Redwood Falls, Minnesota
Redwood Falls is a city in Redwood County, located along the Redwood River near its confluence with the Minnesota River, in the U. S. state of Minnesota. The population was 5,254 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat. As the immigrant and the Euro-American population of the North American east coast region grew, population pressures affected people far inland. People moved west to find new homes as more land was used by farmers; the Minnesota area is the ancestral homeland of the several Dakota peoples, who consisted of the loosely confederated Oceti sakowin. By 1700, who spoke an Anishinaabe language, had come to what is now Minnesota from the further east around the Great Lakes. At times they came into conflict with the Dakota over land and resources and began to push them to the west. By the mid-19th century, the traditional Dakota yearly cycle of farming, hunting and gathering wild rice had been disrupted by cultural changes. Permanent farms were established by changing habitat. In addition, they removed forests in eastern Minnesota for timber.
Wild game such as bison, whitetail deer, bear had been hunted so intensively that populations were much reduced compared to the centuries before Euro-American settlement. Dakota people relied on the sale of valuable furs to American traders to earn cash needed to buy necessities. To encourage the Dakota to bring in more furs, traders offered merchandise on credit, it is not clear that the Dakota well understood the concept of credit, but they grew to depend on trade goods for metal tools and other items. Pressure from traders who wanted to be paid and concern from government officials about the ability of the Dakota to earn the money they needed, led to the 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux; the federal government wanted to extinguish Native American land title to tracts of land and offered the people annuities of money and goods in exchange. The Dakota agreed to live on a twenty-mile-wide reservation centered on a 75-mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River. Annuity payments for the Dakota were late in the summer of 1862, an example of a pattern of poor delivery of payments and supplies to them.
The site of the future town of Redwood Falls was within the Dakota reservation area along the lower Minnesota River. The war of 1862 was a small segment in Sioux history of conflict with European Americans. Corruption and malfeasance by the Bureau of Indian Affairs resulted in delays of payments of annuities and supplies of promised supplies, causing great hardships for the Dakota. In addition, they struggled with the effects of the relocation and inability to adjust to settled subsistence farming. An August 4, 1862 confrontation between soldiers and braves led the Indian Agency near Granite Falls to distribute provisions to the tribe on credit to avoid violence. At the Lower Agency at Redwood, things were handled differently. At an August 15, 1862 meeting attended by Dakota representatives, Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith, representatives of the traders, the traders resisted pleas to distributing provisions held in agency warehouses to starving Dakota until the annuity payments arrived. In 1862, U.
S. officials in Minnesota were distracted by the U. S. Civil War, payments did not arrive, the suffering of the Dakota was severe; some young Dakota took action killing several people in the process. This began the Dakota War of 1862; as a result of the war, the U. S. government hanged 38 participants and attempted to expel the Dakota people from Minnesota altogether. But it ended up maintaining the Lower Sioux Indian Reservation in Redwood County. Over time, the Dakota lost control of much of the land first set aside in 1851. In 1864, Sam McPhail, a colonel who had commanded U. S. troops in the war and was a land speculator, claimed the land. He hired men to use lumber from the Dakota reservation to build a fortified house and surrounded it with a sod stockade eight feet tall. McPhail published the Redwood Falls Patriot from 1866 to 1869, he was first Redwood County attorney. In 1872, he donated land for the county courthouse as Redwood Falls was designated as the county seat. Among settlers who joined McPhail in 1864 was John St. George Honner.
Honner claimed land north of Redwood Falls. The house he built in 1869 still stands in North Redwood and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Honner was appointed as the first postmaster and served as a county official. Active in electoral politics, he served as a representative and as a senator in the state legislature between 1866 and 1874. Honner operated a granite quarry near North Redwood and supplied the stone for the county courthouse. After World War II, Redwood Falls was home to the Minnesota Inventors Congress. Started in 1958 to encourage innovation and entrepreneurship and attract industry to town, MIC held a juried exhibition each year, it sponsored a contest for student inventors and a parade for the city. After a 58-year run, the MIC was ended in 2014 due to a lack of funding; the city of Redwood Falls took over Alexander Ramsey Park in 1958 from the state of Minnesota. Ramsey had been one of the least developed state parks, it has been improved as the largest municipal park in Minnesota.
The cities of North Redwood and Redwood Falls merged in 1996. In 2010 Native Americans composed more than 6% of the population in the city, they continue to live in many areas of Minnesota. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.38 square miles. The Redwood River flows t
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
U.S. Route 14
U. S. Route 14, an east–west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926, it has a length of 1,398 miles, but it had a peak length of 1,429 miles. For much of its length, it runs parallel to Interstate 90; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is in Chicago, Illinois. Its western terminus is the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, with the western terminus of U. S. Route 16 and the western terminus of the eastern segment of U. S. Route 20. U. S. 14 begins at the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, along with U. S. 16 and the eastern segment of U. S. 20. It travels through the Shoshone National Forest to Cody, where U. S. 14A splits off to the north. Both routes traverse the dry Bighorn Basin, followed by a steep ascent up the Big Horn Mountains and through the Bighorn National Forest, where they rejoin at Burgess Junction; the highway descends the eastern slope of the Bighorns between Burgess Junction and Dayton. U. S. 14 follows I-90 south from Ranchester to Sheridan.
