Sockeye salmon called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it. This species is a Pacific salmon, red in hue during spawning, they can weigh 2.3 to 7 kg. Juveniles remain in freshwater until they are ready to migrate to the ocean, over distances of up to 1,600 km, their diet consists of zooplankton. Sockeye salmon are semelparous; some populations, referred to as kokanee, do not migrate to the ocean and live their entire lives in freshwater. Sockeye salmon is the third-most common Pacific salmon species, after chum salmon. Oncorhynchus comes from the Greek ὄγκος meaning "barb", ῥύγχος meaning "snout". Nerka is the Russian name for the anadromous form; the name "sockeye" is an anglicization of suk-kegh, its name in Halkomelem, the language of the indigenous people along the lower reaches of the Fraser River. Suk-kegh means "red fish"; the sockeye salmon is sometimes called red or blueback salmon, due to its color.
Sockeye are blue tinged with silver in color while living in the ocean. When they return to spawning grounds, their bodies become their heads turn green. Sockeye can weigh from 2.3 to 7 kg. Two distinguishing features are their long, serrated gill rakers that range from 30 to 40 in number, their lack of a spot on their tail or back. Sockeye salmon range as far south as the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific and in northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, they range as far north as the Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. The farthest inland sockeye salmon travel is to Redfish Lake, over 900 miles from the ocean and 6,500 feet in elevation. Landlocked populations of the same species are known; some sockeye live and reproduce in lakes and are called kokanee, red-fish name in the Sinixt Interior Salish language and silver trout in the Okanagan language. They are much smaller than the anadromous variety and are over 35 cm long.
In the Okanagan Lake and many others, there are two kinds of kokanee populations – one spawns in streams and the other near lake shores. Landlocked populations occur in the Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, as well as, in Alaska, Oregon, New York, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Wyoming in the United States. Nantahala Lake is the only place in North Carolina; the fish, native to western North America, was stocked in Nantahala Lake in the mid-1960s by the NC Wildlife Resources Commission in an attempt to establish the species as a forage fish for other predator fishes in the lake. This stock has become a favorite target for anglers. In Japan, a landlocked variety termed black kokanee, or "kunimasu" in Japanese, was deemed to be extinct after 1940, when a hydroelectric project made its native lake in northern Akita Prefecture more acidic; the species seems to have been saved by transferring eggs to Saiko Lake, 500 kilometers to the south, however. This fish has been treated as a subspecies of sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka kawamurae, or an independent species Oncorhynchus kawamurae.
Sockeye salmon use patterns of limnetic feeding behavior, which encompasses vertical movement, diel feeding chronology, zooplankton prey selectivity. They can change their position in the water column and length of feeding, school formation, choice of prey to minimize the likelihood of predation; this ensures they still get at least the minimum amount of food necessary to survive. All of these behaviors contribute to the survivability, therefore fitness of the salmon. Depending on location and threat of predation, the levels of aggressive feeding behavior can vary. Sockeye salmon, unlike other species of Pacific salmon, feed extensively on zooplankton during both freshwater and saltwater life stages, they tend to feed on small aquatic organisms such as shrimp. Insects are part of their diets at the juvenile stage. Sockeye salmon exhibit many different life histories with the majority being anadromous where the juvenile salmon migrate from freshwater lakes and streams to the ocean before returning as adults to their natal freshwater to spawn.
Similar to most Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon are semelparous, meaning they die after spawning once. Some sockeye, called kokanee, do not migrate to the ocean and live their entire lives in freshwater lakes; the majority of sockeye spawn in rivers near lakes and juveniles will spend one to two years in the lake before migrating to the ocean, although some populations will migrate to saltwater in their first year. Adult sockeye will spend two to three years in the ocean before returning to freshwater. Females will spawn in 3–5 redds over a period of several days; the eggs hatch within six to nine weeks and the fry rear in lakes before migrating to the ocean. Males partake in competitive and sneaking tactics, formation of hierarchies, non-hierarchical groupings around females who are ready to mate. Reproductive success varies more in males than females; the greater variability in male reproduction is associated with the greater average size and exaggerated shape of males. Reproductive success in females is determined by the number of eggs she lays, her bo
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
Sebastes is a genus of fish in the family Sebastidae, most of which have the common name of rockfish. A few are called sea perch or redfish, instead. Most of the Sebastes species live in the north Pacific, although two live in the South Pacific/Atlantic and four live in the North Atlantic; the coast off Southern California is the area of highest rockfish diversity, with 56 species living in the Southern California Bight. The fossil record of rockfish goes back from California and Japan. Rockfish are important sport and commercial fish, many species have been overfished; as a result, seasons are controlled in many areas. Sebastes species are sometimes fraudulently substituted for the more expensive northern red snapper. Rockfish range from the intertidal zone to 3,000 m deep living benthically on various substrates around rock outcrops; some rockfish species are long-lived, amongst the longest-living fish on earth, with several species known to surpass 100 years of age, a maximum reported age of 205 years for S. aleutianus.
Like all carnivores, these fish can bioaccumulate some radionuclides such as cesium. Radioactive rockfish have been caught in a port near Fukushima city, not far from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, nearly 2 years after the nuclear disaster (ex: 107000 Bq/kg. Chen, 1971 Sebastes entomelas Sebastes eos Sebastes exsul L. C. Chen, 1971 Sebastes fasciatus D. H. Storer, 1854 Sebastes flammeus Sebastes flavidus Sebastes gilli Sebastes glaucus Hilgendorf, 1880 Sebastes goodei Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres, 1859 Sebastes hopkinsi Sebastes hubbsi Sebastes ijimae Sebastes inermis G. Cuvier, 1829 Sebastes iracundus Sebastes itinus Sebastes jordani Sebastes joyneri Günther, 1878 Sebastes kiyomatsui Y. Kai & Nakabo, 2004 Sebastes koreanus I. S. Kim & W. O. Lee, 1994 Sebastes lentiginosus L. C. Chen, 1971 Sebastes levis Sebastes longispinis Sebastes macdonaldi Sebastes maliger Sebastes matsubarai Hilgendorf, 1880 Sebastes melanops Girard, 1856 Sebastes melanosema R. N. Lea & Fitch, 1979 Sebastes melanostictus Sebastes melanostomus Sebastes mentella Travin, 1951 Sebastes miniatus Sebastes minor Barsukov, 1972 Sebastes moseri Eitner, 1999 Sebastes mystinus Sebastes nebulosus Ayres, 1854 Sebastes nigrocinctus Ayres, 1859 Sebastes nivosus Hilgendorf, 1880 Sebastes norvegicus Sebastes notius L. C.
Che], 1971 Sebastes nudus Matsubara, 1943 Sebastes oblongus Günther, 1877 Sebastes oculatus Valenciennes, 1833 Sebastes ovalis Sebastes owstoni Sebastes pachycephalus Tem
The deepwater redfish known as the beaked redfish, ocean perch, Atlantic redfish, Norway haddock, red perch, golden redfish, or hemdurgan, may reach a size of 55–70 centimetres, but is less than 45 centimetres. It lives in comparatively high concentrations in the North Atlantic, for example in the Irminger Sea where considerable numbers are fished, it occupies depths between 300 and 1,000 metres and is pelagic, i.e. far off the bottom. The deep-sea redfish feeds for example small fishes. In contrast to most fishes that spawn unfertilised eggs, the deepwater redfish has internal fertilisation and spawns free-living larvae. S. mentella is similar in appearance to the Acadian redfish. In 2010, Greenpeace International has added the deepwater redfish to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are sold around the world, which have a high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries." Postverk Føroya
Lutjanus is a genus of snappers found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They are predatory fish found in tropical and subtropical reefs, mangrove forests; this genus includes two species that only occur in fresh and brackish waters. 73 recognized species are placed in this genus: Lutjanus adetii Lutjanus agennes Bleeker, 1863 Lutjanus alexandrei R. L. Moura & Lindeman, 2007 Lutjanus ambiguus Lutjanus analis Lutjanus apodus Lutjanus aratus Lutjanus argentimaculatus Lutjanus argentiventris Lutjanus bengalensis Lutjanus biguttatus Lutjanus bitaeniatus Lutjanus bohar Lutjanus boutton Lutjanus buccanella Lutjanus campechanus Lutjanus carponotatus Lutjanus coeruleolineatus Lutjanus colorado D. S. Jordan & C. H. Gilbert, 1882 Lutjanus cyanopterus Lutjanus decussatus Lutjanus dentatus Lutjanus dodecacanthoides Lutjanus ehrenbergii Lutjanus endecacanthus Bleeker, 1863 Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790 Lutjanus fulgens Lutjanus fulviflamma Lutjanus fulvus Lutjanus fuscescens Lutjanus gibbus Lutjanus goldiei Lutjanus goreensis Lutjanus griseus Lutjanus guilcheri Fourmanoir, 1959 Lutjanus guttatus Lutjanus indicus G. R. Allen, W. T. White & Erdmann, 2013 Lutjanus inermis Lutjanus jocu Lutjanus johnii Lutjanus jordani Lutjanus kasmira Lutjanus lemniscatus Lutjanus lunulatus Lutjanus lutjanus Bloch, 1790 Lutjanus madras Lutjanus mahogoni Lutjanus malabaricus Lutjanus maxweberi Popta, 1921 Lutjanus mizenkoi G. R. Allen & Talbot, 1985 Lutjanus monostigma Lutjanus notatus Lutjanus novemfasciatus T. N. Gill, 1862 Lutjanus octolineatus Lutjanus ophuysenii Lutjanus papuensis G. R. Allen, W. T. White & Erdmann, 2013 Lutjanus peru Lutjanus purpureus Lutjanus quinquelineatus Lutjanus rivulatus Lutjanus rufolineatus Lutjanus russellii Lutjanus sanguineus Lutjanus sapphirolineatus Iwatsuki, Al-Mamry & Heemstra, 2016 Lutjanus sebae Lutjanus semicinctus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 Lutjanus stellatus Akazaki, 1983 Lutjanus synagris Lutjanus timorensis Lutjanus viridis Lutjanus vitta Lutjanus vivanus Lutjanus xanthopinnis Iwatsuki, F. Tanaka & G. R. Allen, 2015
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies