A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. The difference in meaning between the English words kill and kiss is a result of the exchange of the phoneme /l/ for the phoneme /s/, two words that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form a minimal pair. In linguistics, phonemes are written between slashes like this, /p/, whereas when it is desired to show the exact pronunciation of any sound, linguists use square brackets. Within linguistics there are differing views as to exactly what phonemes are, however, a phoneme is generally regarded as an abstraction of a set of speech sounds which are perceived as equivalent to each other in a given language. For example, in English, the k sounds in the kit and skill are not identical. Different speech sounds that are realizations of the same phoneme are known as allophones, phonemes are conventionally placed between slashes in transcription, whereas speech sounds are placed between square brackets.
Thus /pʊʃ/ represents a sequence of three phonemes /p/, /ʊ/, /ʃ/, while represents the sequence of sounds. The symbols used for particular phonemes are often taken from the International Phonetic Alphabet, descriptions of particular languages may use different conventional symbols to represent the phonemes of those languages. A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived to have the function by speakers of the language or dialect in question. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in such as cat, scat. Although most native speakers do not notice this, in most English dialects the c/k sounds in words are not identical, in kit the sound is aspirated. The words therefore contain different speech sounds, or phones, transcribed for the aspirated form, the above shows that in English, and are allophones of a single phoneme /k/. For example, in Icelandic, is the first sound of kátur meaning cheerful, Icelandic therefore has two separate phonemes /kʰ/ and /k/. A pair of words like kátur and gátur that differ only in one phone is called a pair for the two alternative phones in question.
The existence of pairs is a common test to decide whether two phones represent different phonemes or are allophones of the same phoneme. In other languages, including Korean, even though both sounds and occur, no minimal pair exists. The lack of minimal pairs distinguishing and in Korean provides evidence that in this language they are allophones of a single phoneme /t/, the word /tata/ is pronounced, for example. Signed languages, such as American Sign Language have minimal pairs, Sign language minimal pairs refer to one of the signs parameters, movement, palm orientation, and non-manual signal/marker
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language. Noam Chomsky first used the term in relation to the linguistics of grammar that he developed in the late 1950s. Linguists who follow the approach have been called generativists. The generative school has focused on the study of syntax, but has addressed other aspects of a languages structure, early versions of Chomskys theory were called transformational grammar, which is still used as a general term that includes his subsequent theories. There are a number of versions of generative grammar currently practiced within linguistics, a contrasting approach is that of constraint-based grammars. Where a generative grammar attempts to list all the rules that result in all well-formed sentences, in stochastic grammar, grammatical correctness is taken as a probabilistic variable, rather than a discrete property. There are a number of different approaches to generative grammar, common to all is the effort to come up with a set of rules or principles that formally defines each and every one of the members of the set of well-formed expressions of a natural language.
Chomsky, in an acceptance speech delivered in India in 2001. Generative grammar has been under development since the late 1950s, and has many changes in the types of rules. In tracing the development of ideas within generative grammar, it is useful to refer to various stages in the development of the theory. The so-called standard theory corresponds to the model of generative grammar laid out by Chomsky in 1965. A core aspect of standard theory is the distinction between two different representations of a sentence, called deep structure and surface structure, the two representations are linked to each other by transformational grammar. The so-called extended standard theory was formulated in the late 1960s, features are, syntactic constraints generalized phrase structures The so-called revised extended standard theory was formulated between 1973 and 1976. It contains restrictions upon X-bar theory, move α An alternative model of syntax based on the idea that notions like subject, direct object, and indirect object play a primary role in grammar.
Chomskys Lectures on Government and Binding and Barriers, generative grammars can be described and compared, with the aid of the Chomsky hierarchy in the 1950s. This sets out a series of types of formal grammars with increasing expressive power, at a higher level of complexity are the context-free grammars. The derivation of a sentence by such a grammar can be depicted as a derivation tree, linguists working within generative grammar often view such trees as a primary object of study. According to this view, a sentence is not merely a string of words, such a tree diagram is called a phrase marker
An article is a word that is used alongside a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Articles specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, in some extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in the English language are the and a/an, an and a are modern forms of the Old English an, which in Anglian dialects was the number one and survived into Modern Scots as the number owan. Both on and an survived into Modern English, with one used as the number, in many languages, articles are a special part of speech, which cannot easily be combined with other parts of speech. In English, articles are considered a part of a broader speech category called determiners. In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness. Every noun must be accompanied by the article, if any, corresponding to its definiteness, and this is in contrast to other adjectives and determiners, which are typically optional. This obligatory nature of articles makes them among the most common words in many languages—in English, for example, articles are usually characterized as either definite or indefinite. A few languages with well-developed systems of articles may distinguish additional subtypes, within each type, languages may have various forms of each article, according to grammatical attributes such as gender, number, or case, or according to adjacent sounds.
The definite article is used to refer to a member of a group or class. It may be something that the speaker has already mentioned or it may be something uniquely specified, the definite article in English for both singular and plural nouns, is the. The children know the fastest way home, the sentence above refers to specific children and a specific way home, it contrasts with the much more general observation that, Children know the fastest ways home. The latter sentence refers to children in general and their specific ways home, refers to a specific book whose identity is known or obvious to the listener, as such it has a markedly different meaning from Give me a book. Which uses an indefinite article, which does not specify what book is to be given, the definite article can be used in English to indicate a specific class among other classes, The cabbage white butterfly lays its eggs on members of the Brassica genus. However, recent developments show that definite articles are morphological elements linked to certain noun types due to lexicalization, under this point of view, definiteness does not play a role in the selection of a definite article more than the lexical entry attached to the article.
The definite article is used with proper names, which are already specified by definition. For example, the Amazon, the Hebrides, in these cases, the definite article may be considered superfluous. Its presence can be accounted for by the assumption that they are shorthand for a phrase in which the name is a specifier, i. e. the Amazon River
Speech is the vocalized form of communication based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the combination of a limited set of vowel. These vocabularies, the syntax that structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating thousands of different. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots, the vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech enable them to sing. A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language, speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech is researched in terms of the production and speech perception of the sounds used in vocal language. Several academic disciplines study these, including acoustics, speech pathology, cognitive science, communication studies, another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Brocas area and Wernickes area underlies speech.
It is controversial how far human speech is unique, in animals communicate with vocalizations. The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate, in linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, jaw, vocal cords, and other speech organs used to produce sounds, make contact with each other. Often the concept is used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners of articulation, normal human speech is produced with pressure from the lungs, which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx, which is modified by the vocal tract into different vowels and consonants. However humans can pronounce words without the use of the lungs and glottis in alaryngeal speech, speech perception refers to the processes by which humans can interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds, speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.
Spoken vocalizations are quickly turned from sensory inputs into motor instructions needed for their immediate or delayed vocal imitation and this occurs independently of speech perception. This type of mapping plays a key role in enabling children to expand their spoken vocabulary, speech is a complex activity, as a result, errors are often made in speech. Speech errors have been analyzed by scientists to understand the nature of the involved in the production of speech. There are several organic and psychological factors that can affect speech, among these are and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat
A connotation is frequently described as either positive or negative, with regards to its pleasing or displeasing emotional connection. Connotation branches into a mixture of different meanings and these could include the contrast of a word or phrase with its primary, literal meaning, with what that word or phrase specifically denotes. The connotation essentially relates to how anything may be associated with a word or phrase, for example and it is often useful to avoid words with strong connotations when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the reasons for using euphemisms. In logic and semantics, connotation is roughly synonymous with intension, connotation is often contrasted with denotation, which is more or less synonymous with extension. Alternatively, the connotation of the word may be thought of as the set of all its possible referents, a words denotation is the collection of things it refers to, its connotation is what it implies about the things it is used to refer to.
The denotation of dog is four-legged canine carnivore, so saying, You are a dog would imply that you were ugly or aggressive rather than stating that you were canine. Denotation Double entendre Extension Extensional definition Intension Intensional definition Metacommunicative competence Pun Subtext
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. Phonology includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages, the word phonology can refer to the phonological system of a given language. This is one of the systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax. Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics, note that this distinction was not always made, particularly before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century. The word phonology comes from Ancient Greek φωνή, phōnḗ, sound, according to Clark et al. it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. The history of phonology may be traced back to the Ashtadhyayi, Baudouin de Courtenays work, though often unacknowledged, is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He worked on the theory of alternations, and may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K.
Koerner. An influential school of phonology in the period was the Prague school. One of its members was Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose Grundzüge der Phonologie. Directly influenced by Baudouin de Courtenay, Trubetzkoy is considered the founder of morphophonology, Trubetzkoy developed the concept of the archiphoneme. Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, who was one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century, in 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English, the basis for generative phonology. In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features and these features were an expansion of earlier work by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle. The features describe aspects of articulation and perception, are from a fixed set. There are at least two levels of representation, underlying representation and surface phonetic representation, ordered phonological rules govern how underlying representation is transformed into the actual pronunciation.
An important consequence of the influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable, the generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems. Natural phonology is a based on the publications of its proponent David Stampe in 1969. In this view, phonology is based on a set of phonological processes that interact with one another, which ones are active. Rather than acting on segments, phonological processes act on distinctive features within prosodic groups, prosodic groups can be as small as a part of a syllable or as large as an entire utterance
Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming and he contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation, Knuth strongly opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organization. Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and his father had two jobs, running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there, for example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in Zieglers Giant Bar could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat.
Knuth had a time choosing physics over music as his major at Case Institute of Technology. He joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity, while studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school. In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his schools basketball team win their games and he assigned values to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the editors of the Engineering and Science Review. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology, after receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltechs faculty as an associate professor. He accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers and he originally planned to publish this as a single book.
As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes and he published the first volume in 1968. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty, Knuth is a writer as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the father of the analysis of algorithms, in the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as a totally new field with no real identity. And the standard of available publications was not that high, a lot of the papers coming out were quite simply wrong. So one of my motivations was to put straight a story that had been very badly told, by 2013, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of study and a productive civic practice. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it the faculty of observing in any case the available means of persuasion. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome, arrangement, memory, along with grammar and logic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a part of Western education. Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times, although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.
Many contemporary approaches treat rhetoric as human communication that includes purposeful, Public relations, law, marketing and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a tool to influence politics. Consequently, rhetoric remains associated with its political origins, even the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric. According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic and this method suggested rhetoric could be a means of communicating any expertise, not just politics. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias even applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his opinions of the art.
He criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth, in Gorgias, one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Platos opinion, is merely a form of flattery and functions similarly to cookery, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, and epideictic, when one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice