A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting
Carpets of Middle-Eastern origin, either from Anatolia, Armenia, the Levant, the Mamluk state of Egypt or Northern Africa, were used as decorative features in Western European paintings from the 14th century onwards. More depictions of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting survive than actual carpets produced before the 17th century, though the number of these known has increased in recent decades. Therefore, comparative art-historical research has from its onset in the late 19th century relied on carpets represented in datable European paintings. Activities of scientists and collectors beginning in the late 19th century have increased the corpus of surviving Oriental carpets, allowing for more detailed comparison of existing carpets with their painted counterparts. Western comparative research resulted in an more detailed cultural history of the Oriental art of carpet weaving; this has in turn inspired the scientific interest in their countries of origin. Comparative research based on Renaissance paintings and carpets preserved in museums and collections continues to contribute to the expanding body of art historical and cultural knowledge.
The tradition of precise realism among Western painters of the late 15th and 16th century provides pictorial material, detailed enough to justify conclusions about minute details of the painted carpet. The carpets are treated with exceptional care in the rendering of colors and details of form and design: The painted texture of a carpet depicted in Petrus Christus's "Virgin and Child", the drawing of the individual patterns and motifs, the way the pile opens where the carpet is folded over the steps, all suggest that the depicted textile is a pile-woven carpet. Visually, the carpets serve to draw attention either to an important person, or to highlight a location where significant action is going on. In parallel with the development of Renaissance painting mainly Christian saints and religious scenes are set out on the carpets. On, the carpets were integrated into secular contexts, but always served to represent the idea of opulence, luxury, wealth, or status. First, their use was reserved for the most wealthy, for royalty and nobility.
On, as more people gained sufficient wealth to afford goods of luxury, Oriental carpets appeared on the portraits of merchants and wealthy burghers. During the late 17th and 18th century, the interest in depicting carpets declined. In parallel, the paintings pay less attention to detail; the richly designed Oriental carpets appealed to Western painters. The rich and various colours may have influenced the great Venetian painters of the Quattrocento, it has been suggested that the pictorial representation of carpets is linked to the development of the linear perspective, first described by Leon Battista Alberti in 1435. The depiction of oriental carpets in Renaissance paintings is regarded as an important contribution to a "world history of art", based upon interactions of different cultural traditions. Rugs from the Islamic world arrived in large numbers in Western Europe by the 15th century, recognized as a pivotal temporal nexus in the cultural encounters that contributed to the development of Renaissance ideas and sciences.
Intensified contacts the increasing trade between the Islamic world and Western Europe, have provided material sources and cultural influences to Western artists during the next centuries to come. In turn, European market demands affected the carpet production in their countries of origin. In 1871, Julius Lessing published his book on oriental carpet design, he was relying more on European paintings than on the examination of actual carpets for lack of material, because ancient oriental carpets were not yet collected at the time when he worked on his book. Lessing's approach has proven useful to establish a scientific chronology of Oriental carpet weaving, was further elaborated and expanded by scholars of the "Berlin school" of History of Islamic art: Wilhelm von Bode, his successors Friedrich Sarre, Ernst Kühnel, Kurt Erdmann developed the "ante quem" method for the dating of oriental carpets based on Renaissance paintings; these art historians were aware of the fact that their scientific approach was biased: Only carpets produced by manufactories were exported to Western Europe, were available to the Renaissance artists.
Village or nomadic rugs did not reach Europe during the Renaissance, were not depicted in paintings. Not until the mid twentieth century, when collectors like Joseph V. McMullan or James F. Ballard recognized the artistic and art historic value of village or nomadic carpets, were they appreciated in the Western World. Pile carpets with geometric design are known to have been produced from the 13th century among the Seljuks of Rum in eastern Anatolia, whom Venice had had commercial relations since 1220; the Medieval trader and traveler Marco Polo himself mentioned that the carpets produced at Konya were the best in the world:...et ibi fiunt soriani et tapeti pulchriores de mundo et pulchrioris coloris. "...and here they make the most beautiful silks and carpets in the world, with the most beautiful colours." Carpets were produced in Islamic Spain, one is shown in a fresco of the 1340s in the Palais des Papes, Avignon. The vast majority of carpets in 15th- and 16th-century paintings are either from the Ottoman Empire, or European copies of these types from the Balkans, Spain, or elsewhere.
In fact these were not the finest Islamic carpets of the period, few of the top-quality Turkish "court" carpets are seen. Finer than these, Persian carpets do not appear until the end of the 16th century, but
Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity. Hospitality ethics is a discipline. Derives from the Latin hospes, meaning "host", "guest", or "stranger". Hospes is formed from hostis, which means "stranger" or "enemy". By metonymy the Latin word ` Hospital' means guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes/hostis is thus the root for the English words host, hospice and hotel. In ancient cultures hospitality involved welcoming the stranger and offering him food and safety. In Ancient Greece, hospitality was a right, with the host being expected to make sure the needs of his guests were met; the ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation.
In Greek society a person's ability to abide by the laws of hospitality determined nobility and social standing. The Stoics regarded hospitality as a duty inspired by Zeus himself. In India and Nepal hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava, meaning "the guest is God"; this principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is revealed to be a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian or Nepal practice of graciousness towards guests at home and in all social situations; the Tirukkuṛaḷ, an ancient Indian work on ethics and morality, explains the ethics of hospitality through its verses 81 through 90, dedicating a separate chapter on it. Judaism praises hospitality to strangers and guests based on the examples of Abraham and Lot in the Book of Genesis. In Hebrew, the practice is called hachnasat orchim, or "welcoming guests". Besides other expectations, hosts are expected to provide nourishment and entertainment for their guests, at the end of the visit, hosts customarily escort their guests out of their home, wishing them a safe journey.
Abraham set the pace as providing 3 things: Achila Shtiya Linah The initial letters of these Hebrew words spell Aishel.. In Christianity, hospitality is a virtue, a reminder of sympathy for strangers and a rule to welcome visitors; this is a virtue found in the Old Testament, for example, the custom of the foot washing of visitors or the kiss of peace. It was taught by Jesus in the New Testament. Indeed, Jesus said; some Western countries have developed a host culture based on the bible. John Paul II writes, "Welcoming our brothers and sisters with care and willingness must not be limited to extraordinary occasions but must become for all believers a habit of service in their daily lives". Individuals are treated as favored guests in the liberal Catholic tradition. Honored guests receive first parlance, religious clergy second parlance, important persons third parlance. Clergy and followers of Christ received parlance and some may have turned away from hospitality and serving, since active service requires detachment from material goods, family connections, physical comforts.
Hospitality is a meeting of minds, it is an openness to the familiar and meet to discuss and question the mystery of self, social events, nature and to God. Any guest should never made to feel or see that they are causing undue extra labor by their intrusion or presence, it is always polite to ask about religious convictions. John Paul II said: "Only those who have opened their hearts to Christ can offer a hospitality, never formal or superficial but identified by "gentleness" and "reverence"." In reference to Biblical scripture as a sign of politeness to always come to the defense and aid to those who give a account of hope and those interested. Christ expanded the meaning of brother and neighbor to include the stranger, that he or she be treated like a follower with and for hospitality and mutual help, if the believer in Christ or whom may be a messenger of god either needed help, circumstances made it difficult to interpret and being uncertain of whether a individual is a believer in Christ and god.
One of the main principles of Pashtunwali is Melmastia. This is the display of hospitality and profound respect to all visitors without any hope of remuneration or favour. Pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality. Islam recommends one another to say peace be upon you Assalamu Alaikum to one another as Muhammad had said, Muslims are obliged to treat their guest with kindness and peace prisoners, As Muhammad had said in authentic sources and verses from the Quran Abu Aziz ibn Umair reported: I was among the prisoners of war on the day of the battle of Badr. Muhammad had said, "I enjoin you to treat the captives well." After I accepted Islam, I was among the Ansar and when the time of lunch or dinner arrived, I would feed dates to the prisoners for I had been fed bread due to the command of Muhammad. Invite to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching, he felt dampness, although the surface was dry. He said: "O owner of the food
Red carpet fashion in 2008
Red carpet fashion in 2008 was affected by the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike, which led to the cancellation of the Golden Globes that year. The Oscars were dominated by uncontroversial designs in solid colours which led to criticism of "safe" choices, drew attention to those who dressed more individually, such as Tilda Swinton and Marion Cotillard. Due to the writer's strike the 65th Golden Globe Awards ceremony was not held, with a press conference instead announcing that year's winners. All the celebrities who intended to attend promised to boycott the awards rather than cross threatened picket lines; the cancellation of the Golden Globes was seen as disastrous for the fashion industry, as not only were established designers affected, but the opportunity for up-and-coming designers to achieve widespread recognition through red-carpet exposure of their designs had been limited with the Oscars under threat. The writer's strike, which threatened the 80th Oscars ceremony, was lifted on February 12, enabling the event to go ahead.
One-shouldered or strapless gowns and solid-coloured, predominantly red dresses were worn for the event, going against the trend for vibrant prints. Although the "uniform timelessness" of the 2008 Oscar gowns was noted and appreciated, they were criticised for being "safe" choices. Hilary Alexander of The Daily Telegraph reported losing count of all the "fitted, fishtail hem gowns", Hal Rubenstein, fashion director at InStyle noticed a prevalence of timelessly classic solid-coloured strapless dresses. Simon Doonan described the guests as looking like a "bunch of Republican drears on their way to a constipated night out at the local country club" in their "fussy bustier gowns", applauding Tilda Swinton's individualism in her unusual one-sleeved black toga gown by Alber Elbaz for Lanvin, he said that the "lowbrow media", by criticising anything quirky or unusual dress-wise, had led to many celebrities dressing much more cautiously in order not to attract the "fashion fascism" of negative publicity.
Rubenstein shared Doonan's admiration for Swinton's dress, saying "This unique dress may have received criticism, but taking a risk at the Oscars is a winning move that we applaud," and included it in 90th place in InStyle's list of the 100 Best Dresses of the Decade. Hilary Alexander was less convinced, calling Swinton's gown a "shroud", while others compared it to "trash bags". Swinton said that she asked for a comfortable dress that would attract minimal attention, commented “Little did I know that the simple, chic dress one might have worn in Paris or Berlin would stick out like a sore thumb in Los Angeles.” Standing out from the norm, but more universally approved, was Marion Cotillard's white and silver Jean Paul Gaultier mermaid gown with a fishscale pattern which both Alexander and Rubenstein admired. Cotillard was praised by The Times-Picayune for bucking the trend for red and wearing the "most inventive look of the evening", whilst Pieta Woolley at The Georgia Straight said "the only Hollywood-worthy gown of the evening".
Rubenstein, listing Cotillard's dress as one of the decade's 100 best, declared it "a great introduction for Cotillard. No one is going to repeat this dress."Cosmopolitan magazine, listing the best dresses worn on the red carpet, singled out Katherine Heigl's relaxed, "sex bomb" appearance in her vermilion one-shouldered gown by Escada. The dress was described as transforming Heigl from "daffy" into a "cinema diva" and was remembered by Heigl's stylist Nicole Chavez as a "game-changer"; the Rocky Mountain News said of Heigl, "Now, this is what a movie star should look like," and the reviewers at The Register-Mail all agreed that Heigl looked outstanding. In shades of red were Anne Hathaway, Miley Cyrus, Helen Mirren, Ruby Dee, Heidi Klum, whose extravagant Galliano gown was auctioned off for the charity The Heart Truth. Alongside Heigl and Hathaway, one-shouldered designs were worn by Olivia Thirlby. Fashions on the 60th Primetime Emmy Awards continued the trend for bold colours and one-shoulder designs seen at the Oscars, with trends for metallic and feature necklines observed by InStyle.
Whilst reported on at the time, few of the looks received in-depth coverage, InStyle did not choose any dresses from the event for their Top 100 dresses of the decade. In Paris, in November 2008, Gwyneth Paltrow attended the film première of Two Lovers in a short, black-and-white trompe-l'œil corset dress by Antonio Berardi. Paltrow's choice, which revealed her underwear through sheer black lace panels, led to her being named 4th worst-dressed celebrity of the year by Time. However, it received international attention with one French publication praising its combination of modernity and minimalism. Spanish language publications commented on how Paltrow combined her "Laura Ingalls" sweetness with elements of "punk" edginess, in her on-trend corset-and-lingerie-inspired dress, with ¡Hola! using it as an illustration of the new fashion. The dress, which Paltrow described as "one of the absolute favourite dresses I have worn," was subsequently selected by Lucy Yeomans of Harper's Bazaar UK to be the 2009 Dress of the Year in the permanent collection of the Fashion Museum, Bath
The Oresteia is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytemnestra, the murder of Clytemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes. The trilogy—consisting of Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, The Eumenides —also shows how the Greek gods interacted with the characters and influenced their decisions pertaining to events and disputes; the only extant example of an ancient Greek theatre trilogy, the Oresteia won first prize at the Dionysia festival in 458 BC. The principal themes of the trilogy include the contrast between revenge and justice, as well as the transition from personal vendetta to organized litigation. Oresteia included a satyr play, following the tragic trilogy, but all except a single line of Proteus has been lost. Agamemnon is the first of the three plays within the Oresteia trilogy, it details the homecoming of King of Mycenae, from the Trojan War.
After ten years of warfare, Troy had fallen and all of Greece could lay claim to victory. Waiting at home for Agamemnon is his wife, Queen Clytemnestra, planning his murder, she desires his death to avenge the sacrifice of her daughter Iphigenia, to exterminate the only thing hindering her from commandeering the crown, be able to publicly embrace her long-time-lover Aegisthus. The play opens to a watchman looking down and over the sea, reporting that he has been lying restless "like a dog" for a year, waiting to see some sort of signal confirming a Greek victory in Troy, he laments the fortunes of the house, but promises to keep silent: "A huge ox has stepped onto my tongue." The watchman sees a light far off in the distance—a bonfire signaling Troy's fall—and is overjoyed at the victory and hopes for the hasty return of his King, as the house has "wallowed" in his absence. Clytemnestra is introduced to the audience and she declares that there will be celebrations and sacrifices throughout the city as Agamemnon and his army return.
Upon the return of Agamemnon, his wife laments in full view of Argos how horrible the wait for her husband, King, has been. After her soliloquy, Clytemnestra pleads with and convinces Agamemnon to walk on the robes laid out for him; this is a ominous moment in the play as loyalties and motives are questioned. The King's new concubine, Cassandra, is now introduced and this spawns hatred from the queen, Clytemnestra. Cassandra is ordered out of her chariot and to the altar where, once she is alone, is heard crying out insane prophecies to Apollo about the death of Agamemnon and her own shared fate. Inside the house a cry is heard; the chorus separate from one another and ramble to themselves, proving their cowardice, when another final cry is heard. When the doors are opened, Clytemnestra is seen standing over the dead bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra. Clytemnestra describes the murder in detail to the chorus, showing no sign of regret; the exiled lover of Clytemnestra, bursts into the palace to take his place next to her.
Aegisthus proudly states that he devised the plan to murder Agamemnon and claim revenge for his father. Clytemnestra claims that she and Aegisthus now have all the power and they re-enter the palace with the doors closing behind them. In The Libation Bearers —the second play of Aeschylus' Oresteia trilogy—many years after the murder of Agamemnon, his son Orestes returns to Argos with his cousin Pylades to exact vengeance on Clytaemnestra, as an order from Apollo, for killing Agamemnon. Upon arriving, Orestes reunites with his sister Electra at Agamemnon's grave, while she was there bringing libations to Agamemnon in an attempt to stop Clytemnestra's bad dreams. Shortly after the reunion, both Orestes and Electra, influenced by the Chorus, come up with a plan to kill both Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. Orestes heads to the palace door where he is unexpectedly greeted by Clytemnestra. In his response to her he pretends he is a stranger and tells Clytemnestra that he is dead, causing her to send for Aegisthus.
Unrecognized, Orestes is able to enter the palace where he kills Aegisthus, without a guard due to the intervention of the Chorus in relaying Clytemnestra's message. Clytemnestra enters the room. Orestes hesitates to kill her, but Pylades reminds him of Apollo's orders, he follows through. After committing the matricide, Orestes is now the target of the Furies' merciless wrath and has no choice but to flee from the palace; the final play of the Oresteia, called The Eumenides, illustrates how the sequence of events in the trilogy end up in the development of social order or a proper judicial system in Athenian society. In this play, Orestes is hunted down and tormented by the Furies, a trio of goddesses known to be the instruments of justice, who are euphemistically referred to as the "Gracious Ones", they relentlessly pursue Orestes for the killing of his mother. However, through the intervention of Apollo, Orestes is able to escape them for a brief moment while they are asleep and head to Athens under the protection of Hermes.
Seeing the Furies asleep, Clytemnestra's ghost comes to wake them up to obtain justice on her son Orestes for killing her. After waking up, the Furies hunt down Orestes again and when they find him, Orestes pleads to the goddess Athena for help and she responds by setting up a trial for him in Athens on the Areopagus. Th
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i