Lower Austria is the northeasternmost of the nine states of Austria. Since 1986, the capital of Lower Austria has been St. Polten, the most designated capital in Austria. Lower Austria's capital was Vienna though Vienna has not been part of Lower Austria since 1921. With a land area of 19,186 km2 and a population of 1.612 million people, Lower Austria is the country's largest state. Other main cities are Krems an der Donau and Wiener Neustadt. Situated east of Upper Austria, Lower Austria derives its name from its downriver location on the Enns River, which flows from west to east. Lower Austria has an international border, 414 km long, with Slovakia; the state has the second longest external border of all Austrian states. It borders the other Austrian states of Upper Austria and Burgenland as well as surrounding Vienna. Lower Austria is divided into four regions, known as Viertel: Weinviertel or Tertiary Lowland Waldviertel or Bohemian Plateau Mostviertel Industrieviertel; these regions have different geographical structures.
Whilst the Mostviertel is dominated by the foothills of the Limestone Alps with mountains up to 2,000 m high, most of the Waldviertel is a granite plateau. The hilly Weinviertel lies to the northeast, descends to the plains of Marchfeld in the east of the state, is separated by the Danube from the Vienna Basin to the south, which in turn is separated from the Vienna Woods by a line of thermal springs running north to south. Schneeberg Rax Ötscher Dürrenstein Schneealpe Hochkar Gamsstein Stumpfmauer Göller Hochwechsel Gippel Großer Sonnleitstein Großer Zellerhut Gemeindealpe Scheiblingstein Drahtekogel Sonnwendstein Obersberg Königsberg Großer Sulzberg Reisalpe Gahns Tirolerkogel Türnitzer Höger Unterberg Traisenberg Dürre Wand Hohenstein Eisenstein Hohe Wand Großer Peilstein Weinsberg Hocheck Nebelstein Eibl Hohe Mandling Jauerling Anninger Buschberg Other mountains in Lower Austria may be found at Category:Mountains of Lower Austria. Semmering Wechsel The state border with Styria runs over both passes.
All of Lower Austria is drained by the Danube. The only river that flows into the North Sea is the Lainsitz in northern Waldviertel; the most important rivers north of the Danube are the Ysper, Krems, Lainsitz and Thaya. South of the Danube are the Enns, Erlauf, Pielach, Schwechat, Schwarza, Triesting and the Leitha. Ottenstein Reservoir Lunzer See Erlaufsee Erlauf Reservoir Wienerwaldsee Lower Austria is rich in natural caves. Most of the caves are therefore called karst caves. Cavities form in the marble of the Central Alps and the Bohemian Massif. Among the largest caves in Lower Austria are: Ötscherhöhlensystem: 27,003 m long; the history of Lower Austria is similar to the history of Austria. Many castles are located in Lower Austria. Klosterneuburg Abbey, located here, is one of the oldest abbeys in Austria. Before World War II, Lower Austria had the largest number of Jews in Austria. Lower Austria is divided into four regions: Waldviertel, Mostviertel and Weinviertel; the Wachau valley, situated between Melk and Krems in the Mostviertel region, is famous for its landscape and wine.
Administratively, the state is divided into 20 districts, four independent towns. In total, there are 573 municipalities within Lower Austria. Krems an der Donau Sankt Pölten Waidhofen an der Ybbs Wiener Neustadt Amstetten Baden Bruck an der Leitha Gänserndorf Gmünd Hollabrunn Horn Korneuburg Krems-Land Lilienfeld Melk Mistelbach Mödling Neunkirchen Sankt Pölten-Land Scheibbs Tulln an der Donau Waidhofen an der Thaya Wiener Neustadt-Land Zwettl Media related to Lower Austria at Wikimedia Commons Land Niederösterreich Useful information of Lower Austria Lower Austrian Genealogy PhotoGlobe - georeferenced photos of Lower Austria
History of Vienna
The history of Vienna has been long and varied, beginning when the Roman Empire created a military camp in the area covered by Vienna's city centre. From that humble beginning, Vienna grew from the Roman settlement known as Vindobona to be an important trading site in the 11th century, it became the capital of the Babenberg dynasty and subsequently of the Austrian Habsburgs, under whom it became one of Europe's cultural hubs. During the 19th century as the capital of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, it temporarily became one of Europe's biggest cities. Since the end of World War I, Vienna has been the capital of the Republic of Austria; the name Vindobona derives from a Celtic language, suggesting that the region must have been inhabited before Roman times. The Romans created a military camp during the 1st century on the site of the city centre of present-day Vienna; the settlement was raised to the status of a municipium in 212. Today, the streets of the First District show where the encampment placed its walls and moats.
The Romans stayed until the 5th century. Roman Vindobona was located in the outskirts of the empire and thus fell prey to the chaos of the Migration Period. There are some indications that a catastrophic fire occurred around the beginning of the 5th century. However, the remains of the encampment were not deserted, a small settlement remained; the streets and houses of early medieval Vienna followed the former Roman walls, which gives rise to the conclusion that parts of the fortification were still in place and used by the settlers. Byzantine copper coins from the 6th century have been found several times in the area of today's city centre, indicating considerable trade activity. Graves from the 6th century were found during excavations next to the Berghof, in an area around Salvatorgasse. At that time, the Lombards controlled the area, with Avars following later. Early Vienna was centred on the Berghof; the first documented mention of the city during the Middle Ages is within the Salzburg Annals, dating to 881, when a battle apud Weniam was fought against the Magyars.
However, it is unclear whether this refers to the River Wien. Emperor Otto I defeated the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of Lechfeld; this allowed early Vienna to start to develop towards the Middle Ages. In 976, the Margraviate of Ostarrîchi was given to the Babenberg family. Vienna lay at its border to Hungary. Vienna was an important site of trade as early as the 11th century. In the Exchange of Mautern between the Bishop of Passau and Margrave Leopold IV, Vienna is mentioned as a Civitas for the first time, which indicates the existence of a well-ordered settlement. In 1155, Duke Henry II of Austria made Vienna his capital. In 1156, Austria was raised to a duchy in the Privilegium Minus, with Vienna becoming the seat of the duke. During that time, the Schottenstift was founded; the events surrounding the Third Crusade, during which King Richard the Lionheart was discovered and captured by Duke Leopold V the Virtuous two days before Christmas of 1192 in Erdberg near Vienna, brought an enormous ransom of 50,000 Silver Marks.
This allowed the creation of a mint and the construction of city walls around the year 1200. At the U-Bahn station Stubentor, some remains of the city walls can still be seen today; because he had abused a protected crusader, Leopold V was excommunicated by Pope Celestine III, died after falling from a horse in a tournament. In 1221, Vienna received the rights of as a staple port; this meant. This allowed the Viennese to act as middlemen in trade, so that Vienna soon created a network of far-reaching trade relations along the Danube basin and to Venice, to become one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. However, it was considered embarrassing, it is known that Duke Frederick II negotiated about the creation of a bishopric in Vienna, the same is suspected of Ottokar Přemysl. In 1278, Rudolf I took control over the Austrian lands after his victory over Ottokar II of Bohemia and began to establish Habsburg rule. In Vienna, it took a long time for the Habsburgs to establish their control, because partisans of Ottokar remained strong for a long time.
There were several uprisings against Albert I. The family of the Paltrams vom Stephansfreithof was foremost among the insurgents. In 1280, Jans der Enikel wrote a first history of the city. With the Luxembourg emperors, Prague became Vienna stood in its shadow; the early Habsburgs attempted to extend it. Duke Albert II, for example, had the gothic choir of the Stephansdom built. In 1327, Frederick the Handsome published his edict allowing the city to maintain an Eisenbuch listing its privileges; the combination of the heraldic eagle with the city coat of arms showing a white cross in a red field is found on a seal dated 1327. This heraldic emblem was in use throughout the 14th century in different variants. Rudolf IV of Austria deserves credit for his prudent economic policy, which raised the level of prosperity, his epithet the Founder is due to two things: first, he founded the University of Vienna in 1365, second, he began the construction of the gothic nave in the Stephansdom. The latter is connected to the creation of a metropolitan chapter, as a symbolic substitute for a bishop.
There was a period of inheritance disputes among the Habsburgs resulting not only in confusion, but in an economic decline and social unre
Republic of German-Austria
The Republic of German-Austria was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire. German-Austria demanded an area of 118,311 km², with 10.4 million inhabitants in the area of the present-day Republic of Austria and other areas where most ethnic Germans lived. In Habsburg Austria-Hungary, "German-Austria" was an unofficial term for the areas of the empire inhabited by Austrian Germans. On 12 October 1918, Emperor Charles I met with the leaders of the largest German parties. German Nationalists wanted a constitutional monarchy of free nations. On October 16 1918, Emperor Charles I published a manifesto which offered to change Austria-Hungary into a federation of nationalities; this came too late as Czechs and Southern Slavs were well on their way to creating independent states. However, this gave an impulse to the Reichsrat of German inhabited areas to meet. With the impending collapse of the empire the 208 ethnic German deputies to the Cisleithanian Austrian parliament elected in 1911 met on 21 October 1918 and proclaimed itself to be a "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria" representing the ethnic Germans in all Cisleithanian lands.
It elected Franz Dinghofer of the German National Movement, Jodok Fink of the Christian Social Party, Karl Seitz of the Social Democratic Workers' Party as assembly presidents. The assembly included representatives from Bohemia and Austrian Silesia who refused to submit to the new state of Czechoslovakia, declared on 28 October 1918, it proclaimed that "the German people in Austria are resolved to determine their own future political organization to form an independent German-Austrian state, to regulate their relations with other nations through free agreements with them". On October 25 Provisional Assembly called on all German inhabited Lands to form their own provisional assemblies. During its second meeting on October 30 the Provisional National Assembly created the basic institutions of the new state; the legislative power was assumed by the Provisional National Assembly while the executive power was entrusted to the newly created German-Austrian State Council. On 11 November 1918, Emperor Charles I in all but name abdicated, by relinquishing his right to take part in Austrian affairs of state.
The next day, 12 November, the National Assembly declared German-Austria a republic, named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German republic"; the latter provision reflected the deputies' view that felt that Austria would lose so much territory in any peace settlement that it would no longer be economically and politically viable as a separate state, the only course was union with Germany. This was enforced by the refusal of Hungary to sell grain and of Czechoslovakia to sell coal to Austria-Germany; as the Empire collapsed and a ceasefire was announced, the Provisional Assembly sought to forestall socialist revolution by organizing a coalition government led by the minority Social Democrats. Karl Renner became Victor Adler became Foreign Minister; the Social Democrats co-opted newly created soldier and worker councils and used their control over labour unions to implement social policies that blunted the socialist appeal.
Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held on February 16, 1919 and for the first time women were allowed to vote. Out of the 38 German inhabited constituencies only 25 participated and 159 deputies were elected to the 170 seats with Social Democrats as the largest party. Social Democrats won 72 seats, Christians Socials 69 and German Nationalists 26; the Constituent National Assembly first met on 4 March 1919 and on 15 March a new government was formed, once again led by Karl Renner. Austrian Social Democrats, despite being one of the leading Marxist parties with its Austromarxism current, did not attempt to seize power or to institute socialism. However, the majority of conservative, Catholic politicians still distrusted them and this led to the fatal left-right split that plagued the First Republic and led to its downfall by 1934. Social Democrat leader Otto Bauer wrote: "German-Austria is not an organism which has followed the laws of historical growth, it is nothing but the remnant of what remained of the old Empire after other nations had broken away from it.
It remained as a loose bundle of divergent Lands." On 13 November 1918, German-Austria asked Germany to start negotiations of union and on 15 November sent a telegram to President Wilson to support union of Germany and Austria. This was grounded in the view. While the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for over 700 years, its only unifying force had been the Habsburgs. Apart from being German-inhabited, these Lands had no common "Austrian" identity, they were Habsburg-ruled lands that had not joined the Prussian-dominated German Empire after the Austrian Empire lost the Austro-Prussian War. On 12 March 1919, the Constituent Assembly re-confirmed an earlier declaration that German-Austria was a constituent part of the German republic. Pan-Germans and Social Democrats supported the union with Germany, while Christian Socialists were less supportive. During spring and summer of 1919, unity talk meetings between Germa
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Unemployment benefits are payments made by back authorized bodies to unemployed people. In the United States, benefits are funded by a compulsory governmental insurance system, not taxes on individual citizens. Depending on the jurisdiction and the status of the person, those sums may be small, covering only basic needs, or may compensate the lost time proportionally to the previous earned salary. Unemployment benefits are given only to those registering as unemployed, on conditions ensuring that they seek work and do not have a job, are validated as being laid off and not fired for cause in most states; the first modern unemployment benefit scheme was introduced in the United Kingdom with the National Insurance Act 1911 under the Liberal Party government of H. H. Asquith; the popular measures were to combat the increasing influence of the Labour Party among the country's working-class population. The Act gave the British working classes a contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment.
It only applied to wage earners and their families and the unwaged had to rely on other sources of support, if any. Key figures in the implementation of the Act included Robert Laurie Morant, William Braithwaite. By the time of its implementation, the benefit was criticized by communists, who thought such insurance would prevent workers from starting a revolution, while employers and tories saw it as a "necessary evil"; the scheme was based on actuarial principles and it was funded by a fixed amount each from workers and taxpayers. It was restricted to particular industries more volatile ones like shipbuilding, did not make provision for any dependants. After one week of unemployment, the worker was eligible for receiving 7 shillings/week for up to 15 weeks in a year. By 1913, 2.3 million were insured under the scheme for unemployment benefit. The Unemployment Insurance Act 1920 created the dole system of payments for unemployed workers; the dole system provided 39 weeks of unemployment benefits to over 11 million workers—practically the entire civilian working population except domestic service, farm workers, railroad men, civil servants.
Unemployment benefits were introduced in Germany in 1927, in most European countries in the period after the Second World War with the expansion of the welfare state. Unemployment insurance in the United States originated in Wisconsin in 1932. Through the Social Security Act of 1935, the federal government of the United States encouraged the individual states to adopt unemployment insurance plans. In Argentina, successive administrations have used a variety of passive and active labour market interventions to protect workers against the consequences of economic shocks; the government's key institutional response to combat the increase in poverty and unemployment created by the crisis was the launch of an active unemployment assistance programme called Plan Jefas y Jefes de Hogar Desocupados. In Australia, social security benefits, including unemployment benefits, are funded through the taxation system. There is no compulsory national unemployment insurance fund. Rather, benefits are funded in the annual Federal Budget by the National Treasury and are administrated and distributed throughout the nation by the government agency, Centrelink.
Benefit rates are indexed to the Consumer Price Index and are adjusted twice a year according to inflation or deflation. There are two types of payment available to those experiencing unemployment; the first, called Youth Allowance, is paid to young people aged 16–20. Youth Allowance is paid to full-time students aged 16–24, to full-time Australian Apprenticeship workers aged 16–24. People aged below 18 who have not completed their High School education, are required to be in full-time education, undertaking an apprenticeship or doing training to be eligible for Youth Allowance. For single people under 18 years of age living with a parent or parents the basic rate is A$91.60 per week. For over-18- to 20-year-olds living at home this increases to A$110.15 per week. For those aged 18–20 not living at home the rate is A$167.35 per week. There are special rates for those with partners and/or children; the second kind of payment is called Newstart Allowance and is paid to unemployed people over the age of 21 and under the pension eligibility age.
To receive a Newstart payment, recipients must be unemployed, be prepared to enter into an Employment Pathway Plan by which they agree to undertake certain activities to increase their opportunities for employment, be Australian Residents and satisfy the income test and the assets test. The rate of Newstart allowance as at 12 January 2010 for single people without children is A$228 per week, paid fortnightly. Different rates apply to people with partners and/or children. People have had to survive on $39 a day from Newstart since 1994, there have been calls to raise this by politicians and NGO groups; the system in Australia is designed to support recipients no matter how long they have been unemployed. In recent years the former Coalition government under John Howard has increa
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay