Redshirt (college sports)

Redshirt, in United States college athletics, is a delay or suspension of an athlete's participation to lengthen their period of eligibility. A student's athletic eligibility in a given sport is four seasons, aligning with the four years of academic classes required to earn a bachelor's degree at an American college or university. However, in a redshirt year, student athletes may attend classes at the college or university, practice with an athletic team, "suit up" for play – but they may compete in only a limited number of games. Using this mechanism, a student athlete has at most five academic years to use the four years of eligibility, thus becoming what is termed a fifth-year senior. According to Merriam-Webster and Webster's Third New International Dictionary, the term redshirt comes from the red jersey worn by such a player in practice scrimmages against the regulars; the origin of the term redshirt was from Warren Alfson of the University of Nebraska who, in 1937, asked to practice but not play and wore a Nebraska red shirt without a number.

The term is used as a verb and adjective. For example, a coach may choose to redshirt a player, referred to as a redshirt, a redshirt freshman refers to an athlete in the first year of participation, after a redshirt non-participatory year. Student athletes become redshirts for many reasons. One example is that the student athlete may not be ready to balance the demands of both academic and athletic requirements. Redshirting provides the opportunity, with tutoring, to take some classes and become accustomed to the academic rigors demanded of them, they may redshirt to undergo a year of practice with a team prior to participating in competition. In American college football, a student athlete may redshirt to work towards increasing size and stamina. Players may redshirt to learn the team playbook, as many college teams run more complex formations and executions in comparison to high school teams. Athletes may be asked to redshirt if they would have little or no opportunity to play as an academic freshman.

This is a common occurrence in many sports where there is an established upperclassman player in a position, or too much depth at the position the freshman in question plans to play. The coaching staff may want to use the player as a starter in their career so that they may play for the full four years instead of three. A special case involves the eligibility of a player who loses the majority of a season to injury, known as a medical redshirt. A hardship waiver may be granted to those athletes who sustain a major injury while appearing in less than 30% of team competitions, nor can they have participated after the midpoint of a season. For the purposes of eligibility, players granted such a waiver are treated as though they did not compete in that season. On rare occasions, players may be allowed to play in their sixth year of college if they suffered a serious injury that kept them from competing for more than one season. Former Oklahoma Sooners quarterback Jason White is the best known example of this.

Another recent example is former Houston Cougars quarterback Case Keenum. The term redshirt freshman indicates an academic sophomore, in their first season of athletic participation. A redshirt freshman is distinguished from a true freshman: a student, in their first year both academically and athletically. A redshirt freshman may have practiced with the team during the prior season; the term redshirt sophomore is commonly used to indicate an academic junior, in the second season of athletic participation. After the second athletic year, the term redshirt is used. In 2016, a new status could be applied to prospective student athletes, dubbed an academic redshirt; that year, the NCAA started enforcing new, stricter admissions requirements for incoming athletic freshmen. Under these new requirements, a student athlete who meets a school’s own academic admission requirements but does not meet the NCAA requirement of a 2.3 GPA across four years, may enter school as an academic redshirt. This student can receive an athletic scholarship and practice with the team, but may not participate in competition.

An academic redshirt does not lose a year of eligibility, may take an injury redshirt if needed. Academic redshirts must complete nine academic credit hours in their first semester and may compete in their second year, free of restrictions. Athletes may use a "grayshirt" year in which they attend school, but cannot enroll as a full-time student, do not receive a scholarship for that year; this means that they are an unofficial member of the team and do not participate in practices, games, or receive financial assistance from their athletic department. Grayshirts are players who are injured right before college and require an entire year to recuperate. Rather than waste the redshirt, the player can attend school as a part-time regular student and join the team later; this is used by players with religious or military obligations that keep them out of school for a full academic year. "Blueshirt" athletes are those that the NCAA does not classify as a "recruited student-athlete". They have never m

Donovan Richards

Donovan Richards is the Council member for the 31st District of the New York City Council. He is a Democrat; the district includes portions of Arverne, Broad Channel, Cambria Heights, Far Rockaway, Howard Beach, John F. Kennedy International Airport, Rockaway Beach, South Ozone Park and Springfield Gardens in Queens. Richards was raised in southeast Queens; when he was young, he served with a mission in Port-a-Prince, Haiti on behalf of St. Albans Congregational Church. In June 2011, Richards became the chief of staff for New York City Councilman James Sanders, Jr. and when Sanders was elected to the New York State Senate, Richards won a 2013 special election to succeed him. Richards was appointed chair of the Committee on Environmental Protection. Richards was appointed to be the chair of the Subcommittee on Franchises. Councilman Donovan Richards


Palmerstown is a civil parish and suburb in South Dublin, Ireland. It is located about 8 km west of Dublin city centre; the area is bordered to the north by the River Liffey, to the west by Lucan, to the south by Ballyfermot and to the east by the village of Chapelizod. Palmerstown village is situated near the Liffey Valley Shopping Centre; the area is situated near the major junction of the M50 motorway and the N4. It is 8.8 km from Dublin city centre. The Old Lucan Road, once the main route from the city to the west, passes through the centre of Palmerstown village. A "palmer" in medieval times was a pilgrim who returned from the Holy Land with a palm branch or leaf. Between 1185 and 1188 Ailred the Palmer and his wife took religious vows and founded a priory and monastic hospital of Crutched Friars outside the West Gate of Dublin, on the road to Kilmainham, which they endowed with all their property. In 1188 Pope Clement III confirmed the priory's grants, including the both the parish of Palmerstown west of Kilmainham and the other parish of Palmerstown northwards in Fingal.

Gerard Lee notes an association of palmers with leper hospitals, of which there was one dedicated to Saint Laurence in the townland of the same name in Palmerstown. The spelling "Palmerston" rather than "Palmerstown" was fixed b y the Ordnance Survey of Ireland in the 1830s. Locals use "Palmerstown", road signs have used both. A plebiscite of residents is required for a legal name change. In 2009 a plebiscite to change to "Palmerstown" was narrowly defeated. Supporters of the change argued that the wording of the ballot confused some voters who wanted "Palmerstown" but voted No, they argue the spelling without W creates confusion with Palmerston Park further east in Rathmines. Opponents argue. Others argue that the name "Palmerston" applies only to the civil parish and townland, that the locality known as "Palmerstown" has a separate identity. In 2014, another plebiscite was held, restricted to the electoral division of Palmerston Village and excluding the adjoining ED of Palmerston West; the vote passed and the change to "Palmerstown Village" was approved at the county council meeting in January 2015.

The title Viscount Palmerston created in 1722 in the Peerage of Ireland derives from the place. The civil parish of Palmerstown is the most northerly parish in the former Barony of Uppercross. Much of Palmerstown has been developed for residential and commercial purposes over the last half century. Townlands include: Palmerston Lower Palmerston Upper Irishtown Saint Laurence Johnstown Palmerstown Manor Yellow Walls Fonthill Redcowfarm Woodfarm Quarryvale Brooklawn Liffey Valley The townlands of Palmerstown Upper and Palmerstown Lower straddle the old Lucan Road, the ancient western highway. Many of Palmerstown's local amenities are located in a cluster along the road. Robin Villas and Hollyville were labourers' cottages built at the beginning of the last century; the old national school is now a community centre. Stewarts Hospital, (formerly the residence of the Hely-Hutchinson family, the Roman Catholic Church of St. Philomena, the National School, the Palmerstown House Pub and Restaurant and a variety of general enterprises, including a bank and convenience stores are located here.

Stewartscare is a health care facility at the Stewarts buildings and grounds which overlook the meandering Liffey valley. The Stewarts complex houses the administration of the Irish Health Service Executive. Stewarts Sports and Leisure centre is open to the general public, it hosts an annual summer camp. This area was the location of the first modern housing development in Palmerstown, constructed between 1955 and 1965. Centred on Manor road, this area contains several shops, the local credit union and a doctor's surgery. To the east of Redcow Farm, adjacent to the California Hills Park, is Glenaulin Sports Park, home of St. Patricks GAA club; the name'California Hill' was given, by the children of the area, to a small wasteland to the East of Glenaulin Park, a builder’s dump during the construction of the main Palmerstown Estate in the mid to late 60's. The wasteland had a series of small hills which were in fact mounds of builders rubble, buried under clay and over grown with wild grass; the children of the area sometimes shortened the name to'The Caliers' and this name is still in use today.

The hills or mounds were flattened some years ago and the area landscaped for communal/public use. Mill Lane leads to the original Palmerstown settlement and centre of industry, which once employed over 600 millhands and labourers; this seventeenth-century low-lying waterside industrial village was complete with flax, seed and flour mills. The ruin of a pre-Norman church and the remains of the once prosperous thriving community are situated near the river. A small ferry crossed the Liffey here, to. A football ground opposite the river Liffey is home to Palmerstown F. C. Muhammad Ali visited Stewarts Hospital on the 15th of July 1972 when the hospital was hosting its annual sporting fete. Palmerstown's largest housing estate was built in the early 1990s in the south east of the area. Adjacent to the Coldcut and Kennelsfort roads and the M50 motorway, the estate marks the'border' between Palmerstown with Ballyfermot and Clondalkin; the townland of Woodfarm Acres was farmland, with a few council cottages existed on the site.

This housing development wa