Units of textile measurement
Textile fibers, threads and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units. A fiber, a single filament of natural material, such as cotton, linen or wool, or artificial material such as nylon, metal or mineral fiber, or man-made cellulosic fibre like viscose, Lyocell or other rayon fiber is measured in terms of linear mass density, the weight of a given length of fiber. Various units are used to refer to the measurement of a fiber, such as: the denier and tex, super S, worsted count, woolen count, linen count, cotton count, Number metric and yield. A yarn, a spun agglomeration of fibers used for knitting, weaving or sewing, is measured in terms of cotton count and yarn density. Thread consisting of multiple yarns plied together producing a long, thin strand used in sewing or weaving, is measured in the same units as yarn. Fabric, cloth produced by weaving, knitting or knotting textile fibers, yarns or threads, is measured in units such as the momme, thread count, ends per inch and picks per inch.
Micronaire is a measure of the air permeability of cotton fiber and is an indication of fineness and maturity. Micronaire affects various aspects of cotton processing. Not a true unit of measure, S or super S number is an index of the fineness of wool fiber and is most seen as a label on wool apparel and yarn. S number Staple Wool measurement Slivers and rovings are terms used in the worsted process; the sliver come off the card, tops come after the comb, rovings come before a yarn, all have a heavier linear density. If the metric system is in use the linear density of slivers and tops is given in grams per meter. Tops destined for machine processing are 20 grams per meter. Hobby spinners typical use a little heavier top. Similar to tex and denier, yield is a term that helps describe the linear density of a roving of fibers. However, unlike tex and denier, yield is the inverse of linear density and is expressed in yards per pound. Number of twists per inch. Number of twists per meter. There are two systems used for presenting linear density and indirect.
When the direct method is used the length is fixed and the weight of yarn is measured, for example, tex gives the weight in grams of one kilometer of yarn. An indirect method gives the length of yarn created; the textile industry has a long history and there are various units in use. Tex is more to be used in Canada and Continental Europe, while denier remains more common in the United States and United Kingdom; the International System of Units uses kilogram per meter for linear density. Den grams per 9 kilometres of yarn. Den is a direct measure of linear density. Dtex grams per 10 kilometres of yarn. Dtex is a direct measure of linear density. Gr/yard grains per yard of yarn. Gr/yard is a direct measure of linear density. ECC or NeC or Ne The number of 840 yards lengths per pound. ECC is an indirect measure of linear density, it is the number of hanks of skein material. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as coarse counts.
A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 40 count. The number is now used in the staple fiber industry. Lea or NeL The number of 300 yards lengths per 1 pound of yarn. Lea is an indirect measure of linear density. Ne or NeC or ECC; the number of 840 yards lengths per pound. Ne is an indirect measure of linear density, it is the number of hanks of skein material. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as coarse counts. A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 40 count; the number is now used in the staple fiber industry. NeC or Ne or ECC; the number of 840 yards lengths per pound. NeC is an indirect measure of linear density, it is the number of hanks of skein material. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as coarse counts. A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 40 count; the number is now used in the staple fiber industry.
NeK or NeW. The number of 560 yards lengths per 1 pound of yarn. NeK is an indirect measure of linear density. NeK is referred to as the Spinning count. NeL or Lea; the number of 300 yards lengths per 1 pound of yarn. NeL is an indirect measure of linear density. NeS; the number of 256 yards lengths per 1 pound of yarn. NeS is an indirect measure of linear density. One of the best known of the many different woollen yarn counts. NeW or NeK; the number of 560 yards lengths per 1 pound of yarn. NeW is an indirect measure of linear density. Tex grams per kilometer of yarn. Tex is a direct measure of linear density. Tex is used for measuring fiber size in many products, including cigarette filters, optical cable and fabric. Fil
Lampas is a type of luxury fabric with a background weft in taffeta with supplementary wefts laid on top and forming a design, sometimes with a "brocading weft". Lampas is woven in silk, has gold and silver thread enrichment. Lampas weaves were developed around 1000 CE. Beginning late in the 17th century western lampas production began centered in Lyon, where an industry of providing for French and other European courts became centered. Abbott, James A. A Frenchman in Camelot: The Decoration of the Kennedy White House by Stéphane Boudin. Boscobel Restoration Inc.: 1995. ISBN 0-9646659-0-5. Colenman and Dan Mayers. Scalamandre: Luxurious Home Interiors. Gibbs Smith: 2004. ISBN 978-1-58685-408-9. Jenkins, David; the Cambridge History of Western Textiles. Cambridge University Press: 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-34107-3
Warp and weft
Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft is drawn through and inserted over-and-under the warp. A single thread of the weft crossing the warp is called a pick. Terms vary; each individual warp thread in a fabric is called end. Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the "picking stick" and the "flying shuttle" speeding up production of cloth; the power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute. The words warp and weft derive from the Old English word wefan, to weave. Warp means "that, thrown away"; the warp is the set of yarns or other elements stretched in place on a loom before the weft is introduced during the weaving process. It is regarded as the longitudinal set in a finished fabric with two or more sets of elements; the term is used for a set of yarns established before the interworking of weft yarns by some other method, such as finger manipulation, yielding wrapped or twined structures.
