Yochai Benkler is an Israeli-American author and the Berkman Professor of Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard Law School. He is a faculty co-director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. From 1984 to 1987, Benkler was a treasurer of the Kibbutz Shizafon, he received his LL. B. from Tel-Aviv University in 1991 and J. D. from Harvard Law School in 1994. He worked at the law firm Ropes & Gray from 1994–1995, he clerked for U. S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen G. Breyer from 1995 to 1996, he was a professor at New York University School of Law from 1996 to 2003, visited at Yale Law School and Harvard Law School, before joining the Yale Law School faculty in 2003. In 2007, Benkler joined Harvard Law School, where he teaches and is a faculty co-director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. Benkler is on the advisory board of the Sunlight Foundation. In 2011, his research led him to receive the $100,000 Ford Foundation Social Change Visionaries Award.
Benkler's research focuses on commons-based approaches to managing resources in networked environments. He coined the term'commons-based peer production' to describe collaborative efforts based on sharing information, such as free and open source software and Wikipedia, he uses the term'networked information economy' to describe a "system of production and consumption of information goods characterized by decentralized individual action carried out through distributed, nonmarket means that do not depend on market strategies." Benkler's 2006 book The Wealth of Networks examines the ways in which information technology permits extensive forms of collaboration that have transformative consequences for economy and society. Wikipedia, Creative Commons, Open Source Software and the blogosphere are among the examples that Benkler draws upon. For example, Benkler argues that blogs and other modes of participatory communication can lead to "a more critical and self-reflective culture", where citizens are empowered by the ability to publicize their own opinions on a range of issues, which enables them to move from passive recipients of "received wisdom" to active participants.
Much of The Wealth of Networks is presented in economic terms, Benkler raises the possibility that a culture in which information is shared could prove more economically efficient than one in which innovation is encumbered by patent or copyright law, since the marginal cost of re-producing most information is nothing. Along with Robert Faris, Research Director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, Hal Roberts, a Fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, Benkler co-authored the October 2018 Network Propaganda: Manipulation and Radicalization in American Politics. According to Benkler, the emergence of the networked information economy "has the potential to increase individual autonomy", which he means would provide individuals with a richer basis from which they can form critical judgement concerning how they should live their life. Benkler coined the term'Jalt' as a contraction of jealousy and altruism, to describe the dynamic in commons-based peer production where some participants get paid while others do not, or "whether people get paid differentially for participating."
The term was first introduced in his seminal paper "Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm." It is described in more technical terms as "social-psychological component of the reward to support monetary appropriation by others or... where one agent is jealous of the rewards of another."Benkler appeared in the documentary film Steal This Film, available through Creative Commons. He discussed various issues, including: how the changing cost structures in film and music production are enabling new stratums of society to create. Benkler is a strong proponent of WikiLeaks, characterizing it as a prime example of non-traditional media filling a public watchdog role left vacant by traditional news outlets. In a draft paper written for the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review in February 2011, he uses governmental vilification and prosecution of Wikileaks as a case study demonstrating the need for more robust legal protection for independent media. In August 2011, Benkler was a keynote speaker at the Wikimania conference in Israel.
That same August, Benkler's latest book on social cooperation online and off, titled The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest, was published. Benkler discussed this book at a lecture given at Harvard on October 18, 2011. Benkler contributed the essay "Complexity and Humanity" to the Freesouls book project, which discusses the human element in production and technology. 2006 – Donald McGannon Award for Social and Ethical Relevance in Communications Policy Research 2006 – Public Knowledge IP3 Award March 2007 – EFF Pioneer Award 2008 – The American Sociological Association Section on Communication and Information Technologies Book Award 2009 – Don K. Price Award May 2011 – Ford Foundation Visionaries Award Industrial information economy Carr–Benkler wager Official website Official page at Harvard Law School Appearances on C-SPAN Interview with Benkler Speaking at Pop! Tech 2005 Yochai Benkler at TED Yochai Benkler on the new open-source economics, a TED talk The Penguin and The Leviathan: The Science and Practice of Cooperation at The Santa Fe Institute 2010.
