.
The lowest point in the state of Oklahoma is located on the Little River in McCurtain County, where it flows out of Oklahoma and into Arkansas. The county contains McCurtain County Wilderness Area, a 14,087 acre tract created in 1918 and managed by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 259 State Highway 3 State Highway 4 State Highway 37 State Highway 87 State Highway 98 Little River National Wildlife Refuge Ouachita National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 34,402 people, 13,216 households, 9,541 families residing in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 15,427 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 70.54% White, 9.30% Black or African American, 13.57% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.34% from other races, 5.02% from two or more races. 3.09% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.6% were of American, 7.6% Irish and 5.9% English ancestry according to Census 2000.
94.4% spoke English, 2.9% Spanish and 2.6% Choctaw as their first language. There were 13,216 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,162, the median income for a family was $29,933. Males had a median income of $26,528 versus $17,869 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,693.
About 21.00% of families and 24.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.40% of those under age 18 and 21.20% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture and forestry have dominated the county's economy; the dense forests that covered the area were cleared and processed within two decades after statehood. The cleared lands became subsistence farms. Cotton was the main money crop. Cattle raising, as well as production of swine and poultry, replaced cotton farming in importance. Cotton farms in the Red River valley began raising grains and forage instead. Natural reseeding and active reforestation projects, both public and private, have replenished much of the harvested forest area; this revitalized the timber industry, again important to the county economy. Limestone and gravel are extracted for extensive local use. Broken Bow Idabel Garvin Haworth Millerton Smithville Valliant Wright City Eagletown National Register of Historic Places listings in McCurtain County, Oklahoma McCurtain County Tourism Authority McCurtain County OSU Extension Center Beavers Bend Cabins near Broken Bow Lake and Beavers Bend State Park Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
New Boston, Texas
New Boston is a city in Bowie County, United States. It was named after an early store keeper, W. J. Boston, it is Texas - Texarkana, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 4,550 at the 2010 census. New Boston is located near the center of Bowie County at 33°27′38″N 94°25′2″W. U. S. Route 82 passes through the center of the city, Interstate 30 runs through the northern part of the city, with access from Exits 199 and 201. By either route it is 22 miles east to Texarkana. I-30 leads southwest 40 miles to Mount Pleasant, US 82 leads west-northwest 70 miles to Paris. Texas State Highway 8 leads south 4 miles to Old Boston, the site of original town settlement in the 1800s, north 7 miles to the Red River and the border with the state of Arkansas; the Red River Army Depot borders the southeastern edge of New Boston. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, 4,808 people, 1,968 households, 1,334 families resided in the city.
The population density was 1,377.1 people per square mile. The 2,229 housing units averaged 638.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.49% White, 17.64% African American, 0.75% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.46% of the population. Of the 1,968 households, 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were not families. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was distributed as 26.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,531, for a family was $38,542.
Males had a median income of $29,940 versus $21,316 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,190. About 11.6% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over. Interstate 30 U. S. Highway 82 State Highway 8 The Red River Expedition was stopped by the Spanish in the vicinity of the town; when the Missouri Pacific Railroad was being constructed 4 miles north of the village of Boston in the summer of 1876, it was clear to many businessmen in the town that it would suffer a serious decline as a consequence of its distance from the line. At a mass meeting, J. H. Smelser, a local resident and surveyor for the railroad, was selected to meet with railroad officials to secure the location of a depot at a point on the line nearest to Boston; the negotiations were successful, in September 1876, lots were laid out and put up for sale on 100 acres that the railroad had purchased. Because most of those engaged in the project were from Boston, the new town was named New Boston.
A post office was established in 1877 with L. C. DeMorse as postmaster; the town grew and by 1884, it had 400 residents, two churches, a school, several mills and gins, a newspaper, the New Boston Herald, edited by W. W. West. A furniture factory and another newspaper, the Bowie County Populist, were added in the 1890s. By 1900, the town had a population of 762, it grew until the late 1920s, when a short-lived boom raised the population from 869 in 1925 to 1,300 in 1929. The population fell to 949 by 1931. During World War II, the Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant and the Red River Army Depot were constructed just southeast of New Boston; the two massive military installations were responsible for the town's rapid growth in the 1940s. The population grew from 1,111 in 1940 to 2,688 in 1950. In 1980, it reached 4,628. Although an International Paper mill, the Barry Telford state prison and a few smaller factories provided some industrial base for the town, New Boston depends on the two military installations for its continued prosperity.
The town had 5,057 residents in 1990 and 4,550 residents in 2010. New Boston is known for Rodeo; the town-folk gather at the T&P Trailhead Park for entertainment such as carnival rides, street dances, live musical and comedy presentations. The Barry B. Telford Unit of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice is in an unincorporated area near New Boston. On March 4, 1986, a new modern county courthouse was dedicated in New Boston on the Interstate, but Boston remained the official county seat; the old Bowie County Courthouse, constructed in Boston in 1889 in the exact geographic center of the county, was abandoned after construction of the new building. On the night of August 13, 1987, the old courthouse was burned by an arsonist. New Boston is served by the New Boston Independent School District and home to the New Boston High School Lions; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, New Boston has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps.
Gary VanDeaver, is a retiring New Boston school superintendent and incoming 2015 Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 1, based in Bowie, Franklin and Red River Counties. R. Gerald Turner, has been the President of Southern Methodist Univ
Clarksville is a city in and county seat of Red River County, Texas, in the United States in the northernmost part of the Piney Woods region of East Texas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 3,285, it is the county seat of Red River County. Clarksville is located at 33°36′40″N 95°3′9″W. Located 58 miles northwest of Texarkana near the center of the county, it is at the junctions of U. S. Highway 82, State Highway 37, Farm roads 114, 412, 909, 910, 1159. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles, all land. Clarksville was laid out a town site; when Red River County was organized in 1835, Clarksville was chosen as the county seat, beating out the community of La Grange. Isaac Smathers built one of the first houses, owned by Charles DeMorse; the town was incorporated by an act of the Texas Congress in 1837, within a few years it became an educational and agricultural center. In 1841, John W. P. McKenzie, a Methodist minister, retired from serving as a missionary and moved to a former plantation about 3 miles SSW of Clarksville.
Naming his new home Itinerant's Retreat, he soon began offering classes for boys who lived in the surrounding area. During that same year, 16 boys enrolled in classes in his home. There was more demand than he could accommodate in his home, so he had a log cabin to the plantation to serve as a more conventional school; as the enrollment grew, he added 3 large wooden buildings to serve as dormitories and opened the school to girls and boarding students. By 1854, McKenzie College had 300 students and 9 faculty members participating in a 10-month school year. Before the American Civil War began, Rev. McKenzie's school was the largest institution of higher education in Texas during the 1850s, trained all of the new Methodist ministers in the state. Although the school was always considered a Methodist institution, it continued to be owned by McKenzie, he tried to turn it over to the local Methodist Conference in 1855 and 1860, but each time the Conference declined to accept certain unspecified conditions, so the official transfer never occurred..
By the fall of 1861, most of the male students had enlisted in the Confederate Army. In 1863, the school had only 33 students; the average number rose to 74 during the years 1864-67. Unable to obtain sufficient financing to continue, Rev. McKenzie closed the school permanently on June 25, 1868. In 1844, Clarksville Female Academy opened, after moving from Pine Creek, where it was founded in 1840. A Clarksville post office opened in 1846, by 1838 there was semiweekly mail service between Clarksville and Natchitoches, Louisiana. A frame courthouse was built in 1840, replaced with a brick structure on the main square in 1850. A brick jail was built nearby in 1852; the First Presbyterian Church was organized in Shiloh, Gregg County, Texas in 1838, but relocated to Clarksville in 1844. The Texas State Historical Society says this is "...among the oldest continually operating Protestant churches in the state."The Texas State Historical Society reports that Clarksville was the most important commercial center in this part of Texas from the late 1830s until the Civil War.
Once the Red River proved navigable by steamboats, goods could be shipped directly from New Orleans to Rowland's Landing, 15 miles north of Clarksville hauled overland by wagon. By the time the war broke out, the city had a population of about 900. Economic recovery from the Civil War was stimulated when the Texas and Pacific Railway reached Clarksville in 1872, bringing new settlers and new businesses; the 1870 census showed a population of 613. By 1885, the population had grown to about 1,200; the city could boast of a new limestone courthouse, five white and two black churches, a Catholic convent, three schools, two banks, two flour mills, a weekly newspaper, the Clarksville Times. In 1914, the city had 3,000 residents and had added a waterworks, two newspapers, an ice plant, an electric power plant. After that, outside events such as two world wars, the Great Depression, increased competition from other cities had begun to slow Clarksville's growth; as shown by the census table, the population in 2000 was near to that in 1920.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,883 people, 1,530 households, 1,006 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,299.2 people per square mile. There were 1,787 housing units at an average density of 597.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 53.39% White, 42.18% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 3.01% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.29% of the population. There were 1,530 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,655, the median income for a family was $31,729. Males had a median income of $21,635 versus $16,189 for females; the p
U.S. Route 82 in Texas
In the U. S. state of Texas, U. S. Route 82 is a U. S. Highway that begins on the New Mexico border and heads east through West Texas and Lubbock to the Arkansas border at Texarkana. US 82 crosses into Texas from New Mexico at Texas Farm to Market Road 769, turning northeastward toward Plains, where it merges with US 380. US 82 is co-signed with US 380 from Plains to Brownfield, where it joins US 62, US 380 leaves the route. US 82/62 continues northeastward toward Lubbock. In Lubbock, US 82 and US 62 split, where US 82 has been upgraded to a full access freeway, named the Marsha Sharp Freeway, in honor of retired Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball coach Marsha Sharp. On the east side of the city, US 82 travels as a surface street along Parkway Drive and it once again merges with US 62 where it continues eastward through Ralls, where US 62 makes a sharp turn to the north and leaves the route. US 82 continues eastward across the level plains of the Llano Estacado to Crosbyton and dips downward as it crosses the White River of Blanco Canyon, where the Texas Department of Transportation maintains the Silver Falls Rest Area with facilities and hiking trails.
After climbing out of Blanco Canyon, US 82 exits the Llano Estacado and enters the rolling plains near Dickens. US 82/SH 114 continues eastward as a co-signed route until Seymour, where it merges with U. S. Highways 183, 277 and 283, with US 183 and 283 leaving the route at Mabelle. US 82/277 continues eastward to Wichita Falls, merging with I-44 and US 287 just south of downtown at Mile marker 0. US 82 leaves US 287 at Henrietta and continues east towards the small towns of Nocona, St. Jo and Muenster and crossing I-35 in Gainesville at a partial cloverleaf interchange; the highway continues east towards Whitesboro and Sherman where it crosses US Highway 75 at a three-level diamond interchange. Prior to the 1990s, the two highways ran concurrently on the route of SH 56 before being rerouted northeast of Sherman on its present-day route; the highway continues east to Bells where US 82 cross US Route 69. In Bonham, Texas, US 82 crosses SH 121 while the route runs parallel with SH 56 until Honey Grove where SH 56 ends.
US 82 enters Paris at a diamond interchange where it runs concurrent with Loop 286 on the north side of the city as a Business Route runs through the center of the city before rejoining on the east side of Paris. At a diamond interchange on the north side of Paris, US 82/TX Loop 286 meets with US 271 where both highways run concurrent on the northeast side of town before US 82 branches off at another diamond interchange on the east side of Paris. After passing around Clarksville and other smaller towns the highway is crossed by Interstate 30 east of New Boston at a partial cloverleaf and continues to run parallel to IH 30 into Arkansas through downtown Texarkana. US 82 was first designated in Texas in 1939; the highway was extended from Lubbock to the New Mexico state line in 1963. Between 1974 and 1994, US 82 was re-routed from Whitesboro to Honey Grove; the highway was re-routed from Allendale Road to US 281/US 287 through Wichita Falls in 1998 with a bypass built around Holliday in 2005. US 82 was re-routed around Clarkesville in 2006, creating a concurrency with SH 37.
The highway was re-routed south of Guthrie in 2007, with part of the former route becoming Spur 729. The Marsha Sharp Freeway, named for former Texas Tech Lady Raiders basketball coach Marsha Sharp, was built along US 82 in Lubbock, with construction beginning in May 2003, with development going back to the 1980s. In 1998, funding was first received; the five-phase project was scheduled to be completed in 2015. Phase 2 of the project was scheduled to be completed in December 2008 at a cost of $140 million, it involved construction of the freeway from Salem Avenue to Avenue L and erecting interchanges at 19th Street, Quaker Avenue, Fourth Street, Avenue Q in Lubbock. Construction on the freeway has started from Milwaukee Ave. to Upland Ave. and on the intersection of Spur 327 and U. S. 62/82. The section of freeway between West Loop 289 and Avenue L was widened from four lanes to six lanes between March 6, 2017 and March 5, 2018 marking the end of the freeway's construction. TxDOT began upgrading U.
S. 82 in Grayson and Fannin County in 2013. The four-lane divided highway upgrade between Sherman and Bonham was completed in 2015. TxDOT plans to continue this upgrade to the Fannin and Lamar County line by 2020. Long term planning calls for U. S. 82 to be a four-lane divided highway system the entire length between Wichita Falls and Texarkana as a potential alternate route through north Texas in order to bypass the overcrowded Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. It is being upgraded to a 4 lane divided highway west of Nocona, a partial bypass is planned to run south of Gainesville
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature. It consists of 150 members; as of the 2010 Census, each member represents about 167,637 people. There are no term limits, with the most senior member, Tom Craddick, having been elected in 1968; the House meets at the State Capitol in Austin. The Speaker of the House is highest-ranking member of the House; the Speaker's duties include maintaining order within the House, recognizing members during debate, ruling on procedural matters, appointing members to the various committees and sending bills for committee review. The Speaker pro tempore is a ceremonial position, but does, by long-standing tradition, preside over the House during its consideration of local and consent bills. Unlike other state legislatures, the House rules do not formally recognize majority or minority leaders; the unofficial leaders are the Republican Caucus Chairman and the Democratic House Leader, both of whom are elected by their respective caucuses.
†Representative was first elected in a special election. Eligio De La Garza, II, first Mexican-American to represent his region in the US House and the second Mexican-American from Texas to be elected to Congress. Ray Barnhart, Federal Highway Administrator Anita Lee Blair, first blind woman elected to a state legislature Jack Brooks, U. S. House of Representatives Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas Frank Kell Cahoon, Midland County oilman and representative from 1965 to 1969. S. Representative Tom DeLay, U. S. Representative and House Majority Leader John Nance Garner, U. S. Representative, Speaker of the House, Vice President of the United States O. H. "Ike" Harris, Dallas County representative from 1963–1965. Kay Bailey Hutchison, U. S. Senator Ray Hutchison, husband of Kay Bailey Hutchison Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. father of President Lyndon B. Johnson Dan Kubiak, representative from Rockdale known for his support of public education Mickey Leland, U. S. House of Representatives, died in a plane crash.
Charles Henry Nimitz Born in Bremen. In 1852, built the Nimitz Hotel in Fredericksburg, which now houses the National Museum of the Pacific War. Grandfather of United States Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. Elected to the Texas Legislature 1890. Rick Perry, longest serving Governor of Texas, current U. S. Secretary of Energy. Colonel Alfred P. C. Petsch Lawyer, civic leader, philanthropist. Veteran of both World War I and World War II. Sam Rayburn, U. S. Representative and longest served Speaker of the House Coke R. Stevenson, Governor of Texas Sarah Weddington, attorney for "Jane Roe" for the 1973 Roe v. Wade case in the U. S. Supreme Court Ferdinand C. Weinert, coauthored bill to establish the Pasteur Institute of Texas, authored resolution for humane treatment of state convicts, coauthored the indeterminate sentence and parole law. Served as Texas Secretary of State Charles Wilson, U. S. House of Representatives, subject of the book and film Charlie Wilson's War The Speaker of the House of Representatives has duties as a presiding officer as well as administrative duties.
As a presiding officer, the Speaker must enforce and interpret the rules of the House, call House members to order, lay business in order before the House and receive propositions made by members, refer proposed legislation to a committee, preserve order and decorum, recognize people in the gallery and hold votes on questions, vote as a member of the House, decide on all questions to order, appoint the Speaker Pro Tempore and Temporary Chair, adjourn the House in the event of an emergency, postpone reconvening in the event of an emergency, sign all bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions. The administrative duties of the Speaker include having control over the Hall of the House, appointing chair, vice-chair, members to each standing committee, appointing all conference committees, directing committees to make interim studies; the Chief Clerk is the head of the Chief Clerk's Office which maintains a record of all authors who sign legislation and distributes membership information to current house members, forwards copies of legislation to house committee chairs.
The Chief Clerk is the primary custodian of all legal documents within House. Additional duties include keeping a record of all progress on a document, attesting all warrants and subpoenas, receiving and filing all documents received by the house, maintaining the electronic information and calendar for documents; when there is a considerable update of the electronic source website, the Chief Clerk is responsible for noticing House members via email. Agriculture and Livestock AppropriationsSubcommittee on Articles I, IV & V Subcommittee on Article II Subcommittee on Article III Subcommittee on Articles VI, VII & VIII Subcommittee on Budget Transparency & Reform Business & Industry Calendars Corrections County Affairs Criminal Jurisprudenc