Simple looms use a spiral warp, in which the warp is made up of a single long yarn wound in a spiral pattern around a pair of sticks or beams. The warp must be strong to be held under high tension during the weaving process, unlike the weft which carries no tension; this requires the yarn used for warp ends, or individual warp threads, to be made of spun and plied fibre. Traditionally wool, linen and silk were used. However, improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution created cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used in mechanized weaving. Artificial or man-made fibres such as nylon or rayon were employed. While most weaving is weft-faced, warp-faced textiles are created using densely arranged warp threads. In these the design is in the warp, requiring all colors to be decided upon and placed during the first part of the weaving process, which cannot be changed; such limitations of color placement create weavings defined by length-wise stripes and vertical designs.
Many South American cultures, including the ancient Incas and Aymaras, employed backstrap weaving, which uses the weight of the weaver's body to control the tension of the loom. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom the way the warp is it can be less strong, it is made of spun fibre wool and cotton, today of synthetic fiber such as nylon or rayon. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle", air jets or "rapier grippers". Hand looms were the original weaver's tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand; the expression "warp and weft" is used metaphorically. Warp and weft are sometimes used more in literature to describe the basic dichotomy of the world we live in, as in, up/down, in/out, black/white, Sun/Moon yin/yang, etc; the expression is used for the underlying structure upon which something is built. The terms "warp" and "woof" are found in some English translations of the Bible in the discussion of mildews found in cloth materials in Leviticus 13:48-59.
In Guru Granth Sahib many shabads in Gurbani use the metaphor of warp and weft to describe the state where our soul imbibes into the Almighty as a fabric. Weft is a hairdressing term for temporary hair extensions; these can be attached to a person's hair variously by cornrow braiding, using metal cylinders or gluing. The result is called a weave. Knot density Pile Warp knitting Barber, E. J. W.. Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00224-X. Burnham, Dorothy K.. Warp and Weft: A Textile Terminology. Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 0-88854-256-9
Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas
Tablet Weaving is a weaving technique where tablets or cards are used to create the shed through which the weft is passed. As the materials and tools are cheap and easy to obtain, tablet weaving is popular with hobbyist weavers. Most tablet weavers produce narrow work such as belts, straps, or garment trims. Tablet weaving does go back at least to the eighth century BCE in early Iron age Europe where it is found in areas employing the warp-weighted loom; the technique served several purposes: to create starting and/or selvedge bands for larger textiles such as those produced on the warp-weighted loom. Early examples have been found at Hochdorf and Apremont, Haute-Saône, France, as well as in Italy and Austria. Elaborate tablet-woven bands are found in many high status Iron Age and medieval graves of Europe as well as in the Roman period in the Near East, they are presumed to have been standard trim for garments among various European peoples, including the Vikings. Many museum examples exist of such bands used on ecclesiastical textiles or as the foundation for elaborate belts in the European Middle Ages.
In the seventeenth century tablet weaving was used to produce some monumental silk hangings in Ethiopia. Tablet weaving is erroneously believed to date back to pharaonic Egypt; this theory was advanced early in the twentieth century based on an elaborate woven belt of uncertain provenance called the Girdle of Ramesses because it bore an inked cartouche of Ramesses III. Arnold van Gennep and G. Jéquier published a book in 1916, Le tissage aux cartons et son utilisation décorative dans l'Égypte ancienne, predicated on the assumption that the ancient Egyptians were familiar with tablet weaving. Scholars argued spiritedly about the production method of the belt for decades. Many popular books on tablet weaving promoted the Egyptian origin theory until, in an appendix to his magisterial work on tablet weaving, Peter Collingwood proved by structural analysis that the linen belt couldn't have been woven on tablets; the tablets used in weaving are shaped as regular polygons, with holes near each vertex and at the center, as well.
The number of holes in the tablets used is a limiting factor on the complexity of the pattern woven. The corners of the tablets are rounded to prevent catching as they are rotated during weaving. In the past, weavers made tablets from bark, bone, stone, metal or a variety of other materials. Modern cards are made from cardboard; some weavers drill holes in a set of playing cards. This is an easy way to get large numbers of inexpensive tablets; the tablets are marked with colors or stripes so that their facings and orientations can be noticed. The fundamental principle is to turn the tablets to lift selected sets of threads in the warp; the tablets may be turned in one direction continually as a pack, turned individually to create patterns, or turned some number of times "forward" and the same number "back". Twisting the tablets in only one direction can create a ribbon that curls in the direction of the twist, though there are ways to thread the tablets that mitigate this issue. Traditionally, one end of the warp was tucked into, or wrapped around the weaver's belt, the other is looped over a toe, or tied to a pole or furniture.
Some traditional weavers weave between two poles, wrap the weft around the poles. Commercial "tablet weaving looms" adapt this idea, are convenient because they make it easy to put the work down; some modern weavers thread each card individually. The traditional threading method is to put all the threads through the holes of an entire deck. Starting at the pair of cards farthest from the bobbins, the threads are pulled from between each pair of cards out to the length of the warp, hooked or tied on each end. If the cards remain "paired", so that alternate cards twist in opposite directions, continuous turning does not twist the ribbon; some weavers in some patterns flip alternate cards, "unpairing" them. This makes it easier to turn individual cards. A shuttle about twice as wide as the ribbon is placed in the shed to beat the previous weft carry the next weft into the shed. Shuttles made for tablet weaving have sharp edges to beat down the weft; the best shuttles have plates to cover the bobbin, keep it from catching the warp.
Simple flat wooden or plastic shuttles work well for weaving with large yarns, but weaving with finer threads goes more with a tablet-weaving shuttle. Patterns are made by placing different-colored yarns in different holes turning individual cards until the desired colors of the weft are on top. After that, a simple pattern, like a stripe, small diamond or check, can be repeated just by turning the deck of tablets. Tablet weaving is freeing, because any pattern can be created by turning individual tablets; this is in contrast to normal looms, in which the complexity of the pattern is limited by the number of shafts available to lift threads, the threading of the heddles. Tablet weaving can be used to weave tubes or double weave; the tablets are made to have four levels in the warp, two sheds are beat and wefted, one in the top pair of warps, the other in the bottom pair, before turning the deck. Since groups of tablets can be turned separately, the length and joining of the tubes can be controlled by the weaver.
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Arundo is a genus of stout, perennial plants in the grass family. Arundo is native to southern Europe, North Africa, much of temperate Asia as far east as Japan, they grow to 3–6 m tall to 10 m, with leaves 30–60 cm long and 3–6 cm broad. SpeciesArundo collina Ten. Arundo donax L. – Giant cane, Spanish cane Arundo formosana Hack. – Nansei-shoto, Philippines Arundo mediterranea Danin – Mediterranean Arundo micrantha Lam. – Mediterranean Arundo plinii Turra – Pliny's reed – Greece, Albania, Croatiaformerly includedover 200 species once considered part of Arundo but now regarded as better suited to other genera: Achnatherum, Ammophila, Arthrostylidium, Austroderia, Bambusa, Calammophila, Chionochloa, Cinna, Dendrocalamus, Dupontia, Gigantochloa, Gynerium, Indocalamus, Miscanthus, Muhlenbergia, Phalaris, Poa, Rytidosperma, Schizostachyum, Stipa, Trisetaria. List of Poaceae genera Douce, R. 1994. The biological pollution of Arundo donax in river estuaries and beaches. Pp. 11–13 In: Jackson, N. E. et al.
Arundo donax workshop. Dudley, T. and B. Collins. 1995. Biological invasions in California wetlands: the impacts and control of non-indigenous species in natural areas. Pacific Institute for SIDES, Oakland, CA. Frandsen. P. 1994. Team Arundo: a model for inter-agency cooperation. Pp. 35–40 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Frandsen, P. and N. Jackson. 1994. The impact of Arundo donax on endangered species. Pp. 13–16 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Hoshovsky, M. 1988. Element stewardship abstract: Arundo donax; the Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, CA. Iverson, M. Pp19–26 In: Jackson, N. E. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Scott, G. D. 1994. Fire threat from Arundo donax. Pp. 17–18 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Germplasm Resources Information Network: Arundo Erowid Arundo Donax vault