Wikipedia 1, Hobbes 0: Benkler's chair lecture at Harvard Law, as reported in the Harvard Law Record From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation. Toward Sustainable Commons and
Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon
Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon is a parlor game based on the "six degrees of separation" concept, which posits that any two people on Earth are six or fewer acquaintance links apart. Movie buffs challenge each other to find the shortest path between an arbitrary actor and prolific actor Kevin Bacon, it rests on the assumption that anyone involved in the Hollywood film industry can be linked through their film roles to Bacon within six steps. In 2007, Bacon started. In a January 1994 interview with Premiere magazine Kevin Bacon mentioned while discussing the film The River Wild that "he had worked with everybody in Hollywood or someone who's worked with them." Following this, a lengthy newsgroup thread, headed "Kevin Bacon is the Center of the Universe" appeared. Four Albright College students, including Brian Turtle, claim to have invented the game that became known as "Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon" after watching two movies featuring Bacon back to back and The Air Up There. During the second they began to speculate on how many movies Bacon had been in and the number of people with whom he had worked.
In the interview, Brian Turtle explained. People would throw names at us and we'd connect them to Kevin Bacon." They wrote a letter to talk show host Jon Stewart, telling him that "Kevin Bacon was the center of the entertainment universe" and explaining the game. They appeared on The Howard Stern Show with Bacon to explain the game. Bacon admitted that he disliked the game because he believed it was ridiculing him, but he came to enjoy it; the three inventors released a book, Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon, with an introduction written by Bacon. A board game based on the concept was released by Endless Games. Bacon appeared in a commercial for the Visa check card that parodied the game. In the commercial, Bacon wants to write a check to buy a book, but the clerk asks for his ID, which he does not have, he leaves and returns with a group of people says to the clerk, "Okay, I was in a movie with an extra, whose hairdresser, attended Sunday school with Father O'Neill, who plays racquetball with Dr. Sanjay, who removed the appendix of Kim, who dumped you sophomore year.
So you see, we're brothers." In a similar vein, Dave Barry, in a column describing the unexpected complications that emerged when he attempted to find out the precise wording of the Lone Ranger's catchphrase, connected the Lone Ranger to Kevin Bacon in the following way: the Lone Ranger was the Green Hornet's great-uncle. The concept was presented in an episode of the TV show Mad About You dated November 19, 1996, in which a character expressed the opinion that every actor is only three degrees of separation from Kevin Bacon. Bacon spoofed the concept. Playing himself in a 2003 episode of Will and Grace, Bacon connects himself to Val Kilmer through Tom Cruise and jokes "Hey, a short one!". The headline of The Onion, a satirical newspaper, on October 30, 2002, was "Kevin Bacon Linked To Al-Qaeda". Bacon provides the voice-over commentary for the NY Skyride attraction at the Empire State Building in New York City. At several points throughout the commentary, Bacon alludes to his connections to Hollywood stars via other actors with whom he has worked.
In 2009, Bacon narrated a National Geographic Channel show "The Human Family Tree" – a program which describes the efforts of that organization's Genographic Project to establish the genetic interconnectedness of all humans. In 2011, James Franco made reference to Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon while hosting the 83rd Academy Awards. In the summer of 2012, Google began to offer the ability to find an actor's Bacon number on its main page, by searching for the actor's name preceded by the phrase "bacon number". EE began a UK television advertising campaign on November 3, 2012, based on the Six Degrees concept, where Kevin Bacon illustrates his connections and draws attention to how the EE 4G network allows similar connectivity; the most connected nodes of the Internet have been referred to as "the'Kevin Bacons' of the Web," inasmuch as they enable most users to navigate to most sites in 19 clicks or less. In "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "Lame Claim to Fame," one of the lines is, "I know a guy who knows a guy who knows a guy who knows a guy who knows a guy who knows Kevin Bacon," leading to a Bacon Number of 6.
The Bacon number of an actor is the number of degrees of separation he or she has from Bacon, as defined by the game. This is an application of the Erdős number concept to the Hollywood movie industry; the higher the Bacon number, the greater the separation from Kevin Bacon the actor is. The computation of a Bacon number for actor X is a "shortest path" algorithm, applied to the co-stardom network: Kevin Bacon himself has a Bacon number of 0; those actors who have worked directly with Kevin Bacon have a Bacon number of 1. If the lowest Bacon number of any actor with whom X has appeared in any movie is N, X's Bacon number is N+1. Elvis Presley: Elvis Presley was in Change of Habit with Edward Asner Edward Asner was in JFK with Kevin BaconTherefore, Asner has a Bacon number of 1, Presley has a Bacon number of 2. Ian McKellen: Ian McKellen was in X-Men: Days of Future Past with Michael Fassbender and James McAvoy McAvoy and Fassbender were in X-Men: First Class with Kevin BaconTherefore, McAvoy and Fassbender have Bacon numbers
David P. Reed
David Patrick Reed is an American computer scientist, educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, known for a number of significant contributions to computer networking and wireless communications networks. He was involved in the early development of TCP/IP, was the designer of the User Datagram Protocol, though he finds this title "a little embarrassing", he was one of the authors of the original paper about the end-to-end principle, End-to-end arguments in system design, published in 1984. He is known for Reed's law, his assertion that the utility of large networks social networks, can scale exponentially with the size of the network. From 2003–2010, Reed was an adjunct professor at the MIT Media Lab, where he co-led the Viral Communications group and the Communication Futures program, he serves as a senior vice president of the Chief Scientist Group at SAP Labs. He is one of six principal architects of the Croquet project, he is on the advisory board of TTI/Vanguard. The 1978 dissertation by David P. Reed which quite describes Multiversion concurrency control and claims it as an original work.
MVCC is a concurrency control method used by database management systems to provide concurrent access to the database and in programming languages to implement transactional memory. Media related to David P. Reed at Wikimedia Commons Reed's Locus Biography Naming and synchronization in a decentralized computer system Personal homepage of David P. Reed featuring publication list, biography, etc
Andrew Michael Odlyzko is a Polish-American mathematician and a former head of the University of Minnesota's Digital Technology Center and of the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute. He began his career in 1975 at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he stayed for 26 years before joining the University of Minnesota in 2001. Odlyzko received his B. S. and M. S. in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology and his Ph. D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1975. In the field of mathematics he has published extensively on analytic number theory, computational number theory, cryptography and computational complexity, combinatorics and error-correcting codes. In the early 1970s, he was a co-author of one of the founding papers of the modern umbral calculus. In 1985 he and Herman te Riele disproved the Mertens conjecture. In mathematics, he is known best for his work on the Riemann zeta function, which led to the invention of improved algorithms, including the Odlyzko–Schönhage algorithm, large-scale computations, which stimulated extensive research on connections between the zeta function and random matrix theory.
As a direct collaborator of Paul Erdős, he has Erdős number 1. More he has worked on communication networks, electronic publishing, economics of security and electronic commerce. In 1998, he and Kerry Coffman were the first to show that one of the great inspirations for the Internet bubble, the myth of "Internet traffic doubling every 100 days," was false. In the paper "Content is Not King", published in First Monday in January 2001, he argues that the entertainment industry is a small industry compared with other industries, notably the telecommunications industry. In 2012 he became a fellow of the International Association for Cryptologic Research and in 2013 of the American Mathematical Society. In the paper "Metcalfe's Law is Wrong", Andrew Odlyzko argues that the incremental value of adding one person to network of n people is the nth harmonic number, so the total value of the network is n log n. Since this curves upward, it implies that Metcalfe's conclusion – that there is a critical mass in networks, leading to a network effect – is qualitatively correct.
But since this linearithmic function does not grow as as Metcalfe's law, it implies that many of the quantitative expectations based on Metcalfe's law were excessively optimistic. For example, by Metcalfe, if a hypothetical network of 100,000 members has a value of $1M, doubling its membership would increase its value times, or in other words quadruple to $4M. However, per Odlyzko, that its value would only grow by 200,000 log / 100,000 log times, or in other words more than double to $2.1M. Binomial type Digital media Metcalfe's law Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture Reed's law Riemann hypothesis Andrew Odlyzko: Home Page Digital Technology Center at the University of Minnesota Andrew Odlyzko, Tragic loss or good riddance? The impending demise of traditional scholarly journals Andrew Odlyzko, Content is Not King, First Monday, Vol. 6, No. 2. Montgomery–Odlyzko law at MathWorld
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors, sets of dyadic ties, other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures; the study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, examine network dynamics. Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations". Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships; these approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s.
Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, is employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science; the social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, organizations, or entire societies. The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions; the ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is ignored although this may not be the case in practice.
Because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, communication studies, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology and sociolinguistics. In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief or impersonal and instrumental social links. Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.
Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology and mathematics working independently. In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups classrooms and work groups. In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Claude Lévi-Strauss. A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa and the United Kingdom. Concomitantly, British anthropologist S. F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure, influential in network analysis. In sociology, the early work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.
Drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory. By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis. Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks. Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, others and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.
In general, social networks are self-organizing, em