In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Stringtown is a town in Atoka County, United States. The population was 410 at the 2010 census, an increase of 3.5 percent from 396 at the 2000 census. It is the second largest town in Atoka County; the town is notable for the Mack H. Alford Correctional Center, a medium-security prison operated by the Oklahoma Department of Corrections, just outside Stringtown. Stringtown is located at 34°28′6″N 96°3′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.7 square miles, of which 4.7 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 1.24%, is water. Stringtown is located at the southern intersection of U. S. Highway 69 and State Highway 43. Named Springtown for the natural springs that flow out of the hills the town is built upon, the current name is believed to be a corruption. Once home to a bank and pub, the town has declined over the years, both economically and in population. In the past five years, small population growth and the addition of a new café have brought new life to the town.
Annually in September, the Good Ole Days Festival celebrates the town's past with parade and concert. On August 5, 1932, while Bonnie Parker was visiting her mother, Clyde Barrow and two associates were drinking alcohol at a dance in Stringtown, they were approached by Sheriff C. G. Maxwell and his deputy, at which time Clyde opened fire, killing deputy Eugene C. Moore; that was the first killing of a lawman by what was known as the Barrow Gang, a total which would amount to nine slain officers. In the 1940s during World War II, Fritz Johann Hansgirg, the Austrian inventor of magnesium and heavy water processes was interned at the U. S. alien internment camp located in Stringtown. In the late 1960s, a tornado touched down in the town directly on top of the built Community Center, now the Senior Citizens Center; the tornado was only on the ground for a few seconds, but during that time the building was destroyed. It was an unusual occurrence for a tornado to touch down in the town itself, given its location between two chains of steep hills.
The nearby Mack Alford State Penitentiary is a large source of employment in the county. It was an internment camp for Japanese Americans arrested as "enemy aliens" and for German POWs during World War II. Despite its small size, Stringtown is the second-largest town in Atoka County, behind Atoka and ahead of Tushka. On January 14, 2014, the Oklahoma Highway Patrol disbanded the Stringtown Police Department for generating too much of the city’s revenue off of writing traffic tickets, a violation of the state "speed trap" law; the Garside house is one of the biggest historical sites of the town, next to the Bonnie and Clyde monument. The land the Garside house sits on was allotted to Joseph and Sarah Garside and their two kids in 1902. In the middle of building the house, a tornado came through the town and tore down the part of the house, built; the Garside’s had to start from the bottom again but they finished in 1915 with a beautiful two-story house. The house and land was purchased by E. H. Colbertson, who just so happened to be the first white man to buy land in that area.
Four years ago, the house was remodeled and decorated to be a museum. The Southwest Stone Company known as the Rock Crusher, is another big part of the town’s history and is one of the biggest sources of employment in the county; the crusher moved from Chockee to Stringtown in the early 1900s. Up until this point Stringtown had not had electricity yet; the railroad that runs through Stringtown stretch’s from south Texas, takes several routes in Oklahoma and Kansas, reaches to the Northern parts of Missouri. The part that runs through Stringtown was built in 1872 and is known now as the Union Pacific Railroad. Stringtown was once home to a sawmill and a cotton gin that had the biggest production rate in the late 1800s; when the fire came through the town on July 15, 1954, the sawmill and cotton gin burned down, along with half the town. Stringtown had a café, a jailhouse, a barbershop, a bank, a hotel that burned down that day. All, left was Robert’s Store and a few homes; the town never rebuilt after this.
Today, there is a school, a church, a fire department, City Hall, Dianna’s store, a senior citizens building. A state investigation revealed that 76 percent of the Stringtown's 2013 budget came from traffic tickets; the investigation found excessive speed trapping, the police department was disbanded in 2014. The United States Postal Service operates the Stringtown Post Office; the Oklahoma Department of Corrections operates the Mack Alford Correctional Center in an unincorporated area in Atoka County, near Stringtown. As of the census of 2000, there were 396 people, 166 households, 113 families residing in the town; the population density was 83.7 people per square mile. There were 217 housing units at an average density of 45.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 69.95% White, 11.36% African American, 10.35% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from two or more races. There were 166 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families.
28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 1
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries, including Prussia, Sweden, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Spain. In most rural and small town schools, all of the students met in a single room. There, a single teacher taught academic basics to several grade levels of elementary-age boys and girls. While in many areas one-room schools are no longer used, it is not uncommon for them to remain in developing nations and rural or remote areas. Examples include remote parts of the American West, the Falklands, the Shetland Islands. Prussia was among the first countries in the world to introduce a tax-funded and compulsory primary education for either boys and girls. In comparison, compulsory schooling in France or Great Britain was not enacted until the 1880s; the state-sponsored system was introduced in the late 18th century and has had a widespread influence since. The first Prussian schools were simple one-room schools, but by 1773 Friedrich Eberhard von Rochow had set up a model school with primary education in two separate age-grouped classes.
In Ireland, free primary education was mandated in 1831, prompting the establishment of many single-teacher National Schools across rural areas, most using a room in an existing building. By the 1890s there was a school in every parish. Most extant one- and two-room school buildings date from the decades after 1891 when primary education became compulsory. Most of those still in use today have been extended following merger with neighbouring schools. Since 2002, any state-funded school with at least 10 pupils is entitled to at least 2 teachers. In recent decades, an increasing number of schools have been founded for parents not content with the National School system; these include multi-denominational schools. Although such schools become eligible for state funding, they begin with a single teacher in a room or prefabricated building. Many schools served as the local chapel on Sundays, evening/Saturday meeting places for local people and activities. Being rural, many schools had no water or sanitation and this was provided by converting wells into toilets, melting snow for water in the winter and relying on the help of nearby farms in the summer.
Teaching standards varied from school to school as the teacher was compelled to coach children of all ages/grades within one room and regardless of their area of main competence. The quality of facilities at one-room schools varied with local economic conditions, but the number of children at each grade level would vary with local populations. Most buildings were of some with the school bell on a cupola. In the Midwest, sod construction was used, as well as stone and adobe in areas like the Southwest where trees were scarce. In some locations, the schoolhouse was painted red. Mission Ridge School was one of the early schools in West Virginia, it has since been moved to the West Virginia State Farm Museum complex near Point Pleasant. Examination of the materials in this building indicates that boards and timbers were hand-sawed and hand-planed. Square nails were used throughout the building. Except for the roof and a few boards in the floor, all of the material in this building is original; the blackboard is painted black.
It was not until much that slate was used for chalkboards, although students had individual slates for writing practice. Teachers in one-room schools were former students themselves, their role is well-described by a student from Kentucky in the 1940s: The teachers that taught in the one room, rural schools were special people. During the winter months they would get to the school early to get a fire started in the potbelly stove, so the building would be warm for the students. On many occasions they would prepare a hot, noon meal on top of the stove consisting of soup or stew of some kind, they took. A typical school day was 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. with morning and afternoon recesses of 15 minutes each and an hour period for lunch. "The older students were given the responsibility of bringing in water, carrying in coal or wood for the stove. The younger students would be given responsibilities according to their size and gender such as cleaning the black board, taking the erasers outside for dusting plus other duties that they were capable of doing."Transportation for children who lived too far to walk was provided by horse-drawn kid hack or sulky, which could only travel a limited distance in a reasonable amount of time each morning and evening, or students might ride a horse, these being put out to pasture in an adjoining paddock during the day.
In more recent times, students rode bicycles. The school house was the center and focus for thousands of rural communities and small towns. Town meetings and picnics were held there; the vast majority of one-room schools in the United States are no longer used as schools and have either been torn down or converted for other purposes. However, in some rural communities, including among the Amish, one-room or two-room schools are still used for elementary education, with students graduating to local or regional middle and high schools. There are several historic one-room schoolhouses in
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution; the U. S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general; the Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency; the USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world; the USPS is obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.
S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx. Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit. In the early years of the North American colonies, many attempts were made to initiate a postal service.
These early attempts were of small scale and involved a colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony for example, setting up a location in Boston where one could post a letter back home to England. Other attempts focused on a dedicated postal service between two of the larger colonies, such as Massachusetts and Virginia, but the available services remained limited in scope and disjointed for many years. For example, informal independently-run postal routes operated in Boston as early as 1639, with a Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. A central postal organization came to the colonies in 1691, when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American Postal Service. On February 17, 1691, a grant of letters patent from the joint sovereigns, William III and Mary II, empowered him: to erect and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, to receive and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years.
The patent included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds. The tax was repealed a year later. Neale appointed Governor of New Jersey, as his deputy postmaster; the first postal service in America commenced in February 1692. Rates of postage were fixed and authorized, measures were taken to establish a post office in each town in Virginia. Massachusetts and the other colonies soon passed postal laws, a imperfect post office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710; the chief office was established in New York City, where letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, there was only a trickle of business or governmental correspondence between the colonies. Most of the mail went forth to counting houses and government offices in London; the revolution made Philadelphia, the seat of the Continental Congress, the information hub of the new nation. News, new laws, political intelligence, military orders circulated with a new urgency, a postal system was necessary.
Journalists took the lead, securing post office legislation that allowed them to reach their subscribers at low cost, to exchange news from newspapers between the thirteen states. Overthrowing the London-oriented imperial postal service in 1774–1775, printers enlisted merchants and the new political leadership, created a new postal system; the United States Post Office was created on July 26, 1775, by decree of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin headed it briefly. Before the Revolution, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post; the official post office was created in 1792 as the Post Office Department. It was based on the Constitutional authority empowering Congress "To establish post offices and post roads"; the 1792 law provided for a expanded postal network, served editors by charging newspapers an low rate.
The law guaranteed the sanctity of personal correspondence, provided the entire country with low-cost access to information on public affairs, while establishing a right to personal privacy. Rufus Easton was appointed by Thomas Jefferson first postmaster of St. Louis under the recommendation of Postmaster General Gideon Granger. Rufus Easton was the first postmaster and built the first post office west o
Atoka is a city in, the county seat of, Atoka County, United States. The population was 3,107 at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.0 percent from 2,988 at the 2000 census. The city was settled by the Choctaw and named in 1867 by a Baptist missionary for Chief Atoka, whose name means "ball ground" in English. Atoka was founded by the Choctaw Indians in the 1850s, named for Captain Atoka, a leader of the Choctaw Nation and the signer of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which began the process of re-locating the Choctaw people from Mississippi to Oklahoma in 1830; the name "Atoka" is derived from the Choctaw word hitoka. He is believed to be buried near the town of Farris. Atoka is the site of the oldest Catholic parish in the Indian Territory, the oldest chapter of the Freemasons in Oklahoma, the oldest chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in Oklahoma. A small Civil War confrontation occurred on February 1864, north of Atoka. Early in 1864, Colonel William A. Philips set out with some 1,500 Union troops from Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, to cut a swath through Confederate Indian Territory.
Their purpose was to break Confederate control over the Indian Territory and gain the support and recruits from the Native Americans. "I take you with me to clean out the Indian Nation south of the river and drive away and destroy rebels. Let me say a few words to you that you are not to forget.... Those who are still in arms are rebels. Do not kill a prisoner after he has surrendered, but I do not ask you to take prisoners. I ask you to make your footsteps terrible. Muskogees! the time has now come when you are to remember the authors of all your sufferings. Stand by me faithfully and we will soon have peace...." -- Colonel William A. Philips, to his men before beginning the campaign Along the way, Colonel Phillips sent out an advance of about 350 men toward Boggy Depot, a large Confederate supply base located on the Texas Road with the intention of capturing the outpost. While en route, his command encountered a small Confederate camp on the banks of the Middle Boggy River, made up of around 90 Confederate soldiers.
In the ensuing skirmish 47 Confederate soldiers were killed. Among the dead were those wounded, left behind when their comrades retreated, they were found on the battlefield with their throats slashed. There were no Union deaths as a result of the battle; the Confederate Museum in Atoka commemorates this battle. Though the Choctaw Indians had inhabited the area since the 1830s with a small town located near the city today, the city was founded by a Baptist missionary named J. S. Murrow in 1867 and supplanted the dying town of Boggy Depot as the chief city in Atoka County. A main contributing factor in the early growth of Atoka was the MKT Railroad, which came through the area in 1872; the railroad provided the economic lifeblood to Atoka that any isolated rural town needs to survive and flourish. Many businesses moved to Atoka from Boggy Depot. In 1872, Father Michael Smyth founded St. Patrick's Catholic Church; this was the first Roman Catholic church in. On October 12, 1875, the Sacred Heart Mission, what became St. Gregory's University, was founded in Atoka by the Benedictine monks Father Isidore Robot, O.
S. B. and Brother Dominic Lambert, O. S. B. In 1876, the mission relocated to near Konawa and became an abbey. About 1896, Robert L. Williams, who would become the third Governor of Oklahoma and first Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, moved to Atoka from Troy, Alabama. In 1898, land allotments were implemented and town lots were sold, as required by the Dawes Commission. Despite being strategically located at the intersection of two major highways, Atoka is struggling to create a town attractive to both new business and new residents. Though the town has experienced an economic upturn in the past few years, it still lacks the main thing that ensures economic prosperity and attracts new residents: well-paying jobs. However, there is a beacon of hope for Atoka in the future. For the past several years, economic growth has been moving northward along U. S. 75 from Dallas, Texas. Two towns located to the south of Atoka, Durant and Sherman, are experiencing tremendous economic and population growth.
As this wave of development moves north, the next town in line is the city of Atoka. If the growth continues, it is possible that Atoka could begin to see the type of expansion underway across the Red River to the south. National Register of Historic Places sites in Atoka include the Atoka Armory Building, Atoka Community Building, Boggy Depot Site, First Methodist Church Building, the Indian Citizen Building, the Old Masonic Temple building, the Middle Boggy Battlefield Site and Confederate Cemetery, Old Atoka County Courthouse, Old Atoka State Bank, Pioneer Club, Joe Ralls House, Captain James S. Standley House and the Zweigel Hardware Store Building. Atoka is located at 34°23′3″N 96°7′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 2.00%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,107 people residing in the city; the population density was 354.7 people per square mile. There were 1,499 housing units at an average density of 178.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.86% White, 11.51% African American, 10.27% Nativ