Exhibition Place is a publicly owned mixed-use district in Toronto, Canada, located by the shoreline of Lake Ontario, just west of downtown. The 197-acre site includes exhibit and banquet centres and music buildings, parkland, sports facilities, a number of civic and national historic sites; the district's facilities are used year-round for exhibitions, trade shows and private functions, sporting events. From mid-August through Labour Day each year, the Canadian National Exhibition, from which the name Exhibition Place is derived, is held on the grounds. During the CNE, Exhibition Place encompasses 260 acres, expanding to include nearby parks and parking lots; the CNE uses the buildings for exhibits on agriculture, food and crafts, government and trade displays. For entertainment, the CNE provides a midway of rides and games, music concerts at the Bandshell, featured shows at the Coliseum, the Canadian International Air Show; the fair is one of the largest and most successful of its kind in North America and an important part of the culture of Toronto.
The buildings on the site date from the 1700s to recent years. Five buildings on the site, were designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1988; the grounds have seen a mix of protection for heritage buildings along with new development. The site was set aside for military purposes and given over to exhibition purposes. One military building remains. Exhibition Place is a rectangular site located length-wise along the north shoreline of Lake Ontario to the west of downtown Toronto; the site is flat ground sloping down to the shoreline. It was forested land, was cleared for military use. Sections east of south were filled in the early part of the 20th century. Today, the district is paved, with an area of parkland remaining in its western section. There is a large open paved area in the southern central section, used for parking and the temporary amusements of the Canadian National Exhibition; the site has a variety of open spaces and monuments. The eastern entrance to Exhibition Place is marked by the large ceremonial Princes' Gates, named for Edward, Prince of Wales, his brother, Prince George, who visited in 1927.
The roads are all named after Canadian provinces and territories except for Princes' Boulevard, the main street east-west. Several of the roads are used for the annual Honda Indy Toronto car race. South of the grounds is Ontario Place, a theme park built in 1971 on landfill in Lake Ontario, operated by the government of Ontario; the site has a long history of sports facilities on the site, starting with an equestrian track and grandstand. The grandstand was converted for use by music concerts, major league baseball and football teams; the newest sports facility to be built is BMO Field. There is an arena, the Coliseum, home to professional ice hockey; the site was used for several sports venues of the 2015 Pan American Games. The site is administered by the Board of Governors of Exhibition Place, appointed by the City of Toronto; as of 2014, the organization had 133 full-time employees, up to 700 during major events, contributed $11 million annually to the City of Toronto, attracted 5.3 million visitors annually to the site.
The grounds are 192 acres in area. The small fort Fort Rouillé was built by French fur traders in 1750–1751 as a trading post on the site of today's grounds; the area was an important portage route for Native Americans, the French wanted to capture their trade before they reached British posts to the south. It was burned by its garrison in 1759; when York, the predecessor of Toronto was inaugurated in the 1790s, the land to the west of the garrison was reserved for military purposes. This includes all of today's Exhibition Place. Years the British military decided to replace Fort York with a new fort, to be located at the eastern end of the reserve. In 1840 -- 1841, they constructed a series of several smaller ones. Elaborate defensive works were never built and the buildings were turned over to the Canadian military in 1870, which named it Stanley Barracks in 1893; the Provincial Agricultural Association and the Board of Agriculture for Canada West inaugurated the Provincial Agricultural Fair of Canada West in 1846, to be held annually in different localities.
For the 1858 fair, to be held in Toronto, a permanent "Palace of Industry" exhibition building, based on London's Crystal Palace, was built at King and Shaw Streets in what is now Liberty Village. The site held four more fairs until the 1870s, when the City of Toronto decided the exhibition had outgrown the site; the City signed a lease with the Government of Canada for a section of the western end of the reserve in April 1878. The Palace of Industry was moved to a site on the reserve near today's Horticulture Building and expanded; the City sold the Shaw site to the Massey Manufacturing Company. The 1878 Provincial Agricultural Fair was held on the grounds; when Ottawa was chosen to host the 1879 fair, Toronto decided to hold its own fair. First called the Toronto Industrial Exhibition, it was held in the Crystal Palace and temporary buildings. At first, the eastern part of the site was still reserved for military purposes, the exhibition held on the western part of the reserve, where many of the oldest exhibit buildings are located.
As time went by, more and more of the reserve was taken over for exhibition purp
Saint Lawrence Seaway
The Saint Lawrence Seaway is a system of locks and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior. The seaway is named for the Saint Lawrence River, which flows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean; the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal. The Saint Lawrence River portion of the seaway is not a continuous canal. A number of the locks are managed by the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation in Canada, others in the United States by the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation; the section of the river from Montreal to the Atlantic is under Canadian jurisdiction, regulated by the offices of Transport Canada in the Port of Quebec. The Saint Lawrence Seaway was preceded by several other canals. In 1871, locks on the Saint Lawrence allowed transit of vessels 186 ft long, 44 ft 6 in wide, 9 ft deep.
The First Welland Canal, constructed between 1824 and 1829, had a minimum lock size of 110 ft long, 22 ft wide, 8 ft deep, but it was too small to allow passage of larger oceangoing ships. The Welland Canal's minimum lock size was increased to 150 ft long, 26.5 ft wide, 9 ft deep for the Second Welland Canal. The first proposals for a binational comprehensive deep waterway along the Saint Lawrence were made in the 1890s. In the following decades, developers proposed a hydropower project as inseparable from the seaway. U. S. proposals for development up to and including the First World War met with little interest from the Canadian federal government. But the two national governments submitted. By the early 1920s, both The Wooten-Bowden Report and the International Joint Commission recommended the project. Although the Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was reluctant to proceed, in part because of opposition to the project in Quebec, in 1932 he and the U. S. representative signed a treaty of intent.
This treaty was submitted to the U. S. Senate in November 1932 and hearings continued until a vote was taken on March 14, 1934; the majority voted in favor of the treaty, but it failed to gain the necessary two-thirds vote for ratification. Attempts between the governments in the 1930s to forge an agreement came to naught due to opposition by the Ontario government of Mitchell Hepburn and the government of Quebec. In 1936, John C. Beukema, head of the Great Lakes Harbors Association and a member of the Great Lakes Tidewater Commission, was among a delegation of eight from the Great Lakes states to meet at the White House with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to obtain his support for the seaway concept. Beukema and Saint Lawrence Seaway proponents were convinced that a nautical link would lead to development of the communities and economies of the Great Lakes region by permitting the passage of oceangoing ships. In this period, exports of grain, along with other commodities, to Europe were an important part of the national economy.
Negotiations on the treaty resumed in 1938, by January 1940 substantial agreement was reached between Canada and the United States. By 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King made an executive agreement to build the joint hydro and navigation works, but this failed to receive the assent of the U. S. Congress. Proposals for the seaway were met with resistance; the railroads carried freight and goods between the Great Lakes cities. After 1945, proposals to introduce tolls to the seaway were not sufficient to gain support for the project by the U. S. Congress. Growing impatient, with Ontario desperate for the power to be generated by hydroelectricity, Canada began to consider developing the project alone; this seized the imagination of Canadians, engendering a groundswell of nationalism around the Saint Lawrence. Canadian Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent advised U. S. President Harry S. Truman on September 28, 1951, that Canada was unwilling to wait for the United States and would build a seaway alone.
Fueled by this support, Saint Laurent's administration decided during 1951 and 1952 to construct the waterway alone, combined with the Moses-Saunders Power Dam. The International Joint Commission issued an order of approval for joint construction of the dam in October 1952. U. S. Senate debate on the bill began on January 12, 1953, the bill emerged from the House of Representatives Committee of Public Works on February 22, 1954, it received approval by the Senate and the House by May 1954. The first positive action to enlarge the seaway was taken on May 13, 1954, wh
Sunnyside Amusement Park
Sunnyside Amusement Park was a popular amusement park in Toronto, Canada that ran from 1922 to 1955, demolished in 1955 to facilitate the building of the Metro Toronto Gardiner Expressway project. It was located on the Lake Ontario waterfront at the foot of Roncesvalles Avenue, west of downtown Toronto; the name'Sunnyside' was the name of a local farm owned by John George Howard, situated just to the north, on the location of the current St. Joseph's Medical Centre. Sunnyside Avenue runs north-south from that location north to Howard Park Avenue today. John Howard is famous as the original landowner of the nearby High Park. Prior to the construction of the park, the shoreline was a narrow stretch to the south of the 1850s era rail lines. There was enough area for a restaurant and a small fenced off area was provided for changing into swimwear. To the east, the club-house of the Parkdale Canoe Club jutted out into the lake. A plan was developed in 1913 by the new Toronto Harbour Commission to improve the shore lands from the foot of Bathurst Street to the Humber River.