The highway turns east and south to again join I-90 near Gillette. It splits off for a short time to Carlile rejoins I-90 which it follows to the state line; the South Dakota section of U. S. 14, other than a concurrency with Interstate 90, is defined in the South Dakota Codified Laws. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway incorporates U. S. 14 from South Dakota in the west to Rochester, Minnesota, in the east, where the historic roadway continues on U. S. 63. The author moved to De Smet, SD from Walnut Grove, MN via the Chicago and Northwestern, which parallels the highway from the Black Hills to La Crosse, WI. In South Dakota and Minnesota, the road parallels the Rapid City and Eastern Railroad the Dakota and Eastern Railroad. US 14 and US 83 are the only national routes serving Pierre, South Dakota, one of only four state capitals not on the Interstate Highway System. U. S. 14 enters the state from South Dakota west of Lake Benton. It goes east through several small towns such as Balaton, Revere, Lamberton and Sleepy Eye, on a two-lane road until New Ulm, where it is a divided highway.
From New Ulm to Mankato, the highway lies north of the Minnesota River. Shortly before coming to the Mankato/North Mankato area, U. S. 14 becomes a freeway bypass, which becomes an expressway east of Mankato. This section is part of the Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway as it passes through Walnut Grove, it continues east south of Waseca and at Owatonna, it crosses Interstate 35. It heads east towards Rochester, with an expressway segment beginning at Minnesota State Highway 56 and continuing east into Rochester. Once it enters Rochester, it has a concurrency with U. S. Route 52. After the concurrency, it continues through Rochester as a divided highway. After Rochester, the highway parallels Interstate 90 until Winona, where U. S. 14 gets picked up by U. S. Route 61; the two highways run concurrently the rest of the way in Minnesota, cross the Mississippi River at La Crescent over the La Crosse West Channel Bridge. U. S. 14 was extended to a full, limited-access freeway from three miles west of Janesville to Interstate 35 at Owatonna.
Most of the new route is located south of the existing alignment so as to avoid overlapping Interstate 35. The expansion was opened to traffic on August 31, 2012, creating a continuous 4-lane route from North Mankato to Owatonna; the section from Waseca to Janesville has yet to be upgraded to freeway standards. The Minnesota section of U. S. 14 is defined as part of Constitutional Route 7 and Trunk Highways 121 and 122 in the Minnesota Statutes. U. S. 14 enters the state of Wisconsin along with U. S. Route 61 across the Mississippi River into La Crosse. Running through rural southern Wisconsin, the route passes through Madison and the village square of Walworth. U. S. 14 exits into Illinois at Big Foot Prairie. In the state of Illinois, U. S. 14 runs southeast from north of Harvard to Chicago via Woodstock and the northwest suburbs. Southeast of Route 47, U. S. 14 has four lanes. Continuing southeastward from just after the overpass above Route 31, U. S. 14 passes beneath and closely parallels the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad's Harvard Subdivision.
Through the northwest suburbs of Chicago, this route is referred to as "Northwest Highway" and is a busy thoroughfare. East of Des Plaines, U. S. 14 becomes Dempster Street until its intersection with Waukegan Road. From here, U. S. 14 follows Waukegan Road, Caldwell Avenue, Peterson Avenue, Ridge Avenue to its eastern end, at the corner of Broadway and U. S. 41. At an earlier point, U. S. 14 extended south on Lake Shore Drive onto Michigan Avenue. U. S. 14 was the "Black and Yellow Trail", so named as it connected Minnesota with the Black Hills and Yellowstone National Park. In Chicago's Northwest Suburbs, it is known as Northwest Highway due to its direction as well as it paralleling the old Chicago and North Western railroad It was called the Northwest Highway from Chicago to New Ulm and some street signs in New Ulm and towns in between still show the old designation. From Ucross west to Sheridan, Wyoming, US 14 was designated U. S. Route 116 in 1926. US 116 was extended west to Cody in 1933, absorbing the Deaver-Cody US 420.
The next year, US 116 became an extension of US 14. Part of this extension, including all of US 420, is now US 14A. Wyoming US 16 / US 20 at the East Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, southeast of Pahaska Tepee; the highways travel concurrently to Greybull. US 310 west-northwest of Greybull I‑90 / US 87 northe
Cottonwood River (Minnesota)
The Cottonwood River is a tributary of the Minnesota River, 152 miles long, in southwestern Minnesota in the United States. Via the Minnesota River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 1,313 square miles in an agricultural region; the river's name is a translation of the Sioux name for the river, for the cottonwood tree, common along prairie rivers. It has been known as the Big Cottonwood River; the Cottonwood River flows eastwardly throughout its course. It rises southwest of Balaton in Rock Lake Township in southern Lyon County, as an intermittent stream on the Coteau des Prairies, a morainic plateau dividing the Mississippi and Missouri River watersheds; the river flows off the Coteau in a wooded valley in southeastern Lyon County, dropping 200 feet in five miles, enters a region of till plains, flowing through southern Redwood County, the northeastern corner of Cottonwood County, northern Brown County, past the communities of Sanborn and Springfield.
It enters a wooded valley near its mouth, flowing through Flandrau State Park and entering the Minnesota River just southeast of New Ulm. The river was dammed to form a lake in the state park, but the dam was not rebuilt after being washed out by floods in 1965 and 1969. Due to the northeastward slope of the Coteau des Prairies and the presence of a terminal moraine along the northern side of the river few tributaries enter the Cottonwood River from the north; the largest is Sleepy Eye Creek, 51 miles long, which flows eastwardly through Redwood and Brown Counties, past Cobden. Tributaries from the south include Plum Creek, 35 miles long, which flows northeastwardly through Murray and Redwood Counties, past Walnut Grove. 84% of land in the Cottonwood River watershed is used for agriculture. Wetlands in the watershed have been extensively drained, fewer than 4,000 acres remain. At the United States Geological Survey's stream gauge near New Ulm, 3.2 miles upstream from the river's mouth, the annual mean flow of the river between 1909 and 2005 was 381 cubic feet per second.
The highest recorded flow during the period was 28,700 ft³/s on April 10, 1969. The lowest recorded flow was 0.5 ft³/s on November 27, 1952. List of rivers in Minnesota Little Cottonwood River
The Minnesota Legislature is the bicameral legislature of the U. S. state of Minnesota consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Senators are elected from 67 single-member districts. In order to account for decennial redistricting, members run for one two-year term and two four-year terms each decade, they are elected for four-year terms in years ending in 2 and 6, for two-year terms in years ending in 0. Representatives are elected for two-year terms from 134 single-member districts formed by dividing the 67 senate districts in half. Both houses of the Legislature meet between January and the first Monday following the third Saturday in May each year, not to exceed 120 days per biennium. Floor sessions are held in the Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul. Early on in the Minnesota's history, the Legislature had direct control over the city charters that set the groundwork for governments in municipalities across the state. In the early period, many laws were written for specific cities.
The practice was outlawed in 1881. For instance, the long-standing Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board and the city's now defunct Library Board were both created by the Legislature in the next several years; the Minnesota Constitution was amended in 1896 to give cities direct control over their own charters. Following the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920, women began to be elected to the Minnesota Legislature. In 1922, Mabeth Hurd Paige, Hannah Kempfer, Sue Metzger Dickey Hough and Myrtle Cain were elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives. In 1984, the Legislature ordered. After two years of work, the rewritten laws were adopted. Only 301 of 20,000 pronouns were feminine. "His" was changed 10,000 times and "he" was changed 6,000 times. In 1913, Minnesota legislators began to be elected on nonpartisan ballots; this was a historical accident that occurred when a bill to provide for no-party elections of judges and county officers was amended to include the Legislature in the belief that it would kill the bill.
While Minnesota legislators were elected on a nonpartisan ballot, they caucused as "Liberals" or "Conservatives," the equivalent in most years to Democratic or Farmer–Labor and Republican, respectively. In 1974, House members again ran with party designation. In 1976, Senate members again ran with party designation. Governor Jesse Ventura advocated the idea of changing the Legislature to be unicameral while he was in office, but the concept did not obtain widespread support. In 2004, the Legislature ended its regular session without acting on a majority of the planned legislation due to political divisiveness on a variety of issues ranging from education to same-sex marriage. A proper budget failed to pass, major anticipated projects such as the Northstar Corridor commuter rail line were not approved. Governor Tim Pawlenty, an advocate of the line, was expected to request a special session, but ended up helping the coordination of other funds to continue development of the line; the lack of action in the 2004 session is said to be one reason why a number of Republican House members lost their seats in the November election.
The Democratic–Farmer–Labor minority grew from 53 to 66 and the Republican majority was reduced from 81 to 68. The Senate was not up for election in 2004 so the DFL was able to maintain its five-seat majority in the upper house. One state senator, Sheila Kiscaden of Rochester, was an Independence Party member until December 2005 when she began caucusing with the DFL, although she had been an elected Republican in the past; the DFL majority increased to six senators when Kiscaden announced her re-affiliation with the DFL in preparation to run for lieutenant governor on a ticket with DFLer Kelly Doran. There is a mandatory adjournment date specified in the state constitution: "The legislature shall not meet in regular session, nor in any adjournment thereof, after the first Monday following the third Saturday in May of any year." In 2005, the regular session ended without passage of an overall budget and a special session was subsequently called by Governor Pawlenty. No overall budget passed by the end of the fiscal year on June 30, much of the government shut down for the first time in the state's history.
However, some essential services remained in operation and some departments received funding in legislation. A compromise budget was signed into law two weeks later. After the 2018 election cycle, the Minnesota Legislature became the only state in the nation with a divided legislature, with the DFL party controlling the House and the Republicans holding the Senate majority; when the Legislature is in session, proceedings of both houses are broadcast on television via the Minnesota Channel and online via the Legislature's website. Minnesota Senate Minnesota House of Representatives Minnesota Territorial Legislature Minnesota Legislature Minnesota Senate Minnesota House of Representatives
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol