Rua XV de Novembro
Rua XV de Novembro is one of the major streets in downtown Curitiba. Known as Flower Street, it is one of the first major pedestrian streets in Brazil, it was inaugurated in 1972, with well-tended pots of flowers and tourist restaurants installed in hundred-year-old buildings. It is named for the Proclamation of the Republic, which took place on November 15, 1889, it is common to see every kind of artistic performances, such as mimes and clowns who interact with those who pass by, musicians and other miscellaneous performers, such as the Statue Man
In urban planning, a transit-oriented development is a type of urban development that maximizes the amount of residential and leisure space within walking distance of public transport. In doing so, TOD aims to increase public transport ridership by reducing the use of private cars and by promoting sustainable urban growth. A TOD includes a central transit stop surrounded by a high-density mixed-use area, with lower-density areas spreading out from this center. A TOD is typically designed to be more walkable than other built-up areas, through using smaller block sizes and reducing the land area dedicated to automobiles; the densest areas of a TOD are located within a radius of ¼ to ½ mile around the central transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians, thus solving the last mile problem. Many of the new towns created after World War II in Japan and France have many of the characteristics of TOD communities. In a sense, nearly all communities built on reclaimed land in the Netherlands or as exurban developments in Denmark have had the local equivalent of TOD principles integrated in their planning, including the promotion of bicycles for local use.
In the United States, a half-mile-radius circle has become the de facto standard for rail-transit catchment areas for TODs. A half mile corresponds to the distance someone can walk in 10 minutes at 3 mph and is a common estimate for the distance people will walk to get to a rail station; the half-mile ring is a little more than 500 acres in size. Transit-oriented development is sometimes distinguished by some planning officials from "transit-proximate development" because it contains specific features that are designed to encourage public transport use and differentiate the development from urban sprawl. A few examples of these features include mixed-use development that will use transit at all times of day, excellent pedestrian facilities such as high quality pedestrian crossings, narrow streets, tapering of buildings as they become more distant from the public transport node. Another key feature of transit-oriented development that differentiates it from "transit-proximate development" is reduced amounts of parking for personal vehicles.
Opponents of compact, or transit oriented development argue that Americans, persons throughout the world, prefer low-density living, that any policies that encourage compact development will result in substantial utility decreases and hence large social welfare costs. Proponents of compact development argue that there are large unmeasured benefits of compact development or that the American preference for low-density living is a misinterpretation made possible in part by substantial local government interference in the land market. Many cities throughout the world are developing TOD policy. Toronto, Montreal, San Francisco, Vancouver among many other cities have developed, continue to write policies and strategic plans, which aim to reduce automobile dependency and increase the use of public transit. One of the earliest and most successful examples of TOD is Brazil. Curitiba was organized into transport corridors early on in its history. Over the years, it has integrated its zoning laws and transportation planning to place high-density development adjacent to high-capacity transportation systems its BRT corridors.
Since the failure of its first, rather grandiose, city plan due to lack of funding, Curitiba has focused on working with economical forms of infrastructure, so it has arranged unique adaptations, such as bus routes with routing systems, limited access and speeds similar to subway systems. The source of innovation in Curitiba has been a unique form of participatory city planning that emphasizes public education and agreement. In an attempt to control rapid growth of Guatemala City, the long-time Mayor of Guatemala City Álvaro Arzú implemented a plan to control growth based on transects along important arterial roads and exhibiting transit-oriented development characteristics; this plan adopted POT aims to allow the construction of taller, mixed-use building structures right by large arterial roads. This is being implemented along with a bus rapid transit system called Transmetro. Mexico City has battled pollution for years. Many attempts have been made to orient citizens towards public transportation.
Expansion of metro line, both subway and bus, have been instrumental. Following the example of Curtiba, many bus-lines were created on many of Mexico City's most important streets; the bus-line has taken two lanes from cars to be used only by the bus-line, increasing the flow for bus transit. The city has made great attempts at increasing the number of bikelanes, including shutting down entire roads on certain days to be used only by bikers. Car regulations have increased in the city. New regulations prevent old cars from driving in other cars from driving on certain days. Electric cars are allowed to have free parking. Decreasing the public space allocated to cars and increasing regulations have become a great annoyance among daily car users; the city hopes to push people to use more public transport. Most of the suburban high rises were not along major rail lines like other cities until when there has been incentive to do so. Century Park is a growing condo community in southern Edmonton at the south end of Edmonton's LRT.