The plan, which included four miles of breakwater, infilling of land, the construction of the Lake Shore Boulevard, cost $13 million, was paid for by the federal government. A boardwalk along the south side of Lake Shore Boulevard was built, from the Humber River east to Wilson Park Avenue, 24 feet in width using white pine planks; this corresponded to the length of shoreline, extended out into the lake. This boardwalk became the site of annual Easter Parades until 1953, it was paved using asphalt in the 1960s. The Amusement Park lands themselves were created from sand dredged from the bottom of the bay and top soil from a farm in Pickering, Ontario; the original shoreline was extended into the lake by 100 metres, from the foot of Wilson Park Avenue west to the Humber River, a distance of about 1 kilometre. Only a small length of the original shoreline and beach exists today, located between the Boulevard Club and the Canadian Legion building at the intersection of Dowling Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard.
One of the first new buildings was the Sunnyside Pavilion, a curved structure providing a restaurant with views of the lake. It was located just to the east of Parkside Drive at the shoreline. Following this, the Sunnyside Bathing Pavilion and Dean's Sunnyside Pleasure Boats buildings were constructed. Soon after, concessions were granted to operate amusements on the lands. Sunnyside Amusement Park opened in 1922. At the time, there was an existing amusement park on the Toronto Islands at Hanlan's Point, it only operated a few more years until 1927 when a baseball stadium at the foot of Bathurst Street was built, replacing the stadium on the Island. Another amusement park, the Scarborough Beach Amusement Park was built in Scarborough, Ontario, to the east of Toronto; the park was popular for its large roller coaster, known as the'Flyer', several merry-go-rounds, the Derby Racer steeplechase ride and numerous smaller attractions. It hosted several'stunt events' including flagpole sitting, famous boat burnings in Lake Ontario and fireworks displays.
Other popular attractions included outdoor and indoor musical concerts, night clubs, restaurants and walking along the boardwalk. By the 1920s, swimming at the foot of Roncesvalles had been popular for over thirty years, as there was a swimming area near a pumping station; this changed in 1913 when the pumping station was demolished to make way for the bridge connecting Lakeshore Road and the King/Queen/Roncesvalles intersection. A staircase was built for pedestrians to walk down to the shoreline. A slide was installed for bathers to slide down into the water. By 1920, this area was filled in and the beach was moved further to the south. On June 28, 1922, Toronto Mayor Alfred Maguire opened the Sunnyside Bathing Pavilion to help bathers change for the swim in the lake; the building, constructed of concrete, cost $300,000. Each wing held an outdoor changing area and showers, the women's side on the east, men's side on the west, it offered over 7700 lockers for patrons, a roof garden for 400. Admission fees were 25¢ for adults and 15¢ for children, bathing suits and towels could be rented.
In the center was a staircase leading to an upper terrace which overlooked the change areas leading to a rear terrace which ran the full length of the building and overlooked the beach. On July 29, 1925, due to coldness of the lake during the preceding two summers, the Sunnyside Pool, nicknamed the'Tank', was opened beside the Bathing Pavilion to the east, it could accommodate 2,000 swimmers. At the time of construction, the pool was considered the largest outdoor swimming pool in the world. Admission fees were 35 ¢ for 10 ¢ for children. Sunnyside Pavilion provided a tea garden facing the lakeshore, it was curved into a crescent with the tea garden positioned within the semicircle. It was designed by the same architects and was in the same style as the Bathing Pavilion to the west, it was built in 1917 on the south side of Lakeshore Road. When built, its south side was on the lakeshore; as infill proceeded it ended up about 50 metres from shore, on the north side of the new Lake Shore Boulevard.
In 1920, the building was enlarged and a new south entrance was built facing the lake. The restaurant had the Blue Room for 400 diners/175 dancing couples, the Rose Room for a further 300 diners/150 couples. Dancing followed supper, with music provided by the Joe DeCourcy live orchestra. In 1936, the Pavilion was renovated and became known as the Club Esquire supper club, with stage shows and dancing
Nathan Phillips Square
Nathan Phillips Square is an urban plaza in Toronto, Canada. It forms the forecourt to Toronto City Hall, or New City Hall, at the intersection of Queen Street West and Bay Street, is named for Nathan Phillips, mayor of Toronto from 1955 to 1962; the square was designed by the City Hall's architect Viljo Revell and landscape architect Richard Strong. It opened in 1965; the square is the site of concerts, art displays, a weekly farmers' market, the winter festival of lights, other public events, including demonstrations. During the winter months, the reflecting pool is converted into an ice rink for ice skating; the square attracts an estimated 1.5 million visitors yearly. With an area of 4.85 hectares, it is Canada's largest city square. The square is rectangular in shape, with the edge of the city hall meeting the square on an angle on the north side; the main portion of the square is paved with two sizes of reinforced concrete slabs. The square has a reflecting pool, a peace garden, a permanent stage and several sculptures, including Three-Way Piece No. 2 by Henry Moore.
Around the remaining perimeter of the square runs an elevated concrete walkway. Outside the walkway are treed lawns dotted with various other memorials and monuments, such as Oscar Nemon's statue of Sir Winston Churchill, a Roman column. Beneath the square is one of the world's largest underground parking garages. In 2012, illuminated "disappearing" fountains were installed among the slabs, used for decoration and cooling; the Square is property of the City of Toronto. Smoking is prohibited in the entire square; the reflecting pool is situated in the south-east corner of the square. Spanning the reflecting pool are three concrete arches. At the same time, a piece of the Berlin Wall was placed at the southern base of the central arch. To the west of the reflecting pool is a pavilion where food is available; the Peace Garden was created as a memorial to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the "commitment of Torontonians to the principle of world peace." The sundial at the south end of the garden pre-dates the peace memorial.
R. Johnson, presented by Nathan Phillips to the residents of Toronto. Fifteen years during the city's sesquicentennial Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau turned the first sod for the Peace Garden, to sit north of, but incorporate, the pre-existing sundial; the 600 m2 garden consists of a pavilion, a fountain, surrounding plantings. The gazebo is a stone-clad cube with arched openings on all sides, capped with a pitched roof, with one corner of the structure deconstructed, to signify conflict and the fragility of civilization; the fountain's pool encroaches into this removed corner, with an eternal flame placed in the water so as to appear as though it supports the pavilion structure, to symbolise hope and regeneration. Pope John Paul II lit this flame with an ember from the Peace Flame in Hiroshima, poured into the pool water from the rivers that flow through Nagasaki; the entire monument was formally dedicated by Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, in October 1984. As part of the redesign of the square, the Peace Garden was moved from the centre of the square to its western edge.
The elevated concrete walkway connects to the podium of the City Hall at the height of its roof and extends around the perimeter of the square. Staircases connect the walkway to the floor of the square in several locations. On the south side, the walkway extends across Queen Street to the Sheraton Hotel. On the west side, the walkway is connected to the back of the permanent stage, which serves as a grand staircase; the walkway is closed during winter months. The area occupied by the square was part of the Ward and was a major immigrant reception area during the first half of the twentieth century characterized by poverty during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with Black families settling on the site followed by the large wave of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe during this period. From 1910s leading up to World War II, the immigrant neighbourhood was settled and developed by the Chinese immigrants into Toronto's first Chinatown. Following World War II, the City of Toronto government prepared to construct a civic square in Chinatown, through a by-law which prohibited further development except for public purposes or parking lots.
With voter approval in 1947, the city began acquisition of sites inside Chinatown from 1948 to 1958, with expropriation and demolition of various shops and restaurants in 1955 for the development of the square. With the procurement of the land completed and the design of City Hall finalized in 1958, construction commenced in 1961; the rink was completed before other features in the square, was opened by Mayor Philip Givens on Sunday, 29 November 1964. This was the first operational part of the new City Hall, it was rushed to completion before the December 1964 municipal election. Other dignitaries present that afternoon were former mayors Nathan Allan Lamport; the rest of the square and City Hall was formally completed in September 1965. To add decoration to the square, City Hall architect Viljo Revell wanted a sculpture by British sculptor Henry Moore, he selected the Three-Way Piece No. 2 at a cost of over CAD$100,000. Its purchase
Centreville Amusement Park
The Centreville Amusement Park or Centreville Theme Park is a children's amusement/theme park located on Centre Island, part of the Toronto Islands, offshore of Toronto, Canada. The park has been operated by the Beasley family since 1967 through Etobicoke-based William Beasley Enterprises Limited, on land leased from the City of Toronto and is open daily during the summer. Beasley operates the "Far Enough Farm" adjacent to the park. Centreville was built as part of a master plan to convert the Toronto Islands land usage from cottage residences to recreational uses; the park replaced the old Sunnyside Amusement Park, which closed in 1955, as well as Hanlan's Point Amusement Park, which closed in the 1930s to make way for the island airport. The park opened in 1967, operated by Bill Beasley Sr. father of the current president of William Beasley Enterprises. The park had seven rides and has expanded over the years, adding one or two rides a year; the park's buildings have a 1900s turn-of-the-century village theme.
An 1870s cast iron planter to commemorate Queen Victoria's birthday, located in front of St. Lawrence Market is now featured in the center of the park. In 2013, Centreville took over operations of Far Enough Farm, threatened with closure. At the same time, the City extended its lease to 2022. Due to flooding of many areas of the Toronto Islands, Centreville did not open in May 2017. In late June, the animals at the Centreville Far Enough were moved off the island. Centreville reopened on July 31, except for the Far Enough Farm, which will remain closed until 2018 due to flood damage. Three rides will not be operational: the swan ride, bumper boat ride and the train ride. Mosquitos carrying the West Nile virus had been found on the islands but the Toronto Public Health department said that with certain precautions, visitors should not be concerned. A park spokesman said that the loss in revenue was CA$8 million due to the flood and the cost of repairs was estimated at CA$6 million. In June 2017, Centreville purchased a used ferry boat, the Dartmouth III, from Halifax Transit in Nova Scotia for CA$100,000.
Beasley plans to operate its own service to the amusement park in peak season, though not until 2018. The boat can carry 390 passengers per trip; the park attractions include a carousel, log flume, a Ferris wheel, a'haunted barrel works', an enclosed "Scrambler", a miniature roller coaster, pleasure swan boats, bumper boats, antique-style motor cars and several kiddie rides, such as the tea cups, a swing boat, drop ride and miniature fire engines. There are some games and a gift shop. There is a wading pool, pony rides and miniature golf. One of three miniature train rides in Toronto operates at the park, it consists of two trains with five passenger cars on a 2 ft narrow gauge track which circles the park grounds and farm and travels through a tunnel. An aerial ride, the "Sky Ride," operated for some years at the park. Installed in 1968, it was a chairlift type and carried passengers from a point near the entrance to near St. Andrew's Church and back. In 1995 a sailboat knocked a passenger out of her seat.
In 2010 a patron was injured while being loaded onto a chair and Beasley lost a court judgment of over CA$250,000 for the accident in 2015. The ride was subsequently closed but a new version went into operation in early August 2017; the park has a 1907-vintage carousel made by the Dentzel Carousel Company, one of 150 of this type that remains in operation, acquired from Bushkill Park in Easton, Pennsylvania. Its 52 hand-carved animals include cats, an ostrich, pigs, a lion and rabbits instead of the more common style consisting of horses. Of the 52, 36 move down on brass poles. Other features include a Welte-Mignon/Wurlitzer band organ. Mandated by the park's financial losses in the summer of 2017, the carousel has been conditionally sold to the city of Carmel, Indiana; the sale was due to an estimated CA$6 million loss when it was unable to open due to flooding of the area by high lake levels, according to the president of Beasley Enterprises. The estimated selling price was CA$3 million US$2.25 million.
On July 31, Beasley was quoted as saying he has not yet accepted the offer and that Toronto Mayor John Tory is interested in keeping the carousel in Toronto. Beasley is considering the purchase of a new carousel that would be on site at Centreville by the 2018 park season; the Dentzel carousel is expected to be shipped to Carmel in November 2017 to open in 2018 or 2019 as part of a multi-year downtown redevelopment project. An announcement on Centreville's Facebook page on July 20 indicates that the carousel would continue in operation on the island for the 2017 season. In mid-September 2017, the sale of the carousel to Carmel was in doubt after that city's finance committee recommended that this item be removed from the budget for the redevelopment plan; the City Council will vote on the proposal on September 18. On September 19, it was confirmed that Carmel was not purchasing the ride and will stay put to solicit other buyers; as of 2018 season, the ride will remain after negotiations with the city over rent and debts forgiven by Beasley's suppliers.
Maintained by William Beasley Enterprises Limited, the Far Enough Farm exists on the eastern outskirts of the Amusement Park, just
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
The CN Tower is a 553.3 m-high concrete communications and observation tower located in Downtown Toronto, Canada. Built on the former Railway Lands, it was completed in 1976, its name "CN" referred to Canadian National, the railway company that built the tower. Following the railway's decision to divest non-core freight railway assets prior to the company's privatization in 1995, it transferred the tower to the Canada Lands Company, a federal Crown corporation responsible for real estate development; the CN Tower held the record for the world's tallest free-standing structure for 32 years until 2007 when it was surpassed by the Burj Khalifa and was the world's tallest tower until 2009 when it was surpassed by the Canton Tower. It is now the ninth tallest free-standing structure in the world and remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. In 1995, the CN Tower was declared one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers, it belongs to the World Federation of Great Towers.
It is a signature icon of Toronto's skyline and attracts more than two million international visitors annually. The original concept of the CN Tower originated in 1968 when the Canadian National Railway wanted to build a large TV and radio communication platform to serve the Toronto area, as well as demonstrate the strength of Canadian industry and CN in particular; these plans evolved over the next few years, the project became official in 1972. The tower would have been part of Metro Centre, a large development south of Front Street on the Railway Lands, a large railway switching yard, being made redundant by newer yards outside the city. Key project team members were NCK Engineering as structural engineer; as Toronto grew during the late 1960s and early 1970s, multiple skyscrapers were constructed in the downtown core, most notably First Canadian Place. The reflective nature of the new buildings compromised the quality of broadcast signals necessitating new, higher antennas that were at least 300 m tall.
At the time, most data communications took place over point-to-point microwave links, whose dish antennae covered the roofs of large buildings. As each new skyscraper was added to the downtown, former line-of-sight links were no longer possible. CN intended to rent "hub" space for microwave links, visible from any building in the Toronto area; the CN Tower can be seen from at least as far away as Kennedy Street in Aurora, Ontario 40 km to the north. It is viewable to the naked eye from 60 km east of Toronto in Oshawa, several points along the Niagara Escarpment west of Toronto in Hamilton, 48 km to the south from Fort Niagara State Park in the U. S. state of New York. The original plan for the tower envisioned a tripod consisting of three independent cylindrical "pillars" linked at various heights by structural bridges. Had it been built, this design would have been shorter, with the metal antenna located where the concrete section between the main level and the SkyPod lies today; as the design effort continued, it evolved into the current design with a single continuous hexagonal core to the SkyPod, with three support legs blended into the hexagon below the main level, forming a large Y-shape structure at the ground level.
The idea for the main level in its current form evolved around this time, but the Space Deck was not part of the plans until some time later. One engineer in particular felt that visitors would feel the higher observation deck would be worth paying extra for, the costs in terms of construction were not prohibitive, it was some time around this point that it was realized that the tower could become the world's tallest structure, plans were changed to incorporate subtle modifications throughout the structure to this end. Construction on the CN Tower began on February 6, 1973, with massive excavations at the tower base for the foundation. By the time the foundation was complete, 56,000 t of earth and shale were removed to a depth of 15 m in the centre, a base incorporating 7,000 m3 of concrete with 450 t of rebar and 36 t of steel cable had been built to a thickness of 6.7 m. This portion of the construction was rapid, with only four months needed between the start and the foundation being ready for construction on top.
To create the main support pillar, workers constructed a hydraulically raised slipform at the base. This was a unprecedented engineering feat on its own, consisting of a large metal platform that raised itself on jacks at about 6 m per day as the concrete below set. Concrete was poured continuously by a team of 1,532 people until February 22, 1974, during which it had become the tallest structure in Canada, surpassing the built Inco Superstack in Sudbury, built using similar methods. In total, the tower contains 40,500 m3 of concrete, all of, mixed on-site in order to ensure batch consistency. Through the pour, the vertical accuracy of the tower was maintained by comparing the slip form's location to massive plumb bobs hanging from it, observed by small telescopes from the ground. Over the height of the tower, it varies from true vertical accuracy by only 29 mm. In August 1974, construction of the main level commenced. Using 45 hydraulic jacks attached to cables strung from a temporary steel crown anchored to the top of the tower, twelve giant steel