Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements; the primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social and design sciences, it is related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks and other urban areas. Urban planning is referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources and agricultural land and conserving areas of natural environmental significance.
Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations and management. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, public administration to achieve strategic and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a independent professional discipline; the discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, economic development, environmental planning, transportation planning. There is evidence of urban planning and designed communities dating back to the Mesopotamian, Indus Valley and Egyptian civilizations in the third millennium BCE. Archeologists studying the ruins of cities in these areas find paved streets that were laid out at right angles in a grid pattern.
The idea of a planned out urban area evolved. Beginning in the 8th century BCE, Greek city states were centered on orthogonal plans; the ancient Romans, inspired by the Greeks used orthogonal plans for their cities. City planning in the Roman world was developed for public convenience; the spread of the Roman Empire subsequently spread the ideas of urban planning. As the Roman Empire declined, these ideas disappeared. However, many cities in Europe still held onto the planned Roman city center. Cities in Europe from the 9th to 14th centuries grew organically and sometimes chaotically, but in the following centuries some newly created towns were built according to preconceived plans, many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. From the 15th century on, much more is recorded of the people that were involved. In this period, theoretical treatises on architecture and urban planning start to appear in which theoretical questions are addressed and designs of towns and cities are described and depicted.
During the Enlightenment period, several European rulers ambitiously attempted to redesign capital cities. During the Second French Republic, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann, under the direction of Napoleon III, redesigned the city of Paris into a more modern capital, with long, wide boulevards. Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century; the industrialized cities of the 19th century grew at a tremendous rate. The pace and style of this industrial construction was dictated by the concerns of private business; the evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. Around 1900, theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age, by providing citizens factory workers, with healthier environments.
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban planning began to be recognized as a profession. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course in Great Britain on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism and uniformity began to surface in urban planning, lasted until the 1970s. Many planners started to believe that the ideas of modernism in urban planning led to higher crime rates and social problems. Urban planners now focus more on diversity in urban centers. Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, behavioral relationships, assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, the humanist or phenomenological approach.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the applying scientific, technical processes and features that are involved
The Hötorget buildings are five high-rise office buildings in Stockholm, Sweden. Located between the squares Hötorget and Sergels Torg in the central Norrmalm district, they stand 72 meters tall and are a visible landmark. Though not skyscrapers in an international context, the 19 stories-tall buildings do stand out on the Stockholm skyline, are therefore called "scrapers". Built 1952-1966, they were labelled the architectonic five "trumpet-blasts" of the renewed city centre by the Municipal commissioner Yngve Larsson; the buildings are designed by different architects and there is thus a slight variation in the curtain wall façades. Curtain walls are rare in Sweden and were here directly inspired by the Lever House by Skidmore and Merrill in New York City built in 1951-52. Intentions were to let a series of pedestrian bridges connect shops and malls on several levels below and around the buildings, but vandalism and other social problems forced the closure of all levels above ground in the 1970s.
During the 1990s, much of the complex at ground-level was rebuilt to allow new indoor shops and new tenants. The buildings first appeared in a city planning proposal by David Helldén in 1946, in 1951 he, together with Sven Markelius, was commissioned to develop a detailed plan for the surrounding area and the buildings themselves, his first proposal was modified so that all five buildings looked the same, composed of two narrow volumes, one wider facing south and a smaller facing north. More in this second proposal the system of pedestrian bridges were added. In 1953, a new city plan determined the buildings should be made taller, 19 stories, while the surrounding building were restricted to two stories, a decision which gave the entire neighbourhood its present appearance. According to Professor Thomas Hall, these buildings and the neighbourhood around them are to be regarded as… Hall notes there are few city centres in Europe more affected by these Modernist ideas than Stockholm, the most notable exceptions being Rotterdam and Coventry, both destroyed during World War II.
He concludes this concept is implemented with more elegance and vigour in Stockholm, but that these urban projects seem to have inspired each other. Hall, Thomas. Huvudstad i omvandling - Stockholms planering och utbyggnad under 700 år. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag. ISBN 91-522-1810-4. Hultin, Olof. "Norra Innerstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur förlag. P. 90. ISBN 91-86050-41-9
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown; the CBD is also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world. For example, London's "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, the new Santa Fe; the shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city.
This is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres", it is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Melbourne is Australia's largest CBD with Sydney second and Brisbane third when judged by area size; the iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only.
It is located within Gaborone. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term « quartier d’affaires » may be used to describe the central business district; the main ones business districts in the country are as following: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square metres of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area. La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres.
Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly-built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre — the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries — was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shopping centers, government ministries, office buildings and entertainment venues, was the area revived.
In Frankfurt, there is a business district, in the geographical centre of the city and it is called the Bankenviertel. In Düsseldorf, there is a business district, located around the famous High-Street Königsallee with banks and offices. In Hong Kong, Sheung Wan and Causeway Bay are considered as the central business districts of Victoria City; the Yau Tsim Mong District has been considered the city centre of Kowloon before another core emerged in Cheung Sha Wan. As part of the Airport Core Programme, the Union Square project launched by the MTR Corporation has brought it another CBD in West Kowloon. With the latest implementation of "Energising Kowloon East" Scheme by the Hong Kong Government, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Area have been redeveloped and transformed into CBDs; the CBDs of new towns and satellite cities such as Tuen Mun, Sha Tin and Tung Chung have been characterised by sky-scraping residential blocks on top of large shopping centres that provide services to local resi
Klara is a part of lower Norrmalm in the central part of Stockholm. It has its name from Klara Church. Today the name, though not used in daily speech, has become synonymous with the old city that once occupied lower Norrmalm. Arvfurstens palats Sagerska Palatset Klara Church Kulturhuset Sergels torg During the 1950s and 1960s Klara went through an extensive urban renewal project. Over 450 buildings were torn down and most of the existing houses in this area were rebuilt during the early 19th century. Before the demolitions the area was characterized by workshops; the new buildings on the other hand were office buildings. Many writers and journalists have condemned the demolitions. History of Stockholm
Manhattanization is a neologism coined to describe the construction of many tall or densely situated buildings, which transforms the appearance and character of a city to resemble Manhattan, a and densely populated borough of New York City. It was a pejorative word used by critics of the highrise buildings built in San Francisco during the 1960s and 1970s, who claimed the skyscrapers would block views of the bay and the surrounding hills. With careful urban planning, the phenomenon became more accepted in time; the term gained usage as a buzzword for high-density developments in Las Vegas, Los Angeles and Miami in the early 2000s and again in the 2010s. Another example is the construction boom in Toronto since 2007; the term has been applied to many smaller US cities that have seen a large spike in downtown high rise rental buildings since the 21st Century. Nonetheless, these cities would have to multiply their populations many times over to match the population density of Manhattan, though this is a biased comparison between a city and a district, as the other four "outer boroughs" of New York City would have to nearly triple in population to match Manhattan's current density.
The just over 1-square-mile Brickell financial district is more dense than New York City overall, not Manhattan alone, as of the 2010 census. The term "Manhattanization" was used to describe the construction of large skyscrapers in San Francisco's Financial District in the 1970s. Since tall buildings have proliferated in San Francisco; this has expanded to the South of Market neighborhood. From 2000 to 2018, more than 15 buildings taller than 30 stories were built. There are now over 160 buildings planned; this is worrying as the area where most of the skyscrapers are located is on land with high potential for soil liquefaction. The term "Manhattanization" has been used to describe the 2003–2008 boom of real estate developments in Miami that brought the construction of more than 50 high rise buildings throughout the city. A second housing market boom took place in Miami from 2012 to present. Along with the over ten thousand residential units added, the downtown area saw a revitalization and an increased prevalence of walking and public transport usage, similar to Manhattan.
Miami is sometimes likened to a "southern Manhattan" not only for its high rises, but for its large financial district. Miami is now the US city with the third most skyscrapers. See also: List of tallest buildings in Miami, shows completion year of high rises. "Sanhattan" has been used as a portmanteau to describe the developed cluster of skyscrapers in Santiago, Chile. Toronto has experienced a construction boom since 2007 in its development of condominiums and other high rise residential towers. In one week of 2018, Toronto's city council approved 755 stories of new development in the city's downtown core. See also: List of tallest buildings in Toronto, shows completion year of high rises. Urban canyon Brusselization Californication Vancouverism List of tallest buildings in San Francisco List of tallest buildings in Las Vegas List of tallest buildings in Toronto Gerardo del Cerro Santamaría. Urban Megaprojects: A Worldwide View. Emerald Group Publishing. P. xx. ISBN 9781781905937. Retrieved November 16, 2015 – via Google Books
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries. The term is used for a person who holds this degree; the term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title. For the student in the medieval university the "licentia docendi" was of a somewhat different nature than the academic degrees of bachelor, master or doctor; the latter indicated the rank of seniority in the various faculties, whereas the licentia was the licence to teach. It was awarded not by the university but by the church, embodied in the chancellor of the diocese in which the university was located; the licentia would only be awarded however upon recommendation by the university shortly before the candidate would be awarded the final degree of master or doctor, the requirements for which beyond having been awarded the licentia were only of a ceremonial nature.
Over time however, this distinction in nature between the licentia on the one hand and the bachelor and doctor degrees on the other began to fade. In the continental European universities the licentia became an academic degree between the bachelor's degree on the one hand and the master or doctor degree on other, in particular in the higher faculties. Moreover, the costs for obtaining the doctorate could be significant; as a result, most students not intending on an academic career would forgo the doctorate, as a result the licentiate became the common final degree. A notable exception to this development were the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the universities modelled after them; as their locations were not the seats of bishops, the granting of the licentia docendi happened by proxy, its significance faded away. In Argentina, the Licentiate degree, by which one becomes a licenciada or a licenciado, is a four- to six-year degree. It's equivalent to an M. Sc. or M. A. in North American universities, or Master in any country of Europe given by the Bologna Process and World Universities affiliates.
The achievement of the "Licentiate" degree does not require the formal writing of a thesis, although always, some amount of research is required. The successful defense of the "Tesis de Licenciatura" automatically habilitates the candidate to apply to a Master's or Doctorate degree in a related field of science. D. degree. The only institutions in Australia to grant licentiates, apart from theological colleges, are the Australian Music Examinations Board and the Australian College of Music, which confer licentiate diplomas, including the Licentiate in Music, Australia; the status of this award is similar to that of an Australian diploma—currently one year of post-secondary education—and so it is a lesser award than a degree, although this award can take two or more years to complete due to its high standard. For theological colleges in former times, the licentiate was a specific post graduate award, analogous to a current graduate diploma, it was used because some theological colleges did not enjoy university status, could not award degrees such as baccalaureates and doctorates.
Though this was never the case in Catholic Colleges where the Licentiate cannot be earned until one has completed 7 years of study. In such an instance, it sits well above the level of graduate diploma between that of master's and doctorate; the Catholic Institute of Sydney is a Pontifical Faculty and as such offers the Licentiate of Sacred Theology which ranks above a master's degree and can only be earned after seven years of study. The licentiate is part of the three cycles of theological education in the Roman Catholic Church, instituted in 1931: baccalaureate, it is the licentiate. See John Paul II's apostolic constitution, Sapientia Christiana. At Belgian universities, a person titled Licentiate holds the equivalent education of a Master's degree. A female Licentiate was called Licentiate in Licenciée in French; the years spent to obtain the degree of Licentiate were called Licentiaat or Licentie in Dutch and Licence in French. It was the second level of university study, after that of Candidate.
A female Candidate was called Kandidate in Candidate in French. The years spent to obtain the degree of Candidate were called Kandidaats or Kandidatuur in Dutch and Candidature in French; each of those two levels required at least two years of successful study. Licentiates were required to write a thesis; this candidate-licentiate system is now being replaced by an American-style bachelor-master system. Civil engineer, Doctor of medicine, Doctor of law (o
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end