Ferndale is a city in Humboldt County, United States. Its population was 1,371 at the 2010 census, down from 1,382 at the 2000 census; the city contains dozens of homes. Ferndale is the northern gateway to California's Lost Coast and the city, sited on the edge of a wide plain near the mouth of the Eel River, is located near the extensive preserves of Coast Redwood forests. Before American settlement, Ferndale was a glade of giant ferns reaching more than six feet, surrounded by alder, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, coast redwood, swampy land and windswept prairies; the area was populated by the southern Wiyot people, centered along the Eel River where they caught lamprey eels and sturgeon in iris leaf fish nets, collected shellfish along the river and at its mouth, while cultivating only a California species of tobacco. The town was established in 1852 from settlement by Willard Allard, Seth Louis Shaw and his brother Stephen W. Shaw. In August 1852, Allard and the Shaw brothers borrowed a canoe from the Wiyots in the Table Bluff area and rowed it across the Eel and up Francis Creek to arrive with their supplies to the approximate vicinity of Main and Shaw streets.
In September 1852 they cleared a five-acre area of ferns and began building a cabin near the base of the Wildcat Road though Allard was sick with the ague. By January 1853, twelve men were living in the Shaws' cabin including Seth Kinman, who provided the group with meat, Joe Russ, whose holdings included the Fern Cottage Historic District. About this time, Stephen Shaw painted the portrait of Wiyot elder Kiwelattah and kept a detailed journal of two years of trying to grow plants in cold coastal fog. Seth Shaw settled in the area now marked by Main and Lewis streets where he began construction of the now-historic Shaw House on his property in 1854; the Shaw House served as the area's first polling place in 1854, post office in 1860 and courthouse in 1863. Seth Shaw was justice of the peace and postmaster, his home served for many gatherings although it was not finished until 1866. After having been away from the area for two years, Stephen Shaw sold his holdings in 1856 to Welsh-born Francis Francis who established the city's water system through pipes laid in 1875.
Other small towns were established around Ferndale, including Centerville, Port Kenyon, Grizzly Bluff and Arlynda Corners. Produce from Ferndale was shipped out via Centerville and transferred to ships at anchor offshore prior to the opening of docks at Port Kenyon in 1876. In 1865 the first shipment of coal oil from the Union Mattole Oil Company was shipped through Ferndale to San Francisco. While the earliest settlers were English speaking from England, New England, Canada or Ireland, waves of immigrants arrived in Ferndale from Denmark, Germany, Italy and China. Danish settlers founded and built Our Savior's Lutheran Church in 1899 and dedicated Danish Hall, built as a warehouse by Arnold Berding in the late 1880s, on October 10, 1929; the Swiss who settled in Ferndale from Italian- and German-speaking families included the Oeschgers who moved to Ferndale in time for Joe Oeschger to play baseball at Ferndale High School before going to a career in Major League Baseball. A influx of Romansh Swiss included the ancestors of College Football Hall of Fame coach Len Casanova.
Sausage, salami-making and wine-making can be traced to Italians who arrived than the Danish and Swiss, beginning around 1897. The Germans arrived early, the first was businessman Arnold Berding in 1857. Most Germans worked on ranches or were dairymen, but at least one owned the Milwaukee Brewery Depot Saloon. Congressman Don Clausen is descended from German settlers of Ferndale. German settlers organized St. Mark's Lutheran Church in 1906. Except for three Portuguese brothers who arrived in the 1870s and a few from mainland Portugal, most came from the Azores islands between 1900 and 1915. Ferndale Portuguese have celebrated their traditional Festival of the Holy Ghost since 1924. Chinese arrived in California in the earliest gold-rush days, were settled in all parts of Humboldt County as soon as English-speaking whites, they worked in gold mining on the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, before settling in Eureka, with a few in outlying towns like Ferndale where two Chinese owned clothes washing businesses.
Chinese laborers built parts of the Wildcat Road between Ferndale and Petrolia, dug out the water reservoirs for the Francis Water Company and worked at two fish canneries on the Eel River, although - as in the rest of California - they were not welcome. In 1885, after a city councilman of Eureka was shot dead in the crossfire from two warring Chinese tong gangs, 480 Chinese residents were rounded up in two days and forced to relocate to San Francisco. A year the Cutting Packing Company brought in a crew of Chinese for the season. Following a heated meeting at Roberts Hall in Ferndale between local residents and an upset delegation from Eureka, the company guaranteed the workers would come nowhere near town and they were allowed to stay until the fishing season was over in December. Chinese crews were used again at the same cannery in 1887 and 1889. In 1906 Eureka and Fortuna citizens were again up in arms at Ferndale's violation of the unwritten law of the county when the Starbuck-Talent Canning Company of Port Kenyon brought in 23 Chinese and four Japanese to work at the cannery.
After threats of mass action, the Chinese were taken to an old cookhouse on Indian Island from which all whites were barred and where they were held until they left by sea. The Japanese were permitted to keep working for Starbuck-Talent. Ferndale was incorporate
Trinidad Yurok: Chuerey is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is one of California's smallest incorporated cities by population. Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to both local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay; the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy, their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9, 1775.
On 11 June, Trinity Sunday, a formal act of possession was conducted. At the place where a wooden cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain. The area was named "la Santisima Trinidad". Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, renamed Warnersville in honor of R. V. Warner, one of the settlers; the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the original county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851, of Klamath County, one of California's original counties, from 1851 to 1854. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, with its county seat in Eureka. Klamath County was dissolved in 1874. During the American Civil War, from July to October 1863, California volunteers fighting the local Indians in the Bald Hills War were stationed in the town, in Trinidad Camp, to protect it and the coast road from Indian raids, until they were moved four miles north to Camp Gilmore.
Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a first sergeant with the 5th Marines in World War II. Part of the auto wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has an oceanic climate and is temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from 40 °F to 60 °F. Winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime. Spring and fall cold fronts form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast. In summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood. Protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinidad had a population of 367. The population density was 547.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Trinidad was 331 White, 2 African American, 15 Native American, 2 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 15 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11 persons; the Census reported that 366 people lived in households, 1 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 187 households, out of which 35 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 64 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 21 had a female householder with no husband present, 3 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 20 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 73 households were made up of individuals and 28 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96. There were 88 families; the population dispersal was 60 people under the age of 18, 25 people aged 18 to 24, 91 people aged 25 to 44, 120 people aged 45 to 64, 71 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. There were 252 housing units at an average density of 375.7 per square mile, of which 187 were occupied, of which 113 were owner-occupied, 74 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 212 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 154 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 311 people, 168 households, 73 families residing in the city; the population density was 643.0 people per square mile. There were 228 housing units at an average density of 471.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.86% White, 1.61% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There wer
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Avenue of the Giants
The Avenue of the Giants is a scenic highway in Northern California, United States, running through Humboldt Redwoods State Park. It is an former alignment of U. S. Route 101, continues to be maintained by the state as State Route 254; the southern entrance to the Avenue is just north of Garberville, the northern entrance is 15 miles south of Fortuna. The highway is notable for the Coast Redwoods that surround the area, it is from these towering trees. The road winds alongside the scenic Eel River, connects several small towns such as Phillipsville, Myers Flat, Weott, Englewood and Pepperwood; the two-lane road has a number of parking areas, picnic sites, attractions for visitors. The nearby river provides many swimming locations, such as those at the Rockefeller Forest redwood grove; the route contains the site of the annual "Avenue of the Giants Marathon". SR 254 is not part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.
SR 254 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. Though not the oldest redwood in the forest, this large tree is over 950 years old, is around 250 ft tall, though it was much taller, it has survived not only the ravages of time but the 1964 flood of the area, a 1908 attempt at logging, a direct lightning strike which removed the top 45 feet of the tree. It is from the perceived hardiness to the fates that the tree derives its name. Markers are visible on the tree, denoting the heights of where the loggers' axes and the floodwaters struck the tree. Situated in the northern half of the Avenue, The Immortal Tree is easy to find, has a large gift shop and parking area in front of it. Near Weott, this grove has an easy 1/2 mile self-guided walk with informational booklets available at the beginning of the trail; this well-travelled trail is a good example of old-growth redwood forest and contains a few big trees, including the Founder's Tree and the Dyerville Giant which fell down in 1991.
Avenue of the Giants features a tree. Shrine Drive-Thru Tree is near the town of Myers Flat; the tree is owned. Not a traditional tree house, this is a house that is, albeit built within a giant redwood. Visible from the road, with tours available, the front of this house is entered through the hollow trunk of a still-living tree; the front door and windows are visible to passers-by, the rest of the house adjoins the rear of the tree in a more traditional style. The Eel River is the third largest river in California, it carves deep canyons down great mountains, through flat valleys, past majestic and ancient redwood forests. The Avenue of the Giants follows the South Fork of the river, but features the branching of the South and Main forks to its north; the Avenue of the Giants was part of U. S. Route 101 until a freeway bypass completed on August 1960, assuming the 101 designation; the Avenue was designated as CA Route 254 by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 10. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, do not reflect current mileage.
R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, T indicates postmiles classified as temporary. Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted; the entire route is in Humboldt County. California Roads portal Chandelier Tree California @ AARoads.com - State Route 254 Caltrans: Route 254 highway conditions California Highways: SR 254 The world-famous scenic drive is a 31-mile portion of old Highway 101. Photos of the Avenue
Pacific Time Zone
The Pacific Time Zone is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time. During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used. In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the "Pacific Time Zone". Time in this zone is referred to as "Pacific Standard Time" when standard time is being observed, "Pacific Daylight Time" when daylight saving time is being observed. In Mexico, the corresponding time zone is known as the Zona Noroeste and observes the same daylight saving schedule as the U. S. and Canada. The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles; the zone is two hours ahead of the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone, one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone, two hours behind the Central Time Zone, three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, four hours behind the Atlantic Time Zone.
Only one Canadian territory is in the Pacific Time Zone: YukonOne Canadian province and one territory are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: British Columbia – all, except for the Highway 95 corridor in the southeast, Tumbler Ridge, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek in the northeast Northwest Territories – Tungsten In Mexico, the Zona Noroeste, which corresponds to Pacific Time in the United States and Canada, includes: Baja California Colima – Clarion Island Two states are contained in the Pacific Time Zone: California WashingtonThree states are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: Idaho – Idaho Panhandle Nevada – all, except for West Wendover and Jackpot, Mountain City and Jarbidge. Oregon – all, except for the majority of Malheur CountyOne state is split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Alaska Time Zone: Alaska – Hyder Through 2006, the local time changed to daylight time at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the first Sunday in April, returned at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October.
Effective in the U. S. in 2007 as a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the local time changes from PST to PDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and the time returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November. The Canadian provinces and territories that use daylight time each adopted these dates between October 2005 and February 2007. In Mexico, beginning in 2010, the portion of the country in this time zone uses the extended dates, as do some other parts; the vast majority of Mexico, still uses the old dates. Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting The Official NIST US Time Official times across Canada World time zone map U. S. time zone map History of U. S. time zones and UTC conversion Canada time zone map Time zones for major world cities
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for