Samuel Fuller (Pilgrim)
Samuel Fuller He was a passenger on the historic 1620 voyage of the Pilgrim ship Mayflower and became a respected church deacon and the physician for Plymouth Colony. He was baptized on January 1580 at Redenhall, co.. Norfolk, England. Samuel was a son of Robert Fuller, a butcher, his first wife Sarah Dunthorne, she was buried there on July 1, 1584. In 1614 Samuel is mentioned in the will of his father Robert, but was bequeathed a small amount of inheritance money, less than his sisters, which may indicate his father's unhappiness with him, his first mention in records of the time was of his move to Leiden by 1610 where he was a witness to his sister Ann's betrothal. And in 1611 he witnessed the betrothal of future Mayflower passenger Degory Priest to Sarah Allerton, sister of another Mayflower passenger, Isaac Allerton, his name appears as an active church congregation member. In Leiden records he was referred to as "a serge worker of London." On January 27, 1612 he witnessed the betrothal of his half sister Anna to a William White not the Mayflower passenger of the same name.
This one record entry has gone on to cause much confusion in more recent genealogy with apparent Mayflower passenger William White descendants mistakenly claiming that Ann Fuller married the Mayflower passenger William White in Leiden and assigning the Mayflower passenger William White and his wife Susanna Jackson. Additionally, the Society states that there is no proof that the Mayflower White family were in Leiden and in fact joined the company in England as non-religious members. Samuel Fuller was betrothed to Agnes Carpenter, daughter of Alexander Carpenter, on March 15, 1613 in Leiden, they married on April 24, 1613. The marriage record notes a prior marriage to Alice Glasscock, deceased, but no record have been found of this marriage in Leiden or England. On May 7, 1613, Samuel Fuller witnessed the betrothal of Alice Carpenter, sister to his wife Agnes, to Edward Southworth. Alice would be widowed and in 1623 would marry Plymouth Governor William Bradford. In mid-1615 Samuel's wife Agnes gave birth to a boy who died soon after and was buried on June 29, 1615 at St. Peter's in Leiden.
Agnes died a few days and was buried on July 3, 1615. In October 1615 records note that Samuel was living in the Groene Poort neighborhood of Leiden "over against the clock tower". On May 27, 1617 Samuel Fuller remarried to Bridget Lee, his name appears in Leiden records as a witness to betrothals in his English religious community for several years more. Samuel Fuller was involved in the church's decision to move to Northern Virginia per agreement with the Virginia Company and would be a deacon of the Plymouth church. Fuller, along with key congregation members Edward Winslow, William Bradford and Isaac Allerton, sent a letter on June 10, 1620 to their agents in England who were organizing the Mayflower voyage; the letter expressed the frustration that they were having with changes being made to the terms and conditions of the contract covering the voyage as being re-written by Merchant Adventurers agent Thomas Weston who turned out to be quite disreputable in his dealing with the Mayflower company and later in Plymouth.
The complaints of unreasonable conditions expressed the June 1620 letter included – London merchants would keep half the housing and lands when the company was liquidated – they thought the lands and houses belonged to the settlers. When the Mayflower departed England, none of the complaints had been resolved and the agreement had not been finalized; this problem persisted for more than a year and was resolved upon agent Robert Cushman's arrival on the Fortune in November 1621. In preparation for the Mayflower voyage, Samuel Fuller may have tried to learn the rudiments of medical knowledge, knowing that the Mayflower would not have a doctor on board. Samuel Fuller boarded the Mayflower with only his servant William Butten, leaving his wife Bridget and his young daughter Bridget behind in Leiden, awaiting until the colony conditions would better suit families, his brother, Edward Fuller was a passenger and traveled with his wife and a son named Samuel. The Mayflower departed Plymouth, England on September 6/16, 1620.
The small, 100-foot ship carried 102 passengers and a crew of about 30-40 in cramped conditions. There is evidence to suggest that during this voyage he engaged in a temporary homosexual relationship with Christopher Jones. By the second month out, the ship was being buffeted by strong westerly gales, causing the ship's timbers to be badly shaken with caulking failing to keep out sea water, with passengers in their berths, lying wet and ill. This, combined with a lack of proper rations and unsanitary conditions for several months, attributed to what would be fatal for many the majority of women and children. On the way there were two deaths, a crew member and a passenger, but the worst was yet to come after arriving at their destination when, in the space of several months half the passengers perished during the cold, unfamiliar New England winter. On November 9/19, 1620, after about 3 months at sea, including a month of delays in England, they spotted land, the Cape Cod Hook, now called Provincetown Harbor.