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Panama City is the capital and largest city of Panama. It has an urban population of 880,691, with over 1.5 million in its metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of Panama; the city is the political and administrative center of the country, as well as a hub for banking and commerce. The city of Panama was founded on August 1519, by Spanish conquistador Pedro Arias Dávila; the city was the starting point for expeditions. It was a stopover point on one of the most important trade routes in the American continent, leading to the fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, through which passed most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas. On January 28, 1671, the original city was destroyed by a fire when privateer Henry Morgan sacked and set fire to it; the city was formally reestablished two years on January 21, 1673, on a peninsula located 8 km from the original settlement. The site of the devastated city is still in ruins; the city was founded on August 15, 1519, by Pedro Arias de Ávila known as Pedrarias Dávila.
Within a few years of its founding, the city became a launching point for the exploration and conquest of Peru and a transit point for gold and silver headed back to Spain through the Isthmus. In 1671 Henry Morgan with a band of 1400 men attacked and looted the city, subsequently destroyed by fire; the ruins of the old city still remain and are a popular tourist attraction known as Panamá la Vieja. The city was rebuilt in 1673 in a new location 5 miles southwest of the original city; this location is now known as the Casco Viejo of the city. One year before the start of the California Gold Rush, the Panama Railroad Company was formed, but the railroad did not begin full operation until 1855. Between 1848 and 1869, the year the first transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States, about 375,000 persons crossed the isthmus from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 225,000 in the opposite direction; this traffic increased the prosperity of the city during that period. The construction of the Panama Canal was of great benefit to the economy.
Of particular note are the improvements in health and sanitation brought about by the American presence in the Canal Zone. Dr. William Gorgas, the chief sanitary officer for the canal construction, had a large impact, he hypothesized that diseases were spread by the abundance of mosquitos native to the area, ordered the fumigation of homes and the cleansing of water. This led to yellow fever being eradicated by November 1905, as well malaria rates falling dramatically. However, most of the laborers for the construction of the canal were brought in from the Caribbean, which created unprecedented racial and social tensions in the city. During World War II, construction of military bases and the presence of larger numbers of U. S. military and civilian personnel brought about unprecedented levels of prosperity to the city. Panamanians had limited access, or no access at all, to many areas in the Canal Zone neighboring the Panama city metropolitan area; some of these areas were military bases accessible only to United States personnel.
Some tensions arose between the people of Panama and the U. S. citizens living in the Panama Canal Zone. This erupted in 1964 events, known as Martyrs' Day. In the late 1970s through the 1980s the city of Panama became an international banking center, bringing a lot of undesirable attention as an international money-laundering locale. In 1989 after nearly a year of tension between the United States and Panama, President George H. W. Bush ordered the invasion of Panama to depose General Manuel Noriega, the country's de facto dictator; as a result, a portion of the El Chorrillo neighborhood, which consisted of old wood-framed buildings dating back to the 1900s, was destroyed by fire. In 1999, the United States transferred control of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama, which remains in control today; the city of Panama is still a banking center, although with visible controls in the flow of cash. Shipping is handled through port facilities in the area of Balboa operated by the Hutchison Whampoa Company of Hong Kong and through several ports on the Caribbean side of the isthmus.
Balboa, located within the greater Panama metropolitan area, was part of the Panama Canal Zone, the administration of the former Panama Canal Zone was headquartered there. Panamá is located between tropical rain forest in the northern part of Panama; the Parque Natural Metropolitano, stretching from Panama City along the Panama Canal, has unique bird species and other animals, such as tapir and caimans. At the Pacific entrance of the canal is the Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas, a research center for those interested in tropical marine life and ecology, managed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal, providing it with the water required for its operation. Due to the canal's importance to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an pristine state. Along the western side of the canal is the Parque Nacional Soberanía, which includes the Summit botanical gardens and a zoo; the best known trail in this national park is Pipeline Road, popular among birdwatchers.
Sustainable Transport Award
The Sustainable Transport Award is presented annually to a city that has shown leadership and vision in the field of sustainable transportation and urban livability in the preceding year. Nominations are accepted from anyone, winners and honorable mentions are chosen by the Sustainable Transport Award Steering Committee. Since 2005, the award has been given out annually to a city or major jurisdiction that has implemented innovative transportation strategies in several different areas of sustainable transportation; the award rewards cities for such accomplishments as improving mobility for all residents, reducing transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions, improving safety and access for bicyclists and pedestrians. Finalists are invited to an award ceremony during the Transportation Research Board’s annual conference in Washington, DC in January, where the winner and honorable mentions are announced at the ceremony; the STA directs international attention to cities on the cutting edge of transportation policy.
By highlighting successful completed programs and emphasizing transferability, the award helps disseminate new ideas and best practices, while encouraging cities worldwide to improve their own livability. Noteworthy projects include the construction or expansion of BRT or LRT systems, bike shares or bike lanes, attention to low-income access to transportation, reform of parking or zoning regulations, linking transportation and development practices. STAs are awarded to cities that have demonstrated significant progress in using transportation to create a more sustainable, livable city; the Sustainable Transport Award looks for cities working in several of the following policy areas: Improvements to public transportation, such as implementing a new mass transit system, expanding the existing systems to increase accessibility and coverage, or improving customer service. Improvements to non-motorized travel, such as the implementation or expansion of bike share programs and bike lanes, creation of pedestrian walkways and improvements to street crossings and sidewalks.
Expansion or improvement to public space includes creation of open plazas, creating pedestrian only zones, installing street lamps or trees along sidewalks, pedestrian safety measures. Implementation of travel demand management programs to reduce private car use, which can include car-free days or zones, changes to parking requirements or availability, the implementation or expansion of car share systems, congestion charging and structured tolls and fees. Reduction of urban sprawl by linking transportation to development can be done through changes to zoning laws and providing incentives to developers. Reduction of transport related air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, by creating pollution laws, mandating air quality controls, restricting vehicle access, creating an air advisory system. To be eligible for an STA, cities must have made significant progress in the past year addressing sustainable transit. Awards are presented for projects implemented in the previous year, rather than for planned activity or beginning construction.
Cities must be nominated to be considered for the award. Nominations can come from government agencies, including the Mayor’s office, NGOs, academics, or anyone else with a close working knowledge of the city’s projects. Applicants are asked to provide program details, impact and outcomes, images. Final selection of the award recipient and honorable mentions is conducted by a steering committee, composed of experts and organizations working internationally on sustainable transportation; the committee includes the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, EMBARQ, World Bank, GIZ, Clean Air Institute, Clean Air Asia, ICLEI’s EcoMobility, Transportation Research Laboratory, Despacio The committee looks for projects completed in the previous year that demonstrate innovation and success in improving sustainable transportation. 2005: The first annual Sustainable Transport Award was presented to Bogotá in recognition of the city’s success in implementing the TransMilenio BRT, integrating bicycle infrastructure with mass transit, redefining and reclaiming public space for its citizens.
Mayor Enrique Peñalosa’s vision and implementation helped transform Bogotá into a model livable city and set a precedent for subsequent years’ STA cities. 2006: Under the leadership of Mayor Myung Bak Lee, a four-mile elevated highway that once covered the Cheonggyecheon River in the city center was replaced with a riverfront park, high quality walkways, public squares. Exclusive bus lanes were constructed along 36 miles of congested streets, the city government initiated plans for additional bus lanes as part of a broader initiative to improve all aspects of the city’s bus system. 2007: The 2007 launch of the first 15 kilometers of Guayaquil’s new bus rapid transit system, brought cleaner, higher quality service and reduced trip times in key travel corridors to city residents. Further improvements to the city included the refurbishment of deteriorated public spaces, such as the waterfront and Santa Ana district, which encouraged pedestrian use and increased development in the city. 2008: In recognition of Paris and London’s exemplary programs in bike share and congestion pricing the two cities shared the 2008 award.
The Paris bike share program, Vélib, revolutionized bike sharing. By the end of 2007, Vélib had 15,000 bikes; this enormously successful bike share system complements other aspects of Paris’ new mobility plan, such as renovating public squares and plazas, widening sidewalks, opening a new BRT system. These improvements led to a
A bi-articulated bus or double-articulated bus is a type of high-capacity articulated bus with an extra axle and a second articulation joint, as well as extended length, bi-articulated buses tend to be employed in high-frequency core routes or bus rapid transit schemes rather than in conventional bus routes. Common bi-articulated buses resemble rail vehicles in design, they have elevated train-type doors instead of traditional bus doors to use dedicated stations. Payment is made at a bus station using a fare gate rather than on the bus. Compared to using multiple smaller buses on a route, challenges using a bi-articulated bus include: difficulties maneuvering in traffic a decreased turning radius the need to have extended length station platforms reduced frequency of service less flexibility for scheduling and maintenance. However, the bi-articulated bus requires fewer drivers. In the late 1980s, the French manufacturers Renault and Heuliez Bus developed the "Mégabus", a bi-articulated high-floor bus.
The demonstrator Mégabus visited transit agencies throughout France, but the only city to order them was Bordeaux. These buses, now retired, were used on Bordeaux's bus route 7 until the city's tram system opened in 2004. Hungarian bus manufacturer Ikarus developed a bi-articulated bus prototype, the Ikarus 293, in the early 1990s. In Bucharest, ITB operated a double articulated trolleybus, made by adding a modified section between the first and the last sections of a DAC 117E articulated trolleybus; this vehicle was built to fulfill the need of high capacity person transportation. However, the DAC 177E's 125 kW proved insufficient for such a heavy vehicle, let alone the weight of passengers when it operated at full capacity; as a result, the vehicle was slow and had trouble operating on grades. It had trouble making sharp turns and was difficult to control on snow or ice; this trolleybus was operated on long lines with wide roads and no major turns except the end of the lines like 69 and 90, but entered on lines 85, 66, 79 and 86.
Bucharest traffic became intense in the late 1990s, RATB sought shorter trolleybuses. The DAC 122E was withdrawn from regular service, being used on lines 69 and 90 until the mid-to-late 2000s when it was removed from service and scrapped. Except double articulated trams V3A and articulated V2A T trams, RATB operates no more articulated vehicles due to traffic levels; the transit system that has used bi-articulated buses the longest is the Rede Integrada de Transporte, in Curitiba, which provides a type of service that has come to be known – in American English – as bus rapid transit, where buses run in dedicated lanes and stop only at enclosed stations. Use of bi-articulated buses began in 1992, with vehicles manufactured by Volvo and Marcopolo/Ciferal, able to carry up to 270 passengers; each bi-articulated bus is equipped with five doors where passengers can load and unload. Buses stop only at enclosed, tube-shaped stations, where passengers pre-pay the fare and board at the same level as the vehicle floor.
Curitiba has over 170 bi-articulated buses in operation on routes serving five main corridors of dedicated bus lanes. These buses run on an average period of 50 seconds during peak hours; the Brazilian bus body manufacturers Marcopolo, CAIO, Busscar and most Neobus have made many bi-articulated buses on top of Volvo chassis. They are used in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Goiânia and Bogotá. Volvo has manufactured several bi-articulated buses now in use in Gothenburg, they are based on Volvo's "puller"-type articulated, low-floor bus model with the internal combustion engine mounted on the floor on the side of the bus, the cooling system on the roof. They have not manufactured anymore and are being replaced by normal articulated buses; the Belgian manufacturer Van Hool offers a 25-metre bi-articulated bus with a capacity of about 180 passengers. In September 2002, fifteen were deployed on lines 11 and 12 in the Dutch city of Utrecht, connecting the downtown railway station to office and university buildings at the edge of the city.
Twelve more have been added since. This bus is used in Prague, with line 119 connecting the Václav Havel Airport Prague with the rest of the city; these buses are used in the German cities of Aachen and Hamburg, where single-articulated buses alone were not able to handle the huge number of passengers per day. In Hamburg they were retired in 2018 after 13 years of service as they started to require more and more maintenance due to their growing age and an unusual level of wear and tear, caused by the second articulation joint. Swiss manufacturer Hess produces a bi-articulated trolleybus called LighTram, in use in several Swiss cities, including Zürich and Lucerne. A bus with a hybrid engine based on the LighTram is offered; this type is in use for the Luxembourgian bus operator Voyages Emile Weber. From August 2014 to 2016, bi-articulated LighTram busses were in service in Groningen, Netherlands on the route from the main train station via the city center to the university north of the city. In 2016 these busses were moved to Utrecht because the few stops and higher speeds on this line made the hybrid engine perform poorly.
In 2012, Fraunhofer IVI introduced the AutoTram Extra Grand in Dresden. With overall length of 30.73 metres it is the longest bus in service with a passenger capaci
Jaime Lerner is a Brazilian politician. He was the governor of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, he is renowned as an architect and urban planner, having been mayor of Curitiba, capital of Paraná, three times. In 1994, Lerner was elected governor of Paraná, was reelected in 1998. Lerner was born into a Jewish family. From Łódź, Poland who emigrated to Curitiba, he graduated from the Escola de Arquitetura da Universidade Federal do Paraná. In 1965, he helped create the Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano de Curitiba and participated in the design of the Curitiba Master Plan. In 1988, Jaime Lerner announced his candidacy for mayor of Curitiba with only 12 days remaining before the election. During his first term, Lerner implemented the Rede Integrada de Transporte, continued to implement a host of social and urban reforms during his ensuing terms as mayor; as mayor, Lerner employed unorthodox solutions to Curitiba's geographic challenges. Like many cities, Curitiba is bordered by floodplain.
Wealthier cities in the United States, such as New Orleans and Sacramento, have built expensive and expensive-to-maintain levee systems on floodplain. In contrast, Curitiba made parks; the city now ranks among the world leaders in per-capita park area. Curitiba had the problem of its status as a third-world city, unable to afford the tractors and petroleum to mow these parks; the innovative response was "municipal sheep" who keep the parks' vegetation under control and whose wool funds children's programs. When Lerner became mayor, Curitiba had some bairros impossible to service by municipal waste removal; the "streets" were too narrow. Rather than abandon these people or raze these slums, Lerner began a program that traded bags of groceries and transit passes for bags of trash; the slums got much cleaner. Curitiba has a nearby bay, a dumping ground that would be costly to clean up. Lerner began a program; that way, they can make money outside fishing season, supplementing their income. The savings to Curitiba is in the millions.
Lerner instituted many innovative educational programs. Barrio kids can be apprenticed to city employees. Although his term as mayor is not without controversy, Curitiba does not have the gangs of much more populous cities such as Rio de Janeiro; the crown jewel of Curitiba's achievements is its Rede Integrada de Transporte Bus Rapid Transit system. The city was given federal money to build a subway, but Lerner discovered that "heavy rail" like a subway costs ten times the amount for "light rail", which, in turn, costs ten times a bus system with dedicated bus ways; the "light rail" savings touted to sway municipal decision makers occur because trolleys can have fewer drivers than a 40-60 passenger bus. He got Volvo to make 270 person Swedish articulated buses, so that the problem of a lower passenger-number-to-driver ratio was no longer an issue; the city built attractive transit stops with the look and feel of train stations, all with handicapped access equipment, inducing private firms to purchase and operate the buses.
A hierarchy of buses of six sizes feed one other. The city controls the routes and fares, while the private companies hire drivers and maintain equipment. Natural land-use patterns within the city of Curitiba support public transit systems. Buildings along the dedicated busways are up to six stories tall giving way, within a few blocks, to single story homes; this mix of densities ensures sufficient user population within walking distance of bus stops. As governor of Paraná, Lerner used a policy of attracting investment to turn the state into one of Brazil's industrial hubs, generating investments of over US$20 billion between 1995 and 2001. Following upon his experience in Curitiba, Lerner focused on issues like transport, health, sanitation and industrialization. UNICEF awarded Lerner the Child and Peace Prize in 1996 for his programs "'Da Rua para a Escola'", "'Protegendo a Vida'", "'Universidade do Professor'". In 2011, Lerner was sentenced to three-and-a-half years in prison for the illegal layoff of a public tender during his mandate as governor.
He wasn't arrested due to his age. At the General Assembly of the International Union of Architects in July 2002, Lerner was elected president for a period of three years. Lerner is a professor of Urban and Regional Planning at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, his alma mater, has been a guest professor at the University of California, Berkeley. In April 2005, Jaime Lerner participated in the Symposium of China Bus Rapid Transit Initiative to promote the BRT project in some larger cities, he was specially interviewed which made an impact on urban planners across China. Lerner is a member of the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. Acupuntura urbana Urban Acupuncture. O vizinho: parente por parte de rua Lerner has won a variety of Brazilian and international prizes: 1990: United Nations Environmental Award, awarded by the United Nations Environmental Program 1990: Annual Prize of the International Institute for Energy Con
Curitiba is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city's population was 1,879,355 as of 2015, making it the eighth most populous city in Brazil and the largest in Brazil's South Region; the Curitiba Metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities with a total population of over 3.2 million, making it the seventh most populous metropolitan area in the country. The city sits on a plateau at 932 metres above sea level, it is located 105 kilometres west of the seaport of Paranaguá and is served by the Afonso Pena International and Bacacheri airports. Curitiba is an important cultural and economic center in Latin America and hosts the Federal University of Paraná, established in 1912. In the 1700s Curitiba's favorable location between cattle-breeding countryside and marketplaces led to a successful cattle trade and the city's first major expansion. Between 1850 and 1950, it grew due to logging and agricultural expansion in Paraná State. In the 1850s, waves of European immigrants arrived in Curitiba Germans, Italians and Ukrainians, contributing to the city's economic and cultural development.
Nowadays, only small numbers of immigrants arrive from Middle Eastern and other South American countries. Curitiba's biggest expansion occurred after the 1960s, with innovative urban planning that allowed the population to grow from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people. Curitiba's economy is the fourth largest in Brazil. Economic growth occurred in parallel to a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other parts of the country, as half of the city's population was not born in Curitiba. Curitiba is one of the few Brazilian cities with a high Human Development Index and in 2010 it was awarded the Global Sustainable City Award, given to cities and municipalities that excel in sustainable urban development. According to US magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best "Brazilian Big City" in which to live. Curitiba's crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the city is considered one of the safest cities in Brazil for youth; the city is regarded as the best in which to invest in Brazil.
Curitiba was one of the host cities of the 1950 FIFA World Cup, again for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Despite its good social indicators, the city has a higher unemployment rate than other cities in the state. One theory is that the name "Curitiba" comes from the Tupi words kurí tyba, "many pine seeds" due to the large number of pinecones of Paraná pines in the region prior to its founding. Another version using words from the Tupi language, is that it originates in the combination of kurit and yba; the Portuguese, who founded a settlement on the site in 1693, named it "Vila da Nossa Senhora da Luz dos Pinhais". The name was changed to "Curitiba" in 1721. Curitiba became a town in 1812, spelling its name as "Curityba." An alternative spelling was "Coritiba." This was used in state documents. A state decree in 1919 settled the dispute by adopting "Curitiba." At the end of the 17th century, Curitiba's agriculture was only for subsistence and its main economic activities were mineral extraction. Waves of European immigrants arrived after 1850 Poles, Italians and Ukrainians.
Cattlemen drove their herds from Rio Grande do Sul to the state of São Paulo, turning Curitiba into an important intermediate trading post. The Paranaguá-Curitiba railroad was opened in 1885. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Curitiba benefited from the wealth of the yerba mate mills; the owners built mansions in the capital. These have been preserved in the districts of Batel and Alto da Glória. In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce its first city plan, it emphasized a "star" of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed in part. Curitiba has a subtropical highland climate but always humid, with some characteristics of the oceanic climate due to its abundant precipitation all year round and the summer warm but not hot.). What differs the city of temperate climates, are its mild winters due to low latitude, it is located on a plateau and the flat terrain with flooded areas contribute to its mild and damp winter, with an average minimum temperature of 7 °C in the coldest month falling below 0 °C on the coldest nights.
During summertime, the average temperature is around 25 °C at daytime, but it can get above 30 °C on the hottest days. Snowfall was experienced in 1889, 1892, 1912, 1928, 1942, 1955, 1957, 1962, 1975, 1988 and again in 2013; the terrain's flatness hinders water drainage after rain, therefore providing water vapor for the atmosphere. Cold fronts come year round from Antarctica and Argentina, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in the winter, they can move quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain. Curitiba's weather is influenced by the dry air masses that dominate Brazil's midwest most of the year, bringing hot and dry weather, sometimes in winter. Curitiba is located in the area of a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest. In Curitiba