Joseph Nisbet LeConte
Joseph Nisbet LeConte was a noted explorer of the Sierra Nevada. He was a cartographer, a photographer and a professor of mechanical engineering. Joseph Nisbet LeConte was born in California to Joseph and Caroline LeConte, he went by "Little Joe" among friends, because he was of short stature and the son of geology professor Joseph LeConte. He went by J. N. LeConte in photographs and articles, he entered the University of California, Berkeley in 1887, earning a B. S. degree in 1891. He received a Master of Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University in 1892, was appointed assistant professor of mechanical engineering at U. C. Berkeley that August, beginning by teaching kinematics of machinery. Starting in 1912, he taught analytical mechanics for over 20 years. German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered x-rays in 1895, his first research paper was published at the end of December. An Austrian newspaper reported the results a week later. After reading those reports, LeConte found cathode ray tubes that his late uncle John LeConte had obtained for the university's physics lab.
LeConte and his associates were able to construct an x-ray machine and produce images of a bullet lodged in the arm of a young boy within a week of the newspaper reports of Röntgen's discovery. LeConte studied the materials problems of gas turbines, built a harmonic analyzer to study the performance of electric power transmission lines, he was a professor at U. C. Berkeley for his entire career that lasted 45 years. LeConte loved mountaineering from the time he was a teenager and went all over the Sierra Nevada exploring, sometimes for several weeks, he produced the first map of the central Sierra Nevada for the Sierra Club, based on his exploration. At that time, USGS maps were not available. Along with James S. Hutchinson and Duncan McDuffie, he pioneered a high mountain route in 1908 from Yosemite National Park to Kings Canyon along the route of the modern John Muir Trail. In 28 days, they completed a trip of 228 miles through the high mountains, including several unexplored sections. An avid photographer, he took many photos of the Sierra Nevada, including the High Sierra and Hetch Hetchy Valley before it was flooded by the dam.
He worked with heavy, fragile dry glass plates that had to be transported with great care throughout the wilderness. In 1944, Ansel Adams evaluated his work: "Never intentionally'arty', most of his compositions reveal a sensitive reaction to the finest moments of the mountain scene, it is this quality that differentiates between a mere record and a creative, sympathetic statement." A charter and lifelong member of the Sierra Club, he held positions of leadership in it. After John Muir died, he served as the club's second president, he was instrumental in helping create the John Muir Trail through the High Sierra as a tribute to his predecessor. He sat on the Sierra Club Board of Directors from 1898 through 1940, at various times was VP, secretary and outings chair. In 1901 he married Helen Gompertz. LeConte Point in Hetch Hetchy Valley is named after him. Joseph N. LeConte, A Yosemite Camping Trip 1889. Diary and Kodak snapshots of a family camping trip. Holway R. Jones, John Muir and the Sierra Club: The Battle for Yosemite.
Has portrait of Joseph N. LeConte and about 16 large photographic plates taken by him of Hetch Hetchy Valley. Works by or about Joseph Nisbet LeConte at Internet Archive Guide to the LeConte Family Papers at The Bancroft Library John Muir Exhibit sketch The Peaks and The Professors by Ann Lage
Fresno County, California
Fresno County the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of January 1, 2018, the population was 1,007,229; the county seat is the fifth-largest city in California. Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in north of Bakersfield. The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, was settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War. Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree" and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala, growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893; the original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.
The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883. At the same time residents brought irrigation and extensive agriculture to the area. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation; these canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. A. Y. Easterby and Clovis Cole developed extensive grain and cattle ranches; these and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.
The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; the Coalinga field continues to produce oil, is the eighth-largest field in the state. More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, Kearney Mansion Museum. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles, of which 5,958 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal, it is bordered on the west on the east by the Sierra Nevada.
It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States. Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. Fresno was named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of, still alive and standing. Giant Sequoia National Monument Kings Canyon National Park Sequoia National Forest Sierra National Forest A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, walstromite, verplanckite, muirite and kampfite; the 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450. The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 White, 49,523 African American, 15,649 Native American, 89,357 Asian, 1,405 Pacific Islander, 217,085 from other races, 42,286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons. 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent.
As of the census of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile. There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.5% were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 252,940 households ou
Mount Bona is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Mountains in eastern Alaska, is the fifth-highest independent peak in the United States. Mount Bona and its adjacent neighbor Mount Churchill are both large ice-covered stratovolcanoes. Bona has the distinction of being the highest volcano in the United States and the fourth-highest in North America, outranked only by the three highest Mexican volcanoes, Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, its summit is a small stratovolcano on top of a high platform of sedimentary rocks. The mountain's massif is covered entirely by icefields and glaciers, it is the principal source of ice for the Klutlan Glacier, which flows east for over 40 miles into the Yukon Territory of Canada; the mountain contributes a large volume of ice to the north-flowing Russell Glacier system. Mount Bona was named by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1897, who saw the peak while making the first ascent of Mount Saint Elias about 80 miles to the southeast.
He named it after his racing yacht. The mountain was first climbed in 1930 by Allen Carpé, Terris Moore, Andrew Taylor, from the Russell Glacier on the west of the peak; the current standard route is the East Ridge. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States List of the most isolated major summits of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska Mount Bona at the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Mount Bona". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Churchill". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-06
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president; the Sierra Club operates in the United States. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, engages in lobbying politicians to promote environmentalist policies. Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy, mitigating global warming, opposing the use of coal; the club is known for its political endorsements, which are sought after by candidates in local elections. The Sierra Club is organized on both a local level; the club is divided into large chapters representing large geographic areas, some of which have tens of thousands of members. These chapters are divided into regional groups, special interest sections and task forces. While much activity is coordinated at a local level, the Club is a unified organization.
In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes outdoor recreation activities, has been a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States. Members of the Sierra Club pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing, were responsible for a substantial amount of the early development of climbing. Much of this activity occurred in the group's namesake Sierra Nevada; the Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses and occasional alpine expeditions for members. In California, the club, through its outdoor recreation groups, is considered the state's analogue to other state mountaineering clubs such as Mazamas or the Colorado Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's stated mission is "To explore and protect the wild places of the earth. Each year, five directors are elected to three-year terms, all club members are eligible to vote. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members; the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group.
Michael Brune of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the organization's executive director since 2010. Brune succeeded Carl Pope. Pope stepped down amid discontent. Sierra Club members belong to local groups. National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues; the national Sierra Club sets overarching rules. The club is known for engaging in two main activities: promoting and guiding outdoor recreational activities, done throughout the United States but in California, political activism to promote environmental causes. Richard M. Skinner of the Brookings Institution describes the Sierra Club as one of the United States' "leading environmental organizations"; the Sierra Club makes endorsements of individual candidates for elected office, which has substantial weight given the club's reputation and large membership. Journalist Robert Underwood Johnson had worked with John Muir on the successful campaign to create a large Yosemite National Park surrounding the much smaller state park, created in 1864.
This campaign succeeded in 1890. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an "association" to help protect the Sierra Nevada, preliminary meetings were held to plan the group. Others involved in the early planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte and David Starr Jordan. In May 1892, a group of professors from the University of California and Stanford University helped Muir and attorney Warren Olney launch the new organization modeled after the eastern Appalachian Mountain Club; the Sierra Club's charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914. The Club's first goals included establishing Glacier and Mount Rainier national parks, convincing the California legislature to give Yosemite Valley to the U. S. federal government, preserving California's coastal redwoods. Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government.
The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the country's second national park, after Yellowstone in 1872. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from "resource management" conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams. In 1890, San Francisco mayor James D. Phelan proposed to build a dam and aqueduct on the Tuolumne River, one of the largest southern Sierra rivers, as a way to increase and stabilize the city's water supply. Gifford Pinchot, a progressive supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service, which had jurisdiction over the national parks, supported the creation of the Hetch
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en
The Sierra Crest is a ~500 mi north-to-south ridgeline that demarcates the broad west and narrow east slopes of the Sierra Nevada and that extends as far east as the Sierra's topographic front. The northern and central Sierra Crest sections coincide with over 300 mi of the Great Basin Divide, the southern crest demarcates Tulare and Inyo counties and extends through Kern County to meet the Tehachapi crest; the Sierra Crest forms two paths around endorheic cirques between the west and east Sierra slopes. Theodore Solomons made the first attempt to map a crest route along the Sierras, he was instrumental in envisioning and establishing the route of what became the John Muir Trail from Yosemite Valley along the crest of the Sierra Nevada to Mount Whitney