And after several days of trying to get south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, wher
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Sharon Turner was an English historian. Born in Pentonville, Turner was the eldest son of William and Ann Turner of Yorkshire who had settled in London upon marrying, he left school at fifteen to be articled to an attorney in the Temple. On 18 January 1795 he married Mary Watts. Among these were Sydney, inspector of reformatory schools, Mary, married to the economist William Ellis. Turner became a solicitor but left the profession after he became interested in the study of Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon literature, he settled himself in Red Lion Square near the British Museum. When his friend Isaac D'Israeli left the synagogue after a dispute with the rabbi, Turner persuaded him to have his children, including the future Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, baptised in the Church of England, to give them a better chance in life; some of his manuscripts were written illegibly in the margins of letters, on the inside covers of magazines, or on discarded wax paper. His publisher sent him clean paper but Turner did not use it.
Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons appeared in four volumes between 1799 and 1805. Britain at the time of original publication was involved in wars against France and the idea of the Norman yoke had been around since the seventeenth century. Turner demonstrated Anglo-Saxon liberty "in the shape of a good constitution, temperate kingship, the witenagemot, general principles of freedom". Turner researched extensively the collections in the British Museum and the manuscripts of Sir Robert Cotton. In doing so he obtained a working knowledge of Anglo-Saxon; the History had a profound impact on historiography for the succeeding fifty years. Robert Southey said that "so much new information was never laid before the public in any one historical publication". However, the Edinburgh Review in 1804 criticised Turner for a lack of discrimination and for the romantic parts of the work. Sir Walter Scott acknowledged his debt to Turner for his historical work in his Dedicatory Epistle to his novel Ivanhoe.
In 1981 J. W. Burrow said Turner produced "the first modern full-length history of Saxon England … It was a genuinely pioneering work, was much admired, not without reason", he contributed articles on English history to Rees's Cyclopædia. He continued the narrative in several subsequent works: History of England During the Middle Ages, a multi-volume publication covering English history from the reign of William the Conqueror to the accession of Henry VIII. In 1839, the works were combined into The History of England, a twelve-volume set covering all of English history up to 1603. Against the emergence of the French Consulate, Turner promoted the notion of Anglo-Saxon liberty as opposed to Norman tyranny; these histories, though somewhat marred by an attempt to emulate the grandiose style of Gibbon, were works of real research, opening up and to a considerable extent developing a new field of inquiry in the area of Anglo-Saxon history. For example, Herodotus reported the Persians called the Scythians "Sakai", Sharon Turner identified these people as the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons.
In determining their origins in the Caucasus, Turner wrote: "The migrating Scythians crossed the Araxes, passed out of Asia, appeared in Europe in the sixth century B. C. … The names Saxon and Goth are used interchangeably." Turner authored a Sacred History of the World, a translation of Beowulf and a poem on Richard III. Turner's place as a historian has been debated by generations of academics, he was buried in brick vault at West Norwood Cemetery. His son, Sydney Turner, was educated at Trinity College, took holy orders in the Church of England, became rector of Hempsted. Sharon Turner's son-in-law was William Ellis, an educationalist and economist who tutored the British royal family. H. R. Loyn,'Turner, Sharon', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004. C. T. Berkhout and M. McC. Gatch, Anglo-Saxon Scholarship; the First Three Centuries. D. G. Calder,'Histories and Surveys of Old English Literature. "Turner, Sharon". Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1900
The Mayflower was an English ship that transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England, to the New World in 1620. There were 102 passengers, the crew is estimated to have been about 30, but the exact number is unknown; the ship has become a cultural icon in the history of the United States. The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact prior to leaving the ship and establishing Plymouth Colony, a document which established a rudimentary form of democracy with each member contributing to the welfare of the community. There was a second ship named Mayflower, which made the London to Plymouth, voyage several times; the Mayflower was a square rig with a beakhead bow and high, castle-like structures fore and aft that served to protect the ship's crew and the main deck from the elements—designs that were typical with English merchant ships of the early 17th century. Her stern carried a 30-foot high, square aft-castle which made the ship difficult to sail against the wind and unable to sail well against the North Atlantic's prevailing westerlies in the fall and winter of 1620.
The Mayflower's return trip to London in April–May 1621 took less than half that time, with the same strong winds now blowing in the direction of the voyage. The exact dimensions are not known for the Mayflower, but she measured about 100 feet in length from the beak of her prow to the tip of her stern superstructure, about 25 feet at her widest point, the bottom of her keel about 12 feet below the waterline. William Bradford estimated that she had a cargo capacity of 180 tons, surviving records indicate that she could carry 180 casks holding hundreds of gallons each; the general layout of the ship was as follows: Three masts: mizzen and fore, a spritsail in the bow area. Three primary levels: main deck, gun deck, cargo hold. Aft on the main deck in the stern was the cabin for Master Christopher Jones, measuring about ten by seven feet. Forward of, the steerage room, which housed berths for the ship's officers and contained the ship's compass and whipstaff for sailing control. Forward of the steerage room was the capstan, a vertical axle used to pull in ropes or cables.
Far forward on the main deck, just aft of the bow, was the forecastle space, where the ship's cook prepared meals for the crew. The poop deck was located on the ship's highest level above the stern on the aft castle and above Master Jones' cabin. On this deck stood the poop house, ordinarily a chart room or a cabin for the master's mates on most merchant ships; the gun deck was where the passengers resided during the voyage, in a space measuring about 50 by 25 feet with a five-foot ceiling. But it was a dangerous place if there was conflict, as it had gun ports from which cannon could be run out to fire on the enemy; the gun room was in the stern area of the deck, to which passengers had no access because it was the storage space for powder and ammunition. The gun room might house a pair of stern chasers, small cannon used to fire from the ship's stern. Forward on the gun deck in the bow area was a windlass, similar in function to the steerage capstan, used to raise and lower the ship's main anchor.
There were no stairs for the passengers on the gun deck to go up through the gratings to the main deck, which they could reach only by climbing a wooden or rope ladder. Below the gun deck was the cargo hold where the passengers kept most of their food stores and other supplies, including most of their clothing and bedding, it stored the passengers' personal weapons and military equipment, such as armor, muskets and shot, bandoliers. It stored all the tools that the Pilgrims would need, as well as all the equipment and utensils needed to prepare meals in the New World; some Pilgrims loaded trade goods on board, including Isaac Allerton, William Mullins, others. There was no privy on the Mayflower. Gun deck passengers most used a bucket as a chamber pot, fixed to the deck or bulkhead to keep it from being jostled at sea; the Mayflower was armed. She had a saker cannon of about 800 pounds, two base cannons that weighed about 200 pounds and shot a 3 to 5 ounce ball, she carried at least ten pieces of ordnance on the port and starboard sides of her gun deck: seven cannons for long-range purposes, three smaller guns fired from the stern at close quarters that were filled with musket balls.
Ship's Master Jones unloaded four of the pieces to help fortify Plymouth Colony against invaders. There were 26 vessels bearing the name Mayflower in the Port Books of England during the reign of James I; the identity of Captain Jones's Mayflower is based on records from her home port, her tonnage, the master's name in 1620 in order to avoid confusion with the many other Mayflower ships. It is not known when and where the Mayflower was built, although late records designate her as "of London", she was designated in the Port Books of 1609–11 as "of Harwich" in the county of Essex, coincidentally the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570
Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay
Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay entitled The Honorable Historie of Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay, is an Elizabethan era stage play, a comedy written by Robert Greene. Regarded as Greene's best and most significant play, it has received more critical attention than any other of Greene's dramas; the date of authorship of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay cannot be fixed with certainty on the basis of the available evidence. 1589 may be the single most year: a line in the play's opening scene, "Next Friday is S. James", fixes St. James's Day as a Friday, true in 1589; some critics argue that the magic in Greene's play was inspired by the magic in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, which if valid would mean that Bacon and Bungay must post-date Faustus. Yet since none of the plays in question can be dated with absolute certainty, the nature of the relationships among them are open to question and cannot resolve the pertinent dating issues; the title page of the play's first edition states that Bacon and Bungay was acted by Queen Elizabeth's Men, as were several of Greene's other plays.
Lord Strange's Men performed the play on 19 February 1592 at the Rose Theatre. The play passed into the repertory of the Admiral's Men. Bacon and Bungay was entered into the Stationers' Register on 14 May 1594, was published that year in quarto by the bookseller Edward White; the title page assigns the play to Greene. A second quarto was issued in 1630 by Elizabeth Allde. A third quarto followed in 1655 from Jean Bell. Contemporary allusions indicate that the play was more popular than its limited publication history indicates. Greene's primary source for his play was an anonymous sixteenth-century prose romance titled The Famous History of Friar Bacon; the earliest extant printed edition of this work dates from 1627, long after both FBFB and Greene's 1592 death. The relationship between FBFB and other plays of its era, some of which may have served as sources, has been noted above. FBFB has a complex set of commonalities with the earlier Medieval drama of the morality play; the "Friar Bacon" of the title is Roger Bacon, the thirteenth-century polymath who enjoyed a popular reputation as a magician.
The second friar was Bacon's late contemporary Thomas Bungay. Bungay was a fellow Franciscan who wrote a commentary on Aristotle's De Caelo and served as the Franciscans' Minister Provincial over England during the mid-1270s. In addition to Roger Bacon, the tale of the Brazen Head was connected with several other prominent figures of the Middle Ages, including Robert Grosseteste and Gerbert of Aurillac. In one account, Albertus Magnus formed the brazen head. Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay is recognized as a groundbreaking play in terms of multiple-plot structure. Prince Edward, the son and heir of King Henry III, plans to seduce Margaret, the Fair Maid of Fressingfield, with the help of the necromancer Friar Bacon. Edward employs a more conventional approach, relying on the eloquence of his friend Earl Lacy to help with the seduction. Lacy goes to persuade Margaret, but falls in love with her himself; when Edward learns of the love of Lacy and Margaret, he threatens to kill his friend – before he masters his passion and reconciles himself to the fact.
Edward returns to Court, where he falls in love with and marries Elinor of Castile, the bride his father has chosen for him. The beautiful Margaret is the unwilling cause of a quarrel between two of her neighbours, the Suffolk squires Serlesby and Lambert: they both fancy themselves in love with her, kill each other in a duel. Margaret receives a letter from the absent Lacy, she decides to enter a nunnery, but Lacy intercepts her before she takes her vows, tells her that he was only testing her constancy. After an understandable hesitation, Margaret accepts his explanation. Another level of plot involves his magic. Bacon displays a range of magical skills: he shows Edward the romance of Lacy and Margaret in his magic glass, interrupts their wedding at a distance. In collaboration with another magician, Friar Bungay, Bacon labours toward his greatest achievement: the creation of a talking artificial head made of brass, animated by demonic influence, that can surround England with a protective wall of the same metal.
Yet Bacon's inability to remain awake and the incompetence of his servant Miles spoil the opportunity. Bacon inadvertently allows two young Oxonians to witness their fathers' duel in the magic glass.
Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk
Roger Bigod was 4th Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England. He was the eldest son and heir of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk by his wife Maud, a daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, Marshal of England, his younger brother was Justiciar. After the death of his father in 1225, the young Roger became the ward of William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury. In 1228, although still under-age but by now married and in a second wardship to Alexander II of Scotland following his 1225 marriage to Alexander's sister Isabella, he succeeded to his father's estates including Framlingham Castle, he did not, receive his father's title until 1233. After the death without male heirs of the last of his mother's brothers, in 1246 Roger inherited the office of Marshal of England. Together with his younger brother Hugh Bigod, Justiciar, he was prominent among the barons who wrested control of government from the hands of King Henry III and assisted Simon de Montfort in the Second Barons' War, his first warder married him to Isabella of Scotland, daughter of William the Lion, King of Scotland, whereupon still under-age he became a ward of his new brother-in-law, Alexander II of Scotland until 1228.
Roger had no children, was succeeded by his nephew Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk. Morris, Marc; the Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century. Woodbridge